North Bihar

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North Bihar
उत्तर बिहार
Coordinates: 26°04′N 85°27′E / 26.07°N 85.45°E / 26.07; 85.45Coordinates: 26°04′N 85°27′E / 26.07°N 85.45°E / 26.07; 85.45
Country  India
State Bihar
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Lok Sabha About 21
Vidhan Sabha 127+2
Districts 18+1
Main Languages Maithili, Hindi, Urdu
Largest Cities Muzaffarpur, Darbhanga, Purnia
Largest District East Champaran
Website www.northbihar.in

North Bihar is a term used for the region of Bihar which lies on north of Ganga river and east of Gandak river.[1]

Towns and Cities[edit]

38 Districts of Bihar
  1. Naugachia is a sub division in Bhagalpur district. It is famous for Banana farming; and known as Kelanchal of Bihar.[2]
  2. Purnia is the headquarters of Purnia division and Purnia district. It is also the birthplace of former Indian cricketer Kirti Azad.
  3. Katihar is the headquarters of Katihar district. Katihar is known for Jute production.[3]
  4. Kishanganj is the headquarters of Kishanganj district. It is the easternmost district of Bihar. A part of this district of known as chicken neck region of India.[4]
  5. Araria is the headquarters of Araria district. NH 57 connect Araria to other parts of the state.
  6. Madhepura is the headquarters of Madhepura district. This district was curved out from Saharsa district. This is a flood-prone district of Kosi region.
  7. Supaul is the headquarters of Supaul district. A bridge on kosi region was built in 2012 near Nirmali in Supaul, which linked the two parts of Mithila region.[5]
  8. Saharsa is the headquarters of Saharsa district and Kosi division.
  9. Khagaria is the headquarters of Khagaria district. Two major rivers of North Bihar Ganga river and the Kosi river flows through the district.[6]
  10. Begusarai is the headquarters of Begusarai district. Barauni and Begusarai are the main industrial hub of North Bihar. Barauni is one of the important railway junctions of Bihar.[7]
  11. Samastipur is the headquarters of Samastipur district.
  12. Darbhanga is the headquarters of Darbhanga district and Darbhanga division. Darbhanga is the cultural capital of bihar as well as The capital of Mithilanchal. It is 2nd largest city in North Bihar with historical importance after Muzaffarpur
  13. Madhubani is the headquarters of Madhubani district. Jainagar in Madhubani district connects North Bihar to Janakpurdham in Mithila region of Nepal.
  14. Hajipur is the headquarters of Vaishali district, located on northern bank of Ganga river, opposite to Patna on southern bank.
  15. Muzaffarpur [8][9][10] is the largest city as well as the economic and financial capital of North Bihar. It the headquarters of Muzaffarpur district and Tirhut division. All the important roadways (like NH 27, NH 28, NH 57, NH 77, NH 102) and railways (like Muzaffarpur-Hajipur, Muzaffarpur-Motihari, Muzaffarpur-Sitamarhi, Muzaffarpur-Samastipur) have their junction in the city. This makes Muzaffarpur-the city with best connectivity in North Bihar.[11]
  16. Sitamarhi is the headquarters of Sitamarhi district. It has vedic importance as Goddess Sita is believed to be unearthed here.[12]
  17. Sheohar is the headquarters of Sheohar district, the smallest district of North Bihar. It was curved out from Sitamarhi District.[13]
  18. Motihari is the headquarters of East Champaran district. Mahatma Gandhi had launched non-cooperation movement here. It has been announced to establish a Central University in Motihari. This would be the first nationalized University in North Bihar.[14]
  19. Bettiah is the headquarters of West Champaran district. It is the westernmost district of North Bihar and Northernmost district of Bihar state as whole.[15]

Languages[edit]

Maithili is the mother tongue of most of the people from North Bihar.[16] Different variances of Maithili is spoken in the region.[17]

Proposed state[edit]

There is an ongoing movement in the Maithili speaking region of Bihar for a separate Mithila state. What will be the capital of the state has yet to be decided however Muzaffarpur is the most likely candidate. Other potential capitals include Darbhanga , Purnia and Begusarai.[18] kulhaiya is a caste in araria purnia kishanganj katihar and his spoken language is kulhaiya

Economy[edit]

Agricultural economy[edit]

Agriculture is the main economic activity of the region.

The above industries have generated considerable employment and have also been helpful in establishing a number of small industries including a few cottage industries. The most important item that is manufactured in Muzaffarpur city is railway wagon. While darbhanga is well known for producing quality makhana (fox nut) most of them are exported to other parts of india and dudhia malda variety of mangoes

Rivers and floods[edit]

There are several rivers flowing through this region from north to south and merge in the Ganges river. These rivers along with floods bring every year fertile soil to the region. However, sometimes government sponsored floods causes loss of thousands of lives. Major rivers of North Bihar are Mahananda, Gandak, Kosi, Bagmati, Kamala, Balan, Budhi Gandak.[19]

Natural floods[edit]

Since beginning of human civilization, rivers have been an important part of humam life. North Bihar has 7 major rivers and several tributaries to them. All these rivers receive water from the Himalaya. This is the reason, these rivers never have shortage of water. Every year, any of these rivers had been bringing valuable floods for the people of North Bihar. Flood waters used to enter the agriculture land, leave their silt, which are quite fertile, and recede to the river. This pattern of humane flood was boon for North Bihar. This made her land extremely fertile. But, natural floods are no more in North Bihar.

Man-made floods[edit]

Soon after independence, the Congress Government of Bihar made several attempts to domesticate these rivers. High barriers or Bandhs were made on their both banks. This resulted in inhumane and destructive floods. Bandhs caused deposition of silts in the bottom of rivers, because of which, depth of revers decreased; and so their water holding capacity also decreased. This is the reason these rivers bring more frequent floods now. With flood water, sand comes in force and gets deposited on the land. This way the land of the region in turning barrel. Floods, which was once boon for North Bihar, has now turned to be curse for it.

