North Efate language

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North Efate
Region Efate, Vanuatu
Native speakers
9,500 (2001)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 llp
Glottolog nort2836[2]
Speaking Nakanamanga (Wikitongues project)

North Efate, also known as Nakanamanga or Nguna, is an Oceanic language spoken on the northern area of Efate in Vanuatu, as well as on a number of islands off the northern coast.


The consonant and vowels sounds of North Efate (Nguna)[3].

Consonant sounds
Labial Dental Velar
Stop plain p k
implosive ɓʷ
Fricative v s
Nasal plain m n ŋ
prenasal ᵑm
Liquid l r
Approximant w
Vowel sounds
Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a


  • Ray, Sidney H. (1887). "Sketch of Nguna Grammar". The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 16: 409–418. doi:10.2307/2841882. JSTOR 2841882.
  • Schütz, Albert J. (1969). "Nguna Grammar". Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications.


  1. ^ North Efate at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Efate". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Schütz, Albert J. (1969). Nguna Grammar. Oceanic Linguistics Special Publications.