|This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2015)|
Northcote Town Hall
|• Density||3,638/km2 (9,420/sq mi)|
|Area||6.3 km2 (2.4 sq mi)|
|Location||7 km (4 mi) from Melbourne|
|LGA(s)||City of Darebin|
Northcote ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, 6 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. It is part of the local government area of the City of Darebin. At the 2011 Census, Northcote had a population of 22,920.
The area now known as Northcote is on the traditional lands of the Wurundjeri people. According to the Darebin Historical Encyclopedia, "[w]hite settlers knew the Wurundjeri as the ‘Yarra’ tribe. They were closely associated with the Yarra River and its subsidiaries, with various subgroups of the tribe owning lands at various spots on the course of the Yarra. They were the main tribe of Aboriginal people settled in the area that would become Melbourne. Their language, Woiwurrung, also distinguished them".
European settlement of the Northcote area began in 1839 with a Government land sale. Many of these allotments were long, narrow strips of land running in an east-west configuration, which has resulted in the street patterns of the suburb to this day. The area to the north of (what is now) Oldis Gardens was surveyed as the township of Northcote in 1853. The name is thought to be derived from the leader of the English Conservative Party, Stafford Henry Northcote. Although he was never Prime Minister he held several important cabinet posts.
The southerly surveyed portion is now Westgarth. It was the area further north of present-day Westgarth which saw settlement and development, particularly around the mansion built by William Rucker on Bayview Street in 1842 (the area now known as Ruckers Hill). Large, expensive houses were built throughout the Victorian gold rush of the 1850s. Lower Plenty Road (or High Street as it is known today) became the central street of Northcote, instead of Westgarth Street as initially proposed. A bridge was built across the Merri Creek in 1858, making access to the area more convenient. Throughout the 1850s, churches, schools, and hotels were built (see Timeline).
Throughout the 1870s the area contained a number of slaughteryards, piggeries, and claypits. One such claypit operated on the corner of Separation Street and High Street, which eventually became the Northcote Patent Brick Company, supplying much of the area's bricks. When the brickworks closed down, the site became the Northcote Plaza Shopping Centre in 1981. The quarried land became the Northcote Regional Tip, later to be transformed into All Nations Park, a public park. The Northcote Primary School on Helen Street opened in 1874. At that stage, Northcote was still a rural area, with orchards and occasional mansions.
Throughout the 1880s, land in Northcote was relatively cheap, owing to its lack of public transport. This attracted speculative property investors, as well as people of limited financial means, setting in place Northcote's reputation as a working-class suburb. Following the arrival of public transport in the late 1880s and early 1890s, the population of Northcote began to increase. More businesses opened along High Street, as well as churches and schools. The Little Sisters Of The Poor began building on a site along St Georges Road, which still exists today. The town hall was built in 1890, the same year the Borough of Northcote was proclaimed. The Northcote Football Club was established in 1898, with its home ground at Northcote Park.
The Northcote Picture Theatre opened in 1912. Its building is now one of the oldest surviving picture theatres in Victoria. It is now used as a reception centre. A free library opened in 1911, financed by Scottish philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. Throughout the 1920s development grew along St Georges Road. Northcote High School opened in 1926.
Throughout the 1950s the area became home to a large number of Italian and Greek migrants. By the 1980s, gentrification of Fitzroy and Fitzroy North had pushed some of the artistic and activist communities north into Northcote.
Access to Northcote via public transport was initially via the Inner Circle Line, which when linked to the Heidelberg Line in 1888, ran close to the southern border of the suburb. The line to Whittlesea was opened in 1891, creating a direct line to Northcote, although the line initially journeyed via Royal Park, Carlton North, and Fitzroy North, before a line was built from Clifton Hill to Melbourne through the suburbs of Collingwood and Richmond in 1901 to 1903.The northern section of the Inner Circle Line was closed to passengers in 1948, leaving the eastern section (from Melbourne to Clifton Hill, via Richmond and Collingwood).
Northcote has five railway stations along two lines. The South Morang Line serves Merri Station, Northcote Station and Croxton Station. The Hurstbridge Line serves Westgarth Station and Dennis Station.
A cable tram began operations along High Street in 1890. It was replaced in the early 1940s by a double-decker bus service which was in turn replaced with an electric tram service in the 1950s (now tram route 86). An electric tram service opened along St Georges Road in 1920 (now tram route 11). Northcote is also served by bus routes along Separation Street, Westgarth Street and Victoria Road.
