North American porcupine
|North American porcupine|
Temporal range: Pleistocene - Recent
F. Cuvier, 1823
|Range of the North American porcupine in grey|
The North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum), also known as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine, is a large rodent in the New World porcupine family. The beaver is the only rodent in North America that is larger than the North American porcupine. The porcupine is a caviomorph rodent whose ancestors rafted across the Atlantic from Africa to Brazil over 30 million years ago, and then migrated to North America during the Great American Interchange after the Isthmus of Panama rose 3 million years ago.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Taxonomy and evolution
- 3 Description
- 4 Distribution and habitat
- 5 Ecology
- 6 Porcupines and humans
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The word "porcupine" comes from the middle or old French word porcespin, which means thorn pig. Its roots derive from the Latin words porcus or pig and spina meaning thorns. Other colloquial names for the animal include quill pig. It is also referred to as the Canadian porcupine or common porcupine. The porcupine's scientific name, Erethizon dorsatum, can be loosely translated as "the animal with the irritating back". Several Native American names exist, such as the Lakota name pahin meaning quill and the Chipewyan name ts'l.
Taxonomy and evolution
The North American porcupine migrated from South America, where all New World porcupines or hystricomorphs evolved. Erethizon appeared in North America shortly after the two continents joined together in the later Tertiary period. Other hystricomorphs also migrated, but Erethizon was the only one to survive north of Mexico. No known fossils are attributed to hystricomorphs prior to the late Tertiary period. Some fossils, such as species from the family Paramyidae, show resemblance to the porcupine, but they are so primitive and generalized that they could be ancestors to all later rodents.
South American hystricomorphs first appeared in the Lower Oligocene period. They are thought to have migrated from Africa, ancestors of the Old World porcupines or Hystricidae or they originated based on a migration of the North American Paramyidae.
Seven subspecies of E. dorsatum are recognized. They are subdivided by different ranges across North America. By far the most common is E. d. dorsatum, which ranges from Nova Scotia to Alberta and from Virginia to the Yukon. E. d. picinum occupies a small range in northeastern Quebec and Labrador. E. d. couesi is the most southern ranging from northern Mexico to Colorado. E. d. bruneri can be found in the midwest from Arkansas to Montana. The last three are found in the west. From south to north they are E.d. epixanthum, E. d. nigrescens, and E. d. myops.
Porcupines are usually dark brown or black in color, with white highlights. They have a stocky body, a small face, short legs, and a short, thick tail. This species is the largest of the New World porcupines and is one of the largest North American rodents, second only to the American beaver in size. The head-and-body length is 60 to 90 cm (2.0 to 3.0 ft), not counting a tail of 14.5 to 30 cm (5.7 to 11.8 in). The hind foot length is 7.5 to 9.1 cm (3.0 to 3.6 in). Weight can range from 3.5 to 18 kg (7.7 to 39.7 lb). Weight in adult females can average some 7 kg (15 lb) while 5 wild-caught males averaged 10.67 kg (23.5 lb).
The porcupine is the only native North American mammal with antibiotics in its skin. Those antibiotics prevent infection when a porcupine falls out of a tree and is stuck with its own quills upon hitting the ground. Porcupines fall out of trees fairly often because they are highly tempted by the succulent buds and twigs at the ends of the branches. The porcupine, wolverine, and the skunk are the only North American mammals that have black and white colors because they are the only mammals that benefit from letting other animals know where and what they are in the dark of the night.
The most distinguishing feature of the porcupine is its coat of quills. An adult porcupine has about 30,000 quills that cover all of its body except its underbelly, face, and feet. Quills are modified hairs formed into sharp, barbed, hollow spines. They are used primarily for defense, but also serve to insulate their bodies during winter. Porcupines do not throw their quills, but when threatened, they contract the muscles near the skin which causes the quills to stand up and out from their bodies. When the quills are in this position, they become easier to detach from the body, especially when the porcupines swing their tails towards attackers. The barbs at the tip become lodged in the flesh of an attacker and are difficult and painful to remove. The quills are normally flattened against the body and in this position are less easily dislodged.
The North American porcupine has a strong odor to warn away predators, which it can increase when agitated. The smell has been described as similar to strong human body odor, goats, or some cheeses. The odor is generated by a patch of skin called the rosette, on the lower back where modified quills serve as osmetrichia to broadcast the smell. The characteristic odor comes from the R-enantiomer of delta-decalactone. Not present is the S-enantiomer which smells like coconut and is used in flavorings and perfumes.
Distribution and habitat
North American porcupines range from Canada, Alaska, and into northern Mexico. They are commonly found in coniferous and mixed forested areas, but have adapted to harsh environments such as shrublands, tundra, and deserts. They make their dens in hollow trees or in rocky areas.
