North Sulawesi

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North Sulawesi
Sulawesi Utara
Province
Northern Sulawesi banner.jpg
Gunung Lokon.jpg Danau Tondano.jpg
Bunaken ManadoTua2.JPG Teluk Buyat.jpg
A landscape in North Sulawesi (8381087646).jpg Bentenan.jpg
Clockwise, from top left : The view of Mount Tumpa from Malalayang Beach, Lake Tondano, Teluk Buyat Beach, Bentenan Beach, A landscape in North Sulawesi, Bunaken and Manado Tua, Mount Lokon
Flag of North Sulawesi
Flag
Official seal of North Sulawesi
Seal
Motto: Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou (Minahasan)
(Human purpose in life is to nurture and educate others)
Location of North Sulawesi in Indonesia
Location of North Sulawesi in Indonesia
Coordinates: 1°15′N 124°50′E / 1.250°N 124.833°E / 1.250; 124.833Coordinates: 1°15′N 124°50′E / 1.250°N 124.833°E / 1.250; 124.833
Country  Indonesia
Established 14 August 1959
Capital Lambang kota manado.jpg Manado
Government
 • Body North Sulawesi Regional Government
 • Governor Olly Dondokambey (PDI-P)
 • Vice Governor Steven Kandouw
Area
 • Total 13,851.64 km2 (5,348.15 sq mi)
Area rank 27th
Highest elevation 1,995 m (6,545 ft)
Population (2014)[1]
 • Total 4,353,540
 • Density 310/km2 (810/sq mi)
Demographics
 • Ethnic groups Minahasan, Mongondow, Sangirese, Talaud, Gorontaloan, Bugis, Javanese
 • Religion Protestantism (63.6%), Islam (30.9%), Roman Catholicism (4.4%), Hinduism (0.58%), Buddhism (0.14%), Confucianism (0.02%)
 • Languages Indonesian (official), Manado Malay (lingua franca), English
Time zone Indonesia Central Time (UTC+8)
Postcodes 90xxx, 91xxx, 92xxx
Area codes (62)4xx
ISO 3166 code ID-SA
Vehicle registration DB, DL (Sangihe & Talaud Islands)
HDI Steady 0.704 (High)
HDI rank 7th (2015)
Largest city by area Bitung - 302.89 square kilometres (116.95 sq mi)
Largest city by population Manado - (675,411 - 2010)
Largest regency by area Bolaang Mongondow Regency - 2,871.65 square kilometres (1,108.75 sq mi)
Largest regency by population Minahasa Regency - (1,710,384 - 2010)
Website Government official site

North Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Utara) is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northern peninsula of the island of Sulawesi, on the Minahasa Peninsula lies south of Philippines and southeast of Malaysia. The province's capital and largest city is Manado, and its population was 4,135,526 according to the 2010 census;[2] the latest official estimate (for January 2014) is 4,353,540.

History[edit]

Chinese village in Manado, Dutch East Indies.

The Dinoyo Inscription which was found near the town Malang is the oldest written sources in East Java, that is in760. In the year 929, Mpu Sindok, the ruler of Mataram, moved the center of Mataram from Central Java to East Java, as well as establishing the Isyana dynasty which later evolved into Kingdom of Medang and as a successor is Kahuripan, Janggala and the Kingdom of Kediri. In the era of Majapahit under King Hayam Wuruk, its territory up to Malacca, and The Philippines. The earliest evidence of the entry of Islam to East Java is the tomb headstone in Gresik many 1102, as well as a number of Islam tombs at the tomb complex of Majapahit. In addition, also found the appearance of the Jedong temple in the Wagir Region , East Java, which is believed to be older than the Dinoyo inscription , which is about 6th century AD.