Northcote as a suburb has undergone gentrification over the last 25 years. In the 1990s, relative to the rest of Melbourne, Northcote was classified as a low socio-economic area. During the 1996 to 2006 decade, the number of two earner households rose by ten percentage points; the share of households in the top income quintile went from 14 to 19 per cent; and, quite remarkably, the percentage of persons age 15 years and above with a Bachelor’s degree or high rose from 14 to 27 per cent (a much greater increase than experience by Melbourne as a whole). In 2011, a report from the Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute at Swinburne and Monash universities revealed Northcote had experienced the most intense gentrification of any Melbourne suburb in recent years. In 2013, Northcote was one of only four Melbourne suburbs whose median house price was at an all-time peak. This has resulted in a significant change in the demographics of the suburb. Whilst most see gentrification as positive, it has also had some negative effects. An AHURI report states that between 2001 and 2006, almost 35 per cent of the members of vulnerable groups, including low-income households, single parent families and immigrants, had moved out of the area.
Since 2006, the most significant increases in occupation have come from those working in professional and managerial roles, with less residents now living in Northcote employed in manual labour positions. As a result, residents of Northcote now earn on average $1536 a week, $200 per week higher than the Melbourne average. These changes in the population and demographics of Northcote have reinvigorated the local economy and the economies of the greater Darebin area, with increases in the amount of cafes, bars, restaurants and other small businesses operating currently in the region. Estimates suggest that the greater Darebin area has seen its Gross Regional Product increase by $1 billion in the last 10 years, to $5.23 billion.
Northcote has a cultural makeup of residents and had strong influxes of migrants from Greece and Italy in the 1950s following World War II.68.9% of residents in Northcote were born in Australia. However, 54% of those residents born in Australia had at least one parent born overseas, and 38.7% had both parents born overseas. This reflects the large numbers of second-generation families living in the area.
The most common languages spoken in Northcote other than English are:
- Greek (9.5%)
- Italian (4.5%)
- Vietnamese (1.2%)
- Arabic (1.0%)
- Mandarin (1.0%)
All Nations Park
All Nations Park is located adjacent to the Northcote Plaza Shopping Centre (which itself opened in October 1981 at the site of the old brickworks).
All Nations Park is a contemporary 13 hectare regional park created on the site of the former 'Northcote Landfill'. As the park is constructed on a former landfill, the rubbish still remaining in the site will was sealed beneath a compacted clay ‘cap’. There are also vents built into the ground to vent the gases produced by the landfill underneath, which prevents pressure under the soil from building up and causing a potential explosion.
There are skating facilities, as well as basketball courts, play equipment and picnic facilities. There is a lot of open space which many people use to fly kites and exercise their dogs. There is also a large native garden giving special attention to plants indigenous to the area, and a series of ponds.
The park was also the location of a December 2008 shooting involving police and a 15-year-old boy named Tyler Cassidy. Cassidy was shot several times and died on location., Tyler Cassidy is the youngest person to have been killed by Police in Australia.
Batman Park is also the name of a 1.6 hectares (4.0 acres) metropolitan park. It was purchased by the Northcote Council in 1907, and is recognised for its historical significance as the second oldest park in Northcote. It hosts many established trees for shade and is close to buses, trains and trams.
Johnson Park is a popular large neighbourhood park of almost two hectares. The land Johnson Park occupies was purchased by the former city of Northcote in 1859. The traditional owners of land where Johnson Park stands today are the Wurundjeri-Willampatriliny people. In 1913, five acres was bought in Bastings Street on the flat low-lying basalt soils between Rucker Hill and Darebin Creek. Originally known as the East Ward Park, it was slowly transformed into what was to become Johnson Park today 
The state seat of Northcote is held by Fiona Richardson, member of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) and the federal seat of Batman, which covers Northcote, is held by David Feeney, also from the ALP. The State seat of Northcote is one of the safest Labor seats in the entire country and has been held by the Labor party continuously since 1927. In fact, since 1927, there have only been five members of Parliament for the seat of Northcote, meaning on average each member has sat for 17 years, relatively unheard of in politics.
At the 2010 state elections, Labor safely won the seat again with 60.63% of the votes after preferences. The second most popular party in Northcote after Labor is the Australian Greens party, which received 30.85% of the votes in 2010.
The ALP in Northcote has been the subject of a number of academic studies. Ethnic branches were established in Northcote during 1975, the first in Victoria. The first branches were Westgarth, a Greek branch, and Croxton, an Italian branch. An additional Greek branch, Northcote East, was also established in the area.
The area surrounding Northcote is home to local sporting teams:
- Northcote City SC who compete in the Victorian Premier League, second tier behind the A-League.
- [ Northcote Swimming & Lifesaving Club Inc.] (NSLSC).
- Northcote Tigers Football Club
- Northcote Bowls Club
- Northcote United Cricket Club
- Dennis Cricket club
- Smashed Indoor Cricket Team, which is the longest running team at Northcote Indoor Sports. This team is now in its 18th year and was established in 1989 with five of its original members still playing and boasts over 14 Grand Final appearances.
- Northcote Park Football Club, an Australian Rules football team, competes in the Northern Football League.
- Northcote Junior Football Club] (NJFC), a junior Australian Rules football team allied with Northcote Park, competes in the Northern Football League junior division.
- Golfers play at the course of the Northcote Golf Club on Normanby Avenue, in the neighbouring suburb of Thornbury.
- Wales Street Primary School (Government co-ed primary school)
- Westgarth Primary School (Government co-ed primary school)
- Northcote Primary School (Government co-ed primary school)
- Santa Maria College (Catholic all-girls high school)
- Northcote High School (Government co-ed high school)
- St. Josephs Primary School (Catholic co-ed primary school
- William Barry - State Parliamentarian and Minister. First leader of the Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist), a party that became the Democratic Labor Party in 1957.
- Alan Bird - Federal Parliamentarian and Northcote Mayor and Councillor during his period as a parliamentarian
- Cameron Bird - musician from Architecture in Helsinki
- David Bridie - musician from My Friend the Chocolate Cake, amongst other projects
- Frank Brennan - Federal Parliamentarian and Attorney General during the Scullin Government 1929-1932.
- Helen Buckingham - Upper House Victorian Parliamentarian from 2002-2006
- John Cain (senior) - 34th Victorian Premier
- John Cain II - 41st Victorian Premier
- Don Chipp - Federal Parliamentarian, Minister, and founder of the Australian Democrats
- Goldsmith Collins - Footballer and vexatious litigant.
- Vince Colosimo - Actor and restaurateur
- Paul Dempsey - Musician, performing solo and with Something for Kate.
- Scod (Scott Edgar), Yon (Simon Hall) and Gatesy (Steven Gates) - Comedians from Tripod (band)..
- Christopher Anderson - Prominent Australian Businessman and adventurer. CEO of Red Rooster and youngest Australian to successfully summit the Seven Summits.
- Kenneth Hayne - High Court Judge.
- Bill Henson - Contemporary art photographer
- Nick Kotsiras - Liberal Party member of the Victorian Legislative Assembly for the Electoral district of Bulleen since 1999
- Bill Lawry - former Australian test cricket captain, inducted into the Australian Cricket Hall of Fame in 2010
- John Albert Little - Australian Senator
- David McComb - musician (ex-The Triffids)
- Douglas Nicholls - aboriginal Church of Christ Pastor, Northcote and Fitzroy footballer, and Governor of South Australia (1976–1977)
- Bernard O'Dowd - radical socialist, author, poet and Chief Parliamentary Draughtsman for Victoria, partner of Marie E.J. Pitt
- Marie E.J. Pitt - poet and partner of Bernard O'Dowd, winner of national song writing competition with Ave Australia in 1944
- Jack Regan - Collingwood footballer, born and recruited from Northcote, who became known as the "Prince of Full-backs".
- John Tasioulas - Yeoh Professor of Politics, Philosophy and Law at King's College London and first Greek-Australian Rhodes Scholar
- Ken Turner - Collingwood footballer
- Frank Wilkes - former Leader of the Opposition in Victorian Parliament
- Frank Wilson - Stage and television actor, television game show host and Logie Award winner
- Frank Woodley - Comedian from duo Lano and Woodley
- Comedy act Blood Duster
- City of Northcote - the former local government area
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Northcote (State Suburb)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- "Timeline [of events on 11 December 2008]". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 December 2008.
- Darebin City Council
- Andrew Lemon, (1983), The Northcote Side of the River, Hargreen Publishing Company, North Melbourne, p.268 . ISBN 0-949905-12-7
- Lyle Allan (1978), 'Ethnic Politics - Migrant Organization and the Victorian ALP', Ethnic Studies, Vol.2, No.2, pp.21-31
- Lyle Allan (1985), 'Ethnic Politics in the ALP', in P.R. Hay, J.Halligan, J.Warhurst, B. Costar (eds.), Essays on Victorian Politics, Warrnambool Institute Press, p.136 ISBN 0949759066
- Full Points Footy, Northern Football League, retrieved 15 April 2009
- Golf Select, Northcote, retrieved 11 May 2009
- Simon Smith (2009), Maverick Litigants. A History of Vexatious Litigants in Australia 1930-2008, Maverick Publications, Elwood, Victoria, Ch. 7
- The Northcote History Group Includes Timeline and publications.
- Australian Places (Monash University) - Northcote
- Northcote Social Club, music venue
- Northcote Aquatic and Recreation Centre, Fitness venue
- Darebin Appropriate Development Association, fighting development at All Nations Park/Plaza
- Westgarth Primary School, a key Northcote school for years prep to six