During the summer, they eat twigs, roots, stems, berries, and other vegetation. In the winter, they mainly eat conifer needles and tree bark. Porcupines are selective in their eating; for example out of every 1,000 trees in the Catskill Mountains, porcupines will only eat from 1-2 linden trees and one bigtoothed aspen.
Porcupines are nearsighted and slow-moving. They are mainly active at night (nocturnal); on summer days, they often rest in trees. They do not hibernate, but sleep in and stay close to their dens in winter. The strength of the porcupine's defense has given it the ability to live a solitary life, unlike many herbivores, which must move in flocks or herds. Consequently, the porcupine has "an extraordinary ability to learn complex mazes and to remember them as much as a hundred days afterward".
The North American porcupine has specific behaviors to warn or defend against predators. The defense strategy is based on aposematism in several modalities. It has a strong warning odor which it can increase when agitated. When threatened, an adult porcupine can bristle its quills, displaying a white stripe down its back, and use its teeth to make a warning, clacking sound. If the olfactory, visual, and auditory warnings fail, then it can rely on its quills. An adult porcupine when attacked turns its rear to the predator. When approached, the porcupine can swing its tail at an attacker's face. Despite popular myth, the porcupine does not throw its quills. Instead, when a quill comes in contact with the attacker, it can easily penetrate and become embedded in its skin. Each quill contains microscopic barbs which allow it to stick into the flesh of an attacker. This strategy is successful against most attacks. With a face full of quills, an attacking creature often retreats. The porcupine's last line of defense is to climb a tree.
Natural predators of this species include fishers (a cat-sized mustelid), wolverines, coyotes, wolves, American black bears, and cougars, as well as humans. The only known avian predators of this species are golden eagles and great horned owls. In many cases, injury or even death may occur in the predator from embedded porcupine quills even if they are successful in dispatching the porcupine.
The North American porcupine is most at risk from the fisher (Martes pennanti). Fishers are related to the weasel, with males sometimes exceeding a mass of 5.5 kg (12 lb). Fishers have two advantages that make them capable hunters of the porcupine. First, they are agile tree climbers. If a fisher locates a porcupine, it cannot hide by fleeing into a tree because the fisher can pursue it and force it down to the ground. A porcupine can sometimes defend itself by facing the trunk on a branch and presenting its tail to the fisher. If the fisher manages to force a porcupine down to the ground, the porcupine will try to present its hind quarters and tail to the attacker, but the fisher is quick and agile. As it circles the porcupine, every chance it gets, it bites the face. After repeated attacks, the porcupine eventually weakens, allowing the fisher to flip the porcupine over and rip open the porcupine's underbelly, thus killing it. The fisher will then consume the porcupine through the chest and abdomen, avoiding the quills. One study suggested that since male fishers are considerably larger than females (often weighing on average twice as much), only males are likely to hunt porcupines. It appears that female fishers usually favor prey such as snowshoe hares.
Another effective predator is the cougar. It does not bother with quill avoidance, but tolerates them. Some individuals have been found with dozens of quills embedded in their gums to no ill effect. It can climb trees, so its favorite method is to position itself below the porcupine and knock it to the ground, where it is quickly dispatched. Other predators can attack, such as canids, but do not pose much of a threat. In some parts of the Great Basin, cougars have greatly decreased numbers of porcupines in mountainous forests through predation. However, in some cases porcupine quills have indeed killed cougars, although usually this is after the cougar has already consumed the porcupine.
Female porcupines are solitary for most of the year except during the fall when breeding season begins. At this time, they secrete a thick mucus which mixes with their urine. The resulting odor attracts males in the vicinity. Males that approach a female do not automatically begin mating. The first male that comes along typically sits in the same tree below a female. If another male approaches, he may fight for the right to mate. Once a dominant male is successful, he approaches the female and uses a spray of his urine on the female. Only a few drops touch the female, but the chemical reaction allows the female to fully enter estrus. Once this is accomplished high in the tree, the mating process takes place on the ground. When porcupines are mating, they tighten their skin and hold their quills flat, so as not to injure each other. Mating may occur repeatedly until the female loses interest and climbs back into the tree.
The North American porcupine has a long gestation period relative to other rodents. The female's pregnancy lasts for 202 days. By contrast, the North American beaver, which is comparable in size, has a gestation period of 128 days. The eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) has a gestation period of just 44 days. Porcupines give birth to a single young. At birth, they weigh about 450 g, which increases to nearly 1 kg after the first two weeks. They do not gain full adult weight until the end of the second summer about 4.5 kg. Their quills harden soon after birth.
Female porcupines provide all parental care. For the first two weeks, the young rely on their mother for sustenance. After this, they learn to climb trees and start to forage. They continue to nurse for up to four months, which coincides with the fall mating season. They stay close to their mothers. Mother porcupines do not defend their young, but have been known to care for them even after death. In one case, when a baby had fallen to its death from a tree, the mother came down and stayed by her baby's side for hours waiting vainly for the baby to revive.
North American porcupines have a relatively long life expectancy. Some individuals have been found to live up to 30 years of age. Common causes of mortality include predation and starvation. Porcupines can also die from falling out of a tree. They are also killed by motor vehicles.
Porcupines and humans
They are considered by some to be a pest because of the damage that they often inflict on trees and wooden and leather objects. Plywood is especially vulnerable because of the salts added during manufacture. The quills are used by Native Americans to decorate articles such as baskets and clothing. Porcupines are edible and were an important source of food, especially in winter, to the native peoples of Canada's boreal forests. They move slowly (having few threats in its natural environment which would give it the need to flee quickly) and are often hit by vehicles while crossing roads.
Porcupines are infamous among backpackers and backpacking publications  for their love of salt. More specifically, for eating road salt covered boots left outside of tents overnight. They have a similar reputation among forestry workers of all types for trying to eat their sweat soaked (and thus salty) gloves and the similarly sweat covered wood handles on tools.
Globally, the North American porcupine is listed as a species of least concern. It is common throughout its range except in some U.S. states in the southeast part of its range. For example, it is listed as a species in need of conservation in Maryland. As of 1999, 15 remnant populations remain scattered throughout north-central Mexico. They live in riparian forests, mesquite scrubland, grasslands, and thorn forests. They are threatened by hunting and habitat loss. As of 1994, it was listed as an endangered species in Mexico.
Bark of sugar maple eaten by a porcupine
- ITIS claims that Erethizon dorsatus is a valid name while Erethizon dorsatum is invalid, assuming that Erethizon is a masculine Latin noun; however it is in fact a Greek participle, not a Latin noun.
- Linzey, A. V.; Emmons, L. & Timm, R. (2008). "Erethizon dorsatum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
- "Erethizon dorsatus". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. See also ITIS
- Bromley, D.; Osborne, T. (1994). "Porcupine: Alaska Wildlife Notebook Series". Alaska Dept. of Fish and Game. Archived from the original on April 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- Concise Oxford English dictionary (12th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. 2011. ISBN 0199601089.
- "A coat of many quills". Canadian Forestry Association.
- "Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)". The Natural Source: An Educator's Guide to South Dakota's Natural Resources.
- "Fort Resolution Chipewyan Dictionary" (PDF). 22 January 2011. p. 40. Retrieved 21 December 2012.
- Wood, Albert E. (25 November 1949). "Porcupines, Paleogeography, and Parallelism". Society for the Study of Evolution. 4 (1): 87–98. doi:10.2307/2405536. JSTOR 2405536.
- Woods, Charles A. (June 13, 1973). "Mammalian species: Erethizon dorsatum" (PDF) (29). American Society of Mammalogists: 1–6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-09-24. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
- Weber, Christopher; Myers, P. (2004). "Erethizon dorsatum". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- Fournier, F., & Thomas, D. W. (1997). Nitrogen and energy requirements of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum). Physiological zoology, 70(6), 615-620.
- DeMatteo, K. E., & Harlow, H. J. (1997). Thermoregulatory responses of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum bruneri) to decreasing ambient temperature and increasing wind speed. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 116(3), 339-346.
- Roze, Uldis (2009). The North American Porcupine. (Google books limited preview) Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4646-7.
- Roze, Uldis (2002). "A facilitated release mechanism for quills of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum)". Journal of Mammalogy. 83 (2): 381–385. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2002)083<0381:afrmfq>2.0.co;2.
- Roze, Uldis (March 2006). "Smart Weapons — With an arsenal of quills and chemicals, the porcupine mounts one of nature's most robust defenses against predators". Natural History Magazine.
- Li, Guang; Roze, Uldis; Locke, David C. (December 1997). "Warning Odor of the North American Porcupine(Erethizon dorsatum)". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 23 (12): 2737–2754. doi:10.1023/A:1022511026529.
- Osburn, D. J., & Cramer, M. J. (2013). Foraging response of Erethizon dorsatum and Lepus americanus to specialized and generalized predator scents. The American Midland Naturalist, 169(1), 66-73.
- Kukka, P. M., & Jung, T. S. (2015). The cost of a prickly diet: incidents of porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) quills embedded in Wolverine (Gulo gulo). The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 129(3), 273-276.
- Wobeser, G. (1992). Traumatic, degenerative, and developmental lesions in wolves and coyotes from Saskatchewan. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 28(2), 268-275.
- Brown, D. E., & Babb, R. D. (2009). Status of the Porcupine (Erithizon dorsatuh) in Arizona, 2000–2007. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 41(2), 36-41.
- Sweitzer, R. A., Jenkins, S. H., & Berger, J. (1997). Near‐Extinction of Porcupines by Mountain Lions and Consequences of Ecosystem Change in the Great Basin Desert. Conservation Biology, 11(6), 1407-1417.
- Eifrig, H (1909). Great horned owl versus porcupine. Auk. pp. 58–59.
- "Porcupine: Erethizon dorsatum bruneri Swenk". Mammals of Kansas. 2002. Archived from the original on August 14, 2006.
- Olendorff, R. R. (1976). The food habits of North American golden eagles. American Midland Naturalist. pp. 231–236.
- Mabille, G., Descamps, S., & Berteaux, D. (2010). Predation as a probable mechanism relating winter weather to population dynamics in a North American porcupine population. Population ecology, 52(4), 537-546.
- Lima, S. L. (1992, January). Life in a multi-predator environment: some considerations for anti-predatory vigilance. In Annales Zoologici Fennici (pp. 217-226). Finnish Zoological Publishing Board.
- Powell, Roger A. (November 1993). The Fisher: Life History, Ecology, and Behavior. University of Minnesota Press. pp. 134–6. ISBN 978-0-8166-2266-5.
- Coulter, M.W. (1966). Ecology and management of fishers in Maine. (Ph.D. thesis). Syracuse, N.Y.: St. Univ. Coll. Forest. Syracuse University.
- "Ecological Characteristics of Fishers in the Southern Oregon Cascade Range" (PDF). USDA Forest Service – Pacific Northwest Research Station 2006.
- Zielinski, W. J., Duncan, N. P., Farmer, E. C., Truex, R. L., Clevenger, A. P., & Barrett, R. H. (1999). Diet of fishers (Martes pennanti) at the southernmost extent of their range. Journal of Mammalogy, 80(3), 961-971.
- Sweitzer, R. A., & Berger, J. (1992). Size‐Related Effects of Predation on Habitat Use and Behavior of Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum). Ecology, 73(3), 867-875.
- Elbroch, L. M., Hoogesteijn, R., & Quigley, H. (2016). Cougars (Puma concolor) Killed by North American Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum). The Canadian Field-Naturalist, 130(1), 53-55.
- Elbroch, L. M., Feltner, J., & Quigley, H. B. (2017). Stage‐dependent puma predation on dangerous prey. Journal of Zoology, 302(3), 164-170.
- Roze, Uldis (2012). Porcupines: The Animal Answer Guide. (Google books limited preview) Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-4214-0735-7.
- Müller-Schwarze, Dietland & Sun, Lixing (2003). The Beaver: Natural History of a Wetlands Engineer. Cornell University Press. p. 80. ISBN 978-0-8014-4098-4.
- Koprowski, John L. (2 December 1994). "Sciurus carolinensis" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 480: 1–9. doi:10.2307/3504224. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
- Roze, Uldis (2012). Porcupines: The Animal Answer Guide. (Google books limited preview) Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-4214-0735-7.
- Mabille, Géraldine; Descamps, Sébastien; Berteaux, Dominique (March 11, 2010). "Predation as a probable mechanism relating winter weather to population dynamics in a North American porcupine population". Population Ecology. 52: 537–546. doi:10.1007/s10144-010-0198-5.
- Kalinowski, Tom (14 May 2017). "Porcupines And Their Need For Salt -". The Adirondack Almanack. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- "Porcupine Country". Section Hikers Backpacking Blog. 13 June 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- "Got Pests?". maine.gov. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
- Linzey, A.V.; Emmons, L.; Timm, R (2008). "Erethizon dorsatum in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". International Union for Conservation of Nature. Missing or empty
- "Endangered Animal Fact Sheet — North American Porcupine". July 2015.
- "Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Animals of Maryland" (PDF). Maryland Wildlife and Heritage Service Natural Heritage Program. April 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-19.
- List, Rurik; Ceballos, Gerardo; Pacheco, Jesús (September 1999). "Status of the North American Porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) in Mexico". The Southwestern Naturalist. Southwestern Naturalist Society. 44 (3): 400–404. JSTOR 30055242.
- Orchard, William C. (1916). The technique of porcupine-quill decoration among the North American Indians. Museum of the American Indian. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
- Roze, Uldis (2009). The North American Porcupine. (Google books limited preview) Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-4646-7.
- Roze, Uldis (2012). Porcupines: The Animal Answer Guide. (Google books limited preview) Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-1-4214-0735-7.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Erethizon dorsatum.|
|Wikispecies has information related to Erethizon dorsatum|
- Porcupine videos, photos, and facts Arkive.org