North Circular Road

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"A406" redirects here. For the motorway in France, see A406 autoroute. For the ship, see RFA Hebe (A406).
North Circular Road
London north-south circulars.svg
The route of the North Circular Road in Greater London, with the South Circular Road and Woolwich Ferry
Part of A406
Maintained by Transport for London
Length 25.7 mi[1] (41.4 km)
West end Chiswick (M4 Junction 1)
East end Beckton
Completion c. 1930
Inauguration 1910

The North Circular Road (officially the A406 and sometimes known as simply the North Circular) is a 25.7-mile-long (41.4 km) bypass of Central London in England. It runs from Chiswick in the west to Woolwich in the east, and connects the various suburbs in the area, including Ealing, Willesden, Wembley, Southgate, Tottenham, Woodford and Barking. Together with its counterpart, the South Circular Road, it forms a ring road through the Outer London suburbs. This ring road does not make a complete circuit of the city, being C-shaped rather than a complete loop as the crossing of the River Thames in the east is made on the Woolwich Ferry.

The road was originally designed to connect local industrial communities together in addition to bypassing London, and was constructed in the 1920s and 30s. It received significant upgrades after the Second World War, and was at one point planned to be upgraded to motorway as part of the controversial and ultimately cancelled London Ringways scheme in the late 1960s. In the early 1990s, the road was extended to bypass Barking and meet the A13 north of Woolwich.

The road's design varies from six lane dual carriageway to urban streets, the latter of which contribute to traffic congestion in London and are regularly featured on local traffic reports, particularly at Henlys Corner and Bounds Green in Northwest London. The uncertainty of development has caused urban decay and property blight along its route, and led to criticism over its poor pollution record. Several London Borough Councils have set up regeneration projects to improve the environment for communities surrounding the North Circular.


The North Circular Road has seen substantially more investment than its counterpart, the South Circular Road, and consequently runs on more purpose-built road than urban streets, often coupled with demolition of existing houses and urban infrastructure.[2][3] Although the route has alternative names at some points, it is generally referred to as the North Circular throughout for route planning purposes. The route is mostly grade-separated dual carriageway from the A40 at Hanger Lane to the A13 in Beckton except for the Drury Way/Brentfield Road junction, the Golders Green Road/Brent Street junction, Henlys Corner and the section from Bounds Green to Green Lanes.[4] In areas where improvements made slowest progress and upgrades are unlikely, the original names such as Gunnersbury Avenue and Bowes Road are used.[5]

Gunnersbury Avenue and Hanger Lane[edit]

The road begins in Gunnersbury at the Chiswick Flyover (junction 1 of the M4), from which the South Circular Road (A205) heads south over Kew Bridge. The first section runs along Gunnersbury Avenue through Gunnersbury Park to Ealing Common, where it becomes Hanger Lane. The road crosses the railway west of Paddington to the Hanger Lane Gyratory System, a large roundabout on top of the Western Avenue (the A40) with Hanger Lane tube station. This is one of the busiest junctions in London, incorporating 10,000 vehicles an hour.[6]

Hanger Lane to Southgate[edit]

The Hanger Lane Gyratory on the North Circular is one of the most congested junctions in London, carrying over 10,000 vehicles per hour.

The A406 runs on purpose-built road to the north of Hanger Lane Gyratory, and is referred to as "North Circular Road" on street signs. The road is a six-lane dual carriageway that connects the industrial estates in the area, and passes beneath the main railway line from Euston Station, near Stonebridge Park. Beyond this, there is a junction with IKEA and the Neasden temple to the southeast, and the road runs across empty land past the Welsh Harp Reservoir.[7]

Beyond the reservoir, there is a large interchange with the Edgware Road (A5) and junction 1 of the M1 motorway at Staples Corner, and a junction for the Brent Cross Shopping Centre at the Brent Cross Interchange (joining the A41 from Finchley). This section of the North Circular was used for filming the car chasing sequences in Withnail And I.[4]

Northeast of Brent Cross, at Henlys Corner, the North Circular briefly shares carriageways with the A1 which joins it from the left and leaves it to the right to head into Central London. The junction complex also serves a local road from Hampstead and pedestrian traffic, and consequently is a major bottleneck on the route. Transport for London have invested in the junction, including a special hands free crossing for the local Jewish community, who can then cross the road on the Sabbath.[8]

The road passes north of St Pancras and Islington Cemetery towards Friern Barnet and Muswell Hill. The road narrows to two lane single carriageway to pass under a railway bridge, and continues as Telford Road towards Bounds Green.[9]

Southgate to Woodford[edit]

In Bounds Green, the North Circular Road is reduced to single carriageway with a 90 degree turn at traffic lights, a significant cause of congestion in London.

