Eastern Air Defense Sector
|Eastern Air Defense Sector|
Eastern Air Defense Sector Emblem
|Decorations||Air Force Organizational Excellence Award|
The Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) is a United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) unit permanently assigned to the North American Aerospace Defense Command. A joint, bi-national military organization, EADS is composed of U.S. and Canadian military forces, federal civilians and contractors. It is located at the Griffiss Business and Technology Park in Rome, New York, the former Griffiss Air Force Base. EADS is a subordinate command of the Continental NORAD Region-1st Air Force, headquartered at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida.
Its mission is to counter all air threats to EADS' assigned Area of Operations through vigilant detection, rapid warning and precise tactical control of NORAD and NORTHCOM forces.
In 1958, in response to the threat of long-range Soviet bombers, the U.S. and Canada signed a treaty creating the bi-national North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), responsible for both countries’ air defense and air sovereignty. Air Defense Sectors were established soon after, including the New York Air Defense Sector (NYADS) headquartered at McGuire Air Force Base, New Jersey. Responsibility for air defense of the Northeast changed with various reorganizations. In 1983, the 24th Air Division was assigned to Griffiss Air Force Base to provide air defense for the Northeast. In 1987, NEADS was activated and co-located with the 24th AD.
In December 1994, the New York Air National Guard assumed primary responsibility for manning the Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS), as it was then known. EADS's area of responsibility covers more than 180 million Americans.
The Air National Guard provides the majority of the forces for the NORAD mission. At EADS, this responsibility belongs to the New York Air National Guard’s 224th Air Defense Group. The 224th ADG consists of the 224th Air Defense Squadron, the 224th Support Squadron and two detachments in the Washington, D.C. area.
In total, EADS has more than 400 full- and part-time military and civilian personnel. This includes a 15-member Canadian Forces detachment and Army, Navy, Coast Guard and Federal Aviation Administration liaison officers. These personnel work side-by-side with the 224th ADG and are fully integrated into every aspect of the unit.
EADS Detachment 1 serves at the Joint Air Defense Operations Center (JADOC) at Joint Base Anacostia-Bolling in Washington, D.C. Commanded by U.S. Army National Guard air defense units that serve year-long rotations, the JADOC is responsible for the National Capital Region’s Integrated Air Defense System (IADS). Detachment 1, composed of 39 New York ANG members, is the permanent Air Force component at the JADOC.
Detachment 2 serves at the National Capital Region Coordination Center (NCRCC) in Herndon, Virginia. Operated by the Transportation Security Administration, the NCRCC is a fusion center that enables the federal agencies responsible for defending the NCR airspace to share information in real time. The seven New York ANG members at Detachment 2 are responsible for correlating, coordinating and rapidly sharing threat information with EADS Battle Control Center in Rome.
The Eastern Air Defense Sector is one of two Sectors responsible for the air defense of the continental United States. The other sector is the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS).
The Eastern Air Defense Sector is one of two Air National Guard operational headquarters (together with the Western Air Defense Sector), providing air defense command and control for the ANG's fighter wings based in the Contiguous United States. The two sector headquarters report to the active force First Air Force. The EADS is a New York Air National Guard based in Rome. It has operational command and control over the following fighter units:
- Vermont Air National Guard
- Massachusetts Air National Guard
- New Jersey Air National Guard
- District of Columbia Air National Guard
- Virginia Air National Guard
- South Carolina Air National Guard
- Florida Air National Guard
- Alabama Air National Guard
- Wisconsin Air National Guard
- Louisiana Air National Guard
- Minnesota Air National Guard
- Ohio Air National Guard
The Sector's history begins on 1 April 1956 when the 4621st Air Defense Wing was organized. The sector's predecessors, the 4709th Defense Wing (later 4709th Air Defense Wing) and the 52d Fighter-Interceptor Wing had performed the air defense mission at McGuire AFB, New Jersey since 1949.
The wing operated a Manual Air Direction Center (MDC) at Roslyn AFS, New York. It was redesignated as the New York Air Defense Sector (NYADS) on 1 October. The sector's mission was to train and maintain tactical flying units in state of readiness in order to defend Northeast United States while initially continuing to operate the MDC.
The organization was in large part responsible for one of the foundational projects of the computer era: the development of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air defense system, from its first test at Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1951, to the installation of the first unit of the New York Air Defense Sector of the SAGE system, in 1958.
The idea for SAGE grew out of Project Whirlwind, a World War II computer development effort, when the War Department realized that the Whirlwind computer might anchor a continent-wide advance warning system. Developed during the 1950s by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Lincoln Laboratories engineers and scientists for the U.S. Air Force, SAGE monitored North American skies for possible attack by manned aircraft and missiles for twenty-five years. Aside from its strategic importance, SAGE set the foundation for mass data-processing systems and foreshadowed many computer developments of the 1960s. The heart of the system, the IBM AN/FSQ-7 computer, was the first computer to have an internal memory composed of "magnetic cores," thousands of tiny ferrite rings that served as reversible electromagnets. SAGE also introduced computer-driven graphic displays, online keyboard terminals, time-sharing, high-availability computation with a redundant AN/FSQ-7 to fail over if the primary system went down, digital signal processing, digital transmission over leased telephone lines, digital track-while-scan, digital simulation, computer networking, and duplex computing.