Portugal is the firstwestern nation who arrived in North Sulawesi, the Portuguese ship docked on the Manado Island during the reign of the Kingdom of Manado in 1521. Spanish ships docked in the island of Talaud and Siau and continues to Ternate. The Portuguese built a fort at Amurang. The Spanish built forts in, and the Minahassa Peninsula started being colonized by Spain. Resistance against the Spanish colonization peaked in 1660-1664. Ships from the Netherlands landed in Manado in 1660 in helping the Minahasa Confederation to fight against Spain. After defeating the Spain, the Minahasa Confederation entered into an agreement with the Dutch East India Company (VOC). Trade cooperation agreement This then makes VOC monopolize trade, which gradually began to impose its will, eventually leading to a resistance in the 1700's in Ratahan culminating to the Minahasa-Dutch War in 1809 to 1811 in Tondano.

After the independence of Indonesia, Indonesia is divided into eight provinces, and Sulawesi, including one of the province. The first governor of Sulawesi is Dr. Sam Ratulangi, which is also known as a national hero. In,1948 the State of East Indonesia was formed in Sulawesi, which later became one of the states in the Republic of Indonesia. The State of East Indonesia was dissolved and merged into the Republic of Indonesia. Based on Law Act No. 13 of 1964, formed the North Sulawesi province. On August 14 1959 in the set as the anniversary of the province.

Climate[edit]

Climate in the North Sulawesi region including tropical influenced by monsoon winds. In the months November to April blowing westerly winds bring rain on the north coast, while in the month of May to October there is a change of dry southerly winds. Rainfall is uneven with an annual rate ranging between 2,000-3,000 mm, and the number of rainy days between 90–139 days. Areas that received the most rainfall is Minahasa. The average air temperature is 25 °C. The maximum air temperature recorded an average of 30 °C and minimum air temperature average of 22.1 °C. Temperature is affected by the altitude of a location by calculating each increment of 100 meters can lower the temperature by about 0.8 °C.

Geography[edit]

Mount Tampusu in Tomohon.

The province areas are immediately adjacent neighbor country the Philippines. North Sulawesi region has boundaries:

North: Celebes Sea, Pacific Ocean, and the Philippines East: Mauluku Sea South: Gulf of Tomini West: Gorontalo Province

Most of the land area of North Sulawesi province consists of mountains and hills punctuated by valleys that make up the land. Mountains lies a chain to an altitude above 1,000 above sea level. Some mountain located in North Sulawesi, namely Klabat (1,895 m) in North Minahasa, Mount Lokon (1,579 m), Mahawu (1,331 m) in Tomohon, Soputan (1,789 m) in the Southeast Minahasa, Mount Dua Saudara (1468 m) in Bitung, Mount Awu (1784), Mount Ruang (1,245 m), Mount Karangketang (1,320 m), Mount Dalage (1,165 m), in Sangihe and Talaud, Mount Ambang (1,689 m), Mount Gambula (1,954 m) and Mount Batu Balawan (1,970 m).

Lowland and upland potentially have economic value for the region. Some of the plains are in this area are: Tondano (2,850 ha), Langowan (2,381 ha), Modoinding (2,350 ha), in Minahasa, Tompaso New (2,587 ha), in the South Minahasa, Tarun (265 ha) in Sangihe, Dumoga ( 21,100 ha), Ayong (2,700 ha), Sangkub (6575 ha), Tungoi (8,020 ha), Poigar (2,440 ha), Molibagu (3,260 ha), Bintauna (6,300 ha) in Bolmong and Bolmut.

The lakes in this area potentially has economic value to the development of the field of tourism, irrigation and energy. The lakes are lake with an area of 4,278 ha Tondano in Minahasa, Moat lake covering an area of 617 ha in East Mongondow Bolaang.

In general the rivers used for various purposes, among others for irrigation as well as a source of electric power and drinking water sources. Those rivers namely Tondano River (40 km), the river Poigar (54.2 km), the river Ranoyapo (51.9 km), the river Talawaan (34.8 km) in Minahasa. Other major rivers are in Bolmong and Bolmut which is the River Dumoga (87.2 km), the river Sangkub (53.6 km), Sungkai Ongkaw (42.1 km).