Traffic on the North Circular Road must turn right from Telford Road into Bowes Road, which causes problems with heavy goods vehicles.[10] The road continues past densely packed housing and business areas before widening at Green Lanes and assuming the North Circular Road name again.[11]

At Great Cambridge Interchange, its most northerly point, the A406 crosses Great Cambridge Road (A10). This leads onto the Lea Valley Viaduct that provides a safe crossing of the River Lea's flood plain. The viaduct is part of the original construction and was one of the first of its kind to be build using reinforced concrete.[4] Angel Road railway station is partially located beneath the flyover at Angel Road, in an area marked for redevelopment known as Meridian Water.[12]

After the viaduct the road becomes Southend Road, passing north of Walthamstow, and immediately before the Crooked Billet junction, the former site of Walthamstow greyhound racing track.[13] It continues eastward, cutting through a southern section of Epping Forest and meeting the Woodford New Road at Waterworks Corner, before an elevated junction with the M11 motorway and Southend Road heading to Gants Hill.[5]

Woodford to Woolwich[edit]

In Ilford, the North Circular Road is a high-quality dual carriageway.

The South Woodford to Barking Relief Road (the section between the M11 and A13) opened in 1987.[14] Previously, the A406 extended along Southend Road and Woodford Avenue as far east as Gants Hill.[15] The current route of the North Circular Road turns south, passing Eastern Avenue (A12) on a flyover at the Redbridge roundabout. It passes Romford Road (the historic Roman Road from London to Colchester) to the west of Ilford and London Road, Barking, and ends at a roundabout with the A13 Newham Way / Alfred's Way in Beckton.[5]

To reach the Woolwich Ferry, traffic must follow local roads to the ferry terminal. This leads across the River Thames, connecting with the eastern end of the South Circular Road on the other side of the river. The junction with the A13 has been built to enable the North Circular to be continued across the junction to the Thames Gateway Bridge if and when it is built.[16]


Early history[edit]

Proposals for a radial route avoiding Central London had been in place since the early 20th century to increasing levels of traffic. In 1910, the London Traffic Division of the Board of Trade had built up schemes for new roads, including what became the North Circular Road, which was designed to skirt the extent of urban development along suburbs.[17]

The North Circular Road was originally designed as an unemployment relief scheme following the First World War. Various manufacturing industries, including furniture production, had moved away from the East End in the early 20th century and started to be based in communities along the fringes of outer London development. As well as a general bypass of Central London, it would connect the communities of Edmonton, Tottenham and Walthamstow together and allow former munition factories to be reused for industrial purposes.[18] Further west, industrial work increased around Wembley to cater for the 1924 British Empire Exhibition, while former military factories at Willesden, Hendon and Acton would also benefit from being connected by the North Circular Road. The overall route ran on cheap land that further works and factories could be built next to.[19] Purpose-built sections were designed to dual carriageway standards, including a 27 feet wide carriageway accompanied by 9 foot verges.[7]

The original route ran from Chiswick to Southgate, and was open to traffic by the 1930s. Although it mostly ran on new-build road, a section east of Southgate ran on existing streets.[2] By the end of the decade, the area surrounding the Park Royal estate had become the largest industrial estate in the south of England, and the London Passenger Transport Board were receiving regular complaints about the excess traffic levels.[20]

Since 1951, the North Circular has been subjected to speed limits along its route, which are now enforced by safety cameras.