The SAGE Direction Center DC-01 General Curtis E. LeMay was the guest speaker. He described SAGE as, "A system centralizing many air defense functions, minimizing manual tasks and allowing electronic devices to perform hundreds of complex computations accurately and simultaneously to improve air defense capability."was activated on 1 July 1958, the first sector to achieve this status. In a ceremony marking this achievement,
On 1 April 1966, the NYADS was inactivated, as were the other 22 sectors in the country. The SAGE system remained active until replaced in 1983 by newer technology Joint Surveillance System (JSS). The 3-story DC-01 SAGE building, with reinforced 3' concrete walls and roof now hosts the Headquarters, 21st Expeditionary Mobility Task Force, Air Mobility Command at McGuire AFB.
On 1 July 1987, four of the previous ADCOM Air Defense sectors were reactivated, redesignated, assigned and colocated with the four remaining air divisions.
- The Montgomery Air Defense Sector (MOADS) became the Southeast Air Defense Sector or SEADS; assigned to 23d Air Division
- The Los Angeles Air Defense Sector (LAADS) became the Southwest Air Defense Sector or SWADS; assigned to 26th Air Division
- The Seattle Air Defense Sector (SEADS) became the Northwest Air Defense Sector or NWADS; assigned to 25th Air Division
- The New York Air Defense Sector (NYADS) became the Northeast Air Defense Sector NEADS; assigned to 24th Air Division
The ADTAC Air Divisions were inactivated.
- On 1 July 1987, 23d Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Southeast Air Defense Sector.
- On 30 September 1990, 26th Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Southwest Air Defense Sector.
- On 30 September 1990, 25th Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Northwest Air Defense Sector.
- On 30 September 1990, 24th Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Northeast Air Defense Sector.
In the mid-1990s, the Air National Guard (ANG) assumed responsibility for leading U.S. air defense. ANG flying units had performed the air defense mission for decades. But after the changeover, activated Guardsmen provided the command and staff for the Continental U.S. NORAD Region and its subordinate Sector HQs. All reported to First Air Force. The Northeast Sector was the first to transition. In December 1994, the New York Air National Guard activated the Northeast Air Defense Squadron to staff the Sector HQ.
- On 1 December 1994, the Northeast Air Defense Sector was reassigned to the New York Air National Guard; NEADS redesignated Northeast Air Defense Sector (ANG)
- On 1 January 1995, the NWADS and SWADS consolidated to become the Western Air Defense Sector, assigned to First Air Force.
- On 1 October 1995, the Southeast Air Defense Sector was reassigned to the Florida Air National Guard; SEADS redesignated Southeast Air Defense Sector (ANG)
- On 1 October 1997 the Western Air Defense Sector was reassigned to the Washington Air National Guard; WADS redesignated Western Air Defense Sector (ANG)
In the aftermath of the 9-11 attacks, the Northeast Air Defense Sector pioneered many of the changes that now allow it to build a detailed internal air picture to identify and engage air threats originating from within North America. In addition to the Battle Control Center in Rome, NEADS helped establish and maintain two detachments in the National Capital Region to defend critical assets and improve interagency communication.
On 1 November 2005, the NEADS and SEADS consolidated, giving the Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) the responsibility of providing detection and air defense for the entire eastern half of the United States. NEADS was officially re-designated the Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) on 15 July 2009.
The Northeast Air Defense Squadron (NY ANG) formally became the 224th Air Defense Group in December 2014.
- Designated and organized as 4621st Air Defense Wing, SAGE, 1 April 1956
- Designated and organized as the 4621st Air Defense Wing, SAGE, 1 April 1956
- Redesignated as the New York Air Defense Sector on 1 October 1956
- Discontinued and inactivated on 1 April 1966
- Redesignated as Northeast Air Defense Sector and activated on 1 July 1987
- Redesignated as Northeast Air Defense Sector (ANG) on 1 December 1994
- Redesignated as Eastern Air Defense Sector on 15 July 2009
- 26th Air Division, 1 April 1956
- Attached to 4709th Air Defense Wing 1 Apr 1956 – 18 October 1956
- Eastern Air Defense Force, 8 July 1956 – 1 October 1956
- 26th Air Division, 1 October 1956 – 1 April 1966
- 24th Air Division, 1 July 1987
- First Air Force (Later First Air Force (ANG)), 30 September 1990
- Attached to First Air Forces Northern (Provisional), 28 February 2006 – 1 November 2007
- McGuire AFB, New Jersey (1 April 1956 - 30 September 1968)
- Griffiss AFB, New York (1 October 1968 - 30 September 1995)
- Rome, New York (1 October 1995 – present)
Wings and Groups
- Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1 July 1963 – 1 April 1966
- Suffolk County AFB, New York, 18 October 1956 – 1 July 1963
- New Castle County Airