North Caucasian Emirate

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North Caucasian Emirate
Северо-Кавказский эмират
Severo-Kavkazskij èmirat
Flag Coat of arms
Capital Vedeno
Languages Russian
Dagestani languages
Government Islamic emirate
 •  1919–1920 Uzun Hajji Saltinsky
Historical era Interwar period
 •  Established September 1919
 •  Incorporation into the RSFSR March 1920
Currency Ruble
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Terek Oblast
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The North Caucasian Emirate (Russian: Северо-Кавказский эмират Severo-Kavkazskij èmirat) was a mainly Avar and Chechen Islamic state that existed in the territory of Chechnya and western Dagestan during the Russian Civil War from September 1919 to March 1920. The emirate's temporary capital was established in the village of Vedeno and its leader, Uzun Haji (Узун-Хаджи), was given the title "His Majesty the Imam and the Emir of the North Caucasus Emirate, Sheikh Uzun Khair Haji Khan (Узун Хаир Хаджи Хан)".

In mid-1918, soldiers of the Russian White movement's Volunteer Army under General Anton Denikin began to clash with the Caucasian peoples of the North Caucasus. Uzun Haji, with a small detachment of troops, took the village of Vedeno and declared war against Denikin.

In September 1919, Uzun Haji announced the creation of the North Caucasus Emirate as an independent monarchy under the protection of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI. Ties were established with Kabardian and South Ossetian insurgents and with Georgia, which recognized the emirate's authorities. However, they failed to remove Volunteer Army troops from the territory of the emirate and became dependent on Bolshevik aid until its suspension.

100-ruble banknote of the North Caucasian Emirate.

By January 1920, the military and economic situation in the emirate had begun to deteriorate and Uzun Haji consented to the entry of the emirate into the Russian SFSR with promises of autonomy.[citation needed] He soon died but the existence of the state led to the formation of the Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.

See also[edit]