Due to laxer laws about building housing on major roads, as London suburbs developed, properties were allowed to be built on the North Circular Road. The original purpose-built road had been designed with no speed limit, as was the case in the 1920s, but by 1951 a 30 mph speed limit was enforced along the route.[7]

In 1946, the North Circular Road became a trunk road, funded from a national budget set by the Ministry of Transport (MOT) rather than a local one.[21]

London Ringways[edit]

After reviewing traffic conditions in 1961, the Ministry of Transport planned to improve the North Circular Road to a higher capacity, grade separating as many junctions as possible, particularly those at important arterial routes.[21] In the 1960s the Greater London Council developed the London Ringways Plan to construct a series of circular and radial motorways throughout London to ease traffic congestion in the central area. Under this plan the North Circular Road was to be improved to dual-carriageway standard throughout the majority of its length by the late 1970s.[22]

The Ringway projects were extremely unpopular and drew wide-scale protests, which led to the cancellation of plans in 1972, particularly after the Westway had opened in the face of wide scale protest two years earlier.[23] In 1974, the MOT scaled back plans to improve the North Circular Road, though by the end of the decade they had revised plans to improve the route to dual carriageway throughout without any property frontages.[21] In 1979, the Ministry of Transport planned to improve the Great Cambridge Road Roundabout with a £17 million scheme that would have demolished over 100 houses and shops. This was cancelled and replaced with a straightforward underpass in 1983, costing £22.3 million.[3]

South Woodford to Barking Relief Road[edit]

The section of the North Circular south of Charlie Browns in South Woodford is the "South Woodford to Barking Relief Road".[2] Prior to its opening, the signposted North Circular route from Waterworks to the Woolwich Ferry was on local roads via Whipps Cross, Wanstead, Manor Park and Beckton. As well as delays for the ferry, traffic could also be held due to bridges with the Royal Albert and King George V Docks.[24] The road was originally planned to be a continuation of the M11, but the standard of road was dropped in design to a basic dual carriageway.[25] It was proposed to be built in the 1980s concurrently with the controversial M11 link road.[26]

Henlys Corner and Bounds Green improvements[edit]

The North Circular Road ceased to be a trunk road in 2000, when control of all roads inside Greater London passed to Transport for London (TfL).[27] In 2004, Mayor of London Ken Livingstone promised limited improvements to the road, but received criticism for not approving earlier plans for widening the often heavily congested road at critical sections.[28] In 2009, it was announced that major works between the Bounds Green Road and Green Lanes junctions would finally go ahead, having been proposed for over 90 years, and was completed the following year.[3][29] The work improved the carriageway between these junctions, widening Telford Road to two lanes and improving all of the junctions along the route. Improvements were also made to walkways and cycle paths along this route. However, unlike elsewhere on the North Circular, the new junctions are not grade-separated and have been designed with environmental concerns in mind.[30] The opened scheme is a reduced specification from 1960s plans, which projected this section of the North Circular to be dual carriageway.[3]

In April 2011, after many years of proposals and delays, construction began on a major upgrade of the Henlys Corner interchange. An underpass was originally proposed but this was heavily criticised by local residents, and would have been very costly, and was subsequently scrapped. The upgrade scheme improved on the current junction by adding extra lanes and allowing easier left and right turns, speeding up queue times. Cycle paths and safer pedestrian crossings were included.[31]

In July 2013, a task force set up by the Mayor of London Boris Johnson proposed that long sections of the North Circular (as well as the South Circular) should be put underground in road tunnels, freeing up space on the surface to provide public space, extensive cycle routes, and better links to existing communities currently severed by the road.[32]

Environment and safety[edit]

Arnos Park is difficult to access from communities around Bounds Green due to the obstruction of the North Circular Road.

The North Circular Road has received regular criticism over its poor safety record and piecemeal improvement schemes due to a lack of funding. In 1971, a longstanding member of Southgate Council said, "Whatever you do, don't talk to James McIntosh about the Bowes Road widening scheme, because he's heard it all before – about 50 years ago."[3] In 1989, Michael Portillo, then a Member of Parliament for Enfield Southgate, complained that 367 houses were scheduled for demolition as part of improvements to the North Circular in his constituency.[33] Friends of the Earth have complained about rising costs and delays to junction and safety improvements.[3] In 2003, environment cabinet member Terry Neville said that TfL's proposed improvements for improving the North Circular were "a sham" and that the local council wanted a six-lane motorway to properly solve congestion.[3]