Kosi Flood 2008[edit]

2008 Kosi flood
Flooded Bihar.JPG
Flooded North Bihar
Date 18 August 2008
Location North Bihar
Deaths 434[20] (Dead bodies were found until 27 November 2008)

The 2008 Kosi flood was one of the most disastrous floods in the history of North Bihar, an impoverished and densely populated region in India. A breach in the Kosi embankment near the Indo-Nepal border (at Kusha in Nepal) occurred on 18 August 2008. The river changed course and inundated areas which hadn't experienced floods in many decades.[21] The flood affected over 2.3 million people in North Bihar.[22]

The flood killed 250 people and forced nearly 3 million people from their homes in North Bihar.[23] More than 300,000 houses were destroyed and at least 340,000 hectares (840,000 acres) of crops were damaged.[24] Villagers in North Bihar ate raw rice and flour mixed with polluted water. Hunger and disease were widespread. The Supaul district was the worst-hit; surging waters swamped 1,000 square kilometres (247,000 acres) of farmlands, destroying crops.[25]

2017 North Bihar Floods[edit]

2017 North Bihar Flood
Kishanganj 2017 north bihar flood.jpg
Date August 2017
Location North Bihar, India
Deaths 514

2017 Floods affected 19 districts of North Bihar causing death of 514 people.[26][27][28][29][30] This flood was result of sudden increase in water discharge through rivers- Gandak, Burhi Gandak and Bagmati , Kamla, Kosi and Mahananda- due to heavy rain in the catchment areas of the major rivers of north Bihar in Nepal.[31] Araria district accounted for 95 deaths alone,[32] followed by Sitamarhi (34), West Champaran (29), Katihar (26), East Champaran (19) while 22 have died in Madhubani, Supaul(13) and Madhepura(15). 11 deaths were reported in Kishanganj, while Darbhanga accounted for 19 deaths, Purnea (9), Gopalganj (9), Sheohar(4), Muzaffarpur(7), Samastipur(1) and Saharsa(4) registered four deaths each while Khagaria and Saran accounted for 7 deaths each. Around 1.71 crore people are hit by the floods.[33][34][35][36]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bihar, North. "About North Bihar". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  2. ^ Bhagalpur City. "Naugachia". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  3. ^ TOI. "Katihar Jute". The Times Of India. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  4. ^ STel. "About Kishanganj". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  5. ^ The Hindu (9 February 2012). "Mithila gets back its lifeline". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  6. ^ Tourist Link. "Rivers near Khagaria". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  7. ^ Wikimapia. "Khagaria". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  8. ^ East Central Railway. (PDF). Indian Railway. p. 2 http://www.ecr.indianrailways.gov.in/uploads/files/1327063979253-For%20website%20information%20of%20SEE%20Div..pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  9. ^ "BJP MP poser to Nitish". Times of India. 29 November 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  10. ^ AAHSKK: ALPSANKHYAK AVAM HARIJAN SAMAJ KALYAN KENDRA. "An AGO in Muzaffarpur". Retrieved 21 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Road Division Map. District - Muzaffarpur (PDF). Patna, India: Road constructor Department, Government of Bihar. p. 1. 
  12. ^ Sitamarhi Temple. "District Sitamarhi". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  13. ^ Bihar News Information Portal. "Sheohar". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  14. ^ TOI (18 Aug 2012). "Central University at Motihari in Bihar, says govt". The times of India. Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  15. ^ Brand Bihar. "West Champaran". Retrieved 10 October 2012. 
  16. ^ You Bihar. "Bihari Languages". Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  17. ^ Tour Travel World. "Languages of Bihar". Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  18. ^ "Small States Syndrome in India". p. 146. Retrieved 16 February 2017. 
  19. ^ "Rivers of Bihar | Bihar Articles". Bihar.ws. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  20. ^ A report by the Department of disaster management, Government of Bihar
  21. ^ "A Dalit watch report on the flood camps in Bihar" (PDF). Indiawaterportal.org. 2011-06-22. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  22. ^ "Half of Bihar under water, 30 lakh suffer;". CNN IBN. 09/01/2008. Archived from the original on 3 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-01.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  23. ^ Michael Coggan in New Delhi (2008-08-29). "Death toll rises from Indian floods - Just In (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  24. ^ Michael Coggan in New Delhi (2008-08-29). "abc.net.au, Death toll rises from Indian floods". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  25. ^ Kataria, Sunil (2008-08-30). "reuters.com, Bihar villagers desperate as floods spread". In.reuters.com. Retrieved 2012-05-04. 
  26. ^ "Floods in state not man-made, says minister". 
  27. ^ "Flood Situation Improves In Bihar, Number Of Dead At 514". 
  28. ^ "Flood situation worsens in Bihar, death toll rises to 253". 
  29. ^ "Bihar floods: 119 dead; bridge collapse caught on camera". 
  30. ^ "Bihar floods: Death toll rises to 202 in 18 districts; thundershowers likely to continue today". 
  31. ^ "Alert sounded in north Bihar plains". 
  32. ^ "Death toll in Bihar floods mounts to 304; situation grim in UP". 
  33. ^ "Bihar Flood Deaths Rise To 440; Prime Minister Announces Rs. 500 Crore Relief". 
  34. ^ "Bihar floods’ death toll touches 440, 1.71 crore people still affected". 
  35. ^ "Bihar floods cost 39 more lives, UP staggers". 
  36. ^ "Bihar floods: Death toll rises to 304, 1.38 crore people still battling deluge in 18 districts".