Demographics[edit]

Religion in East Nusa Tenggara
religion percent
Christianity
  
68%
Islam
  
30.90%
Hinduism
  
0.58%
Buddhism
  
0.14%
Confucianism
  
0.02%

North Sulawesi recorded 4,135,526 people in the decennial 2010 Census, with 2,112,635 males and 2,022,890 females, growing at 1.41% over the previous census.[3] The slowest growing regency was that of the Sangihe Islands. In 2010, about 68% were Christian (predominantly Protestant with a sizable Catholic minority), one of the few exceptions in the predominantly Muslim Indonesia, due to the prominent Dutch missionary activity during the colonial era. Also, because the Muslim-majority region of Gorontalo (then comprising a city and two regencies) was split off to form a new province in 2000. There are also Muslim, Hindu, and Buddhist minorities. The largest ethnic groups are the Minahasan in the north of the province and the Mongondow to the south. The province's chief city is Manado with population of 701,390 people in 2014.

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1971 1,718,543 —    
1980 2,115,384 +23.1%
1990 3,478,119 +64.4%
1995 3,649,093 +4.9%
2000 3,000,872 −17.8%
2010 4,135,526 +37.8%
2014 4,353,540 +5.3%
Source: Badan Pusat Statistik 2011.
The decline in 2000 is due to the separation of Gorontalo Province.

Administrative divisions[edit]

North Sulawesi is divided into eleven regencies (Indonesian: kabupaten) and four independent cities (Indonesian: kotamadya), listed below with their areas and their populations at the 2010 Census and according to the latest official estimate (for January 2014).

Name Area (km2) Population
Census 2010
Population
Estimate 2014
Capital HDI[4]
2014 Estimates
Sangihe Islands Regency
(Kepulauan Sangihe)
461.11 126,100 132,339 Tahuna 0.668 (Medium)
Sitaro Islands Regency
(Kepulauan Siau Tagulandang Biaro)
275.96 63,801 66,958 Ondong Siau 0.643 (Medium)
Talaud Islands Regency
(Kepulauan Talaud)
1,240.40 83,434 87,562 Melonguane 0.665 (Medium)
Northern (islands) sector 1,977.47 273,335 286,859
Bitung (city) 302.89 387,652 396,936 0.708 (High)
Manado (city) 157.27 675,411 701,390 0.772 (High)
Tomohon (city) 114.20 91,553 96,083 0.735 (High)
Minahasa Regency 1,114.87 1,710,384 1,825,741 Tondano 0.727 (High)
North Minahasa Regency
(Minahasa Utara)
918.49 188,904 198,251 Airmadidi 0.705 (Medium)
South Minahasa Regency
(Minahasa Selatan)
1,409.97 195,553 205,229 Amurang 0.683 (Medium)
Southeast Minahasa Regency
(Minahasa Tenggara)
710.83 100,443 105,413 Ratahan 0.678 (Medium)
Eastern (Minahasa) sector 4,728.52 3,349,900 3,529,403
Kotamobagu (city) 68.06 107,459 112,776 0.704 (High)
Bolaang Mongondow Regency 2,871.65 213,484 224,047 Kotamobagu 0.645 (Medium)
East Bolaang Mongondow Regency
(Bolaang Mongondow Timur)
910.18 63,654 66,803 Tutuyan 0.631 (Medium)
North Bolaang Mongondow Regency
(Bolaang Mongondow Utara)
1,680.00 70,693 74,191 Boroko 0.642 (Medium)
South Bolaang Mongondow Regency
(Bolaang Mongondow Selatan)
1,615.86 57,001 59,821 Molibagu 0.635 (Medium)
Western (Bolaang Mongondow) sector 7,145.75 512,291 537,638

Proposed new province of Bolaang Mongondow Raya[edit]

On 25 October 2013, the Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR) began reviewing draft laws on the establishment of 57 prospective regencies and 8 new provinces; one of the proposed provinces is Bolaang Mongondow Raya in North Sulawesi. If the bill is approved, this will comprise Kotamobagu City and the four regencies following it in the table above.[5]

Nature Tourist Parks and Animal Sanctuaries[edit]

There are 5 Nature Tourist Parks and Animal Sanctuaries in North Sulawesi and all are under government jurisdiction:[6]

References[edit]

External links[edit]