The uncertainty over the future of the North Circular Road has blighted properties on and nearby it, particularly around Bounds Green. Since TfL took responsibility for the road, land for future schemes has been left dormant, resulting in urban decay with derelict properties. Compulsory purchased properties were let out to various short-term tenants, which led to them housing prostitutes and migrant workers living in increasing squalor. Buildings along the line of the North Circular have been used for fly tipping.[28] Pedestrians have become too frightened to use underpasses along the road, particularly to access North Middlesex Hospital.[3] In 2011, Enfield Borough Council proposed a North Circular Area Action Plan, which would regenerate the area immediately around Telford Road and Bowes Road, and encourage growth.[34] This includes new pedestrian crossings and improved access to existing open spaces, including Arnos Park and Broomfield Park.[35]

In 2002, the North Circular was rated as Britain's noisiest road by the UK Noise Association.[36] In 2013, the road was named in a BBC report as being the most polluted in London, including the highest surveyed levels of benzene and nitrogen dioxide.[37] A report in the Sunday Times, referring to the North Circular, said "if you want to pull back the lid of your convertible and drink in the fresh air, look elsewhere".[4]


The North Circular Road has a wide variety of styles and standards of junctions connecting to other roads. These range from the complex, grade-separated design at Charlie Brown's near Woolwich, to at-grade junctions with traffic lights. The original road contained entirely at-grade junctions; many of these were improved and grade separated during the late 1970s and early 1980s.[21]

Current junctions[edit]

Name Destinations Notes
Chiswick flyover A315 / A4 / A205 – Chiswick, Kew, Brentford, Staines-upon-Thames, Hounslow
Gunnersbury Park B4491 / A4000 – South Ealing, Shepherd's Bush, Acton
A4020 – Ealing, Southall, Acton The historic London – Oxford postal route at Ealing Common
Hanger Lane Gyratory A40 / A4005 – Greenford, Perivale, Alperton, Park Royal, Acton Northolt
A404 – Harrow, Wembley, Harlesden Near Stonebridge Park station
Brent Park, Superstores, Wembley Stadium, Industrial Estate
A4088 – Willesden, Neasden, Kingsbury
Staples Corner M1 / A5 – The NORTH, Watford, Harrow, Kilburn, Cricklewood, Edgware, West Hendon A5 is the historic Watling Street from London to Wroxeter
Brent Cross A41 to A1Kilburn, Cricklewood, Hendon, Hatfield
A502 to A1 – Mill Hill, Golders Green, Hampstead
Henlys Corner A1 to M1 – The NORTH, Watford, Mill Hill, Hendon West end of merge with the A1
Henlys Corner A598 – Finchley, Golders Green A special pedestrian crossing for Jews to use on the Sabbath is located here[38]
Henlys Corner A1 – Central London, Holloway East end of merge with A1
A1000 – North Finchley, East Finchley, Chipping Barnet The historic Great North Road
Colney Hatch Junction B550 – Muswell Hill, Friern Barnet, Retail Park
Hobart Corner A109 / A1004 – New Southgate, Whetstone, Southgate
Bounds Green interchange A1110 / B1452 – New Southgate, Southgate A regular congestion hotpot where traffic must narrow to single carriageway and perform a 90 degree turn.[39] Transport for London have earmarked the junction for improvement.[40]
Green Lanes A105 – Palmers Green, Wood Green, Hornsey
Great Cambridge Road Roundabout A10 to M25 / A111 – Central London, Dalston, Hertford, Enfield, Potters Bar, Ware, Royston, Cambridge
Crooked Billet Roundabout A112 – Chingford, Walthamstow, Highams Park
Waterworks A104 to A503 / M11Woodford, Leytonstone, Walthamstow
Charlie Brown's A1400 / A113 – Gants Hill, Chigwell Restricted access; eastbound exit and westbound entrance. The original Charlie Brown's was the roundabout underneath this junction. It was named after a pub next to the roundabout, which was demolished in 1972.[4][41]
Charlie Brown's M11 – Stansted, Cambridge
Redbridge Roundabout A12 – Central London, Stratford, Chelmsford, Romford Also the location of Redbridge tube station
A118 – Manor Park, Ilford The historic Roman Road from London to Colchester
A124 – East Ham, Barking
Beckton Roundabout A13 / A1020 (North Circular) to M25 / A117 – Tilbury, Dartford Crossing, Woolwich Ferry, Central London, Blackwall Tunnel

Former junctions[edit]

Name Destinations Notes
Waterworks Corner A104 / A503 To avoid Epping Forest, the original build of the North Circular met the A104 at a different location by a water works northeast of Walthamstow.[42]
Gants Hill A12 / A123 Gants Hill tube station is also at this location.


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  2. ^ a b c Weinreb 2008, p. 591.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "A406 timeline: a half century of broken promises". Enfield Independent. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Dunn, Joseph (7 April 2014). "Great drives : The North Circular, London". Sunday Times Driving. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c "Maps". Transport for London. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  6. ^ Edwards, Tom (1 October 2012). "Ealing battles to get HS2 to go underground". BBC News. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
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  8. ^ "Mayor marks completion of improvements that have transformed Henlys Corner". Transport for London. 13 January 2012. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  9. ^ "A406 North Circular Bounds Green – plans revealed and public exhibition announced". Transport for London. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  10. ^ Enfield 2011, p. 13.
  11. ^ Enfield 2011, p. 6.
  12. ^ Meridian Water in Central Leeside (PDF). Greater London Council (Report). 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  13. ^ Former Walthamstow Stadium site (PDF) (Report). Waltham Forest Council. 3 June 2011. p. 7. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  14. ^ "A406 South Woodford to Barking Relief Road (Link Roads from Redbridge Roundabout to M11 Motorway) (Restriction of Traffic) Order 1986 Revocation Order 1987". London Gazette. December 1987. Retrieved 3 March 2015. 
  15. ^ London NE (sheet 161) (Map). Ordnance Survey. 1960. 
  16. ^ Orbital Motorways. Institution of Civil Engineers. 24 April 1990. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-7277-1591-3. 
  17. ^ Hall 1982, pp. 56–57.
  18. ^ Scott 2007, pp. 150–1.
  19. ^ Scott 2007, pp. 153.
  20. ^ Pope, Rex, ed. (2002). Atlas of British Social and Economic History Since C.1700. Routledge. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-134-93496-6. 
  21. ^ a b c d "North Circular Road, Ealing". Hansard. 15 December 1978. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  22. ^ "North Circular Road". Hansard. 3 February 1969. Retrieved 1 March 2015. 
  23. ^ Moran, Joe (2009). On Roads. Profile Books. p. 204. ISBN 978-1-84668-052-6. 
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  27. ^ "The GLA Roads Designation Order 2000". HM Government. 2000. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  28. ^ a b Barling, Kurt (20 October 2008). "Your community needs you!". BBC News. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  29. ^ "TfL budget heralds major works". BBC News. 31 March 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2015. 
  30. ^ "Work on A406 Bounds Green improvement scheme to begin next month". Transport for London. 15 March 2010. Retrieved 13 August 2015. 
  31. ^ "Work on Henlys Corner junction improvement scheme to begin in February 2011". Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  32. ^ "London roads £30bn plan unveiled". BBC News. 10 July 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  33. ^ Portillo, Michael (9 March 1989). "Channel Tunnel Rail Link". Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  34. ^ Enfield 2011, p. 7.
  35. ^ Enfield 2011, pp. 25–26.
  36. ^ "North Circular roars into first place". BBC News. 29 April 2002. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  37. ^ "North Circular named as London's most polluted road". BBC News. 24 June 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  38. ^ "Work on Henlys Corner junction improvement scheme to begin in February 2011". Transport for London. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  39. ^ "Six months of traffic chaos looms as works reduce Wood Green High Road to one lane". Tottenham and Wood Green Journal. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  40. ^ "Walking". Transport for London. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  41. ^ "Mystery of the Charlie Brown Roundabout". Go Britannia travel guide. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  42. ^ The Times Road Map of London (Map). The Times. 1926. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  • North Circular Area Action Plan (Report). Enfield Borough Council. November 2011. Retrieved 2 March 2015. 
  • Scott, Peter (2007). Triumph of the South: A Regional Economic History of Early Twentieth Century Britain. Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84014-613-4. 
  • Hall, Peter Geoffrey (1982). Great Planning Disasters. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04602-3. 
  • Weinreb, Ben, ed. (2008). The London Encyclopaedia. Pan Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-4924-5. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 51°36′58″N 0°05′43″W / 51.6161°N 0.0952°W / 51.6161; -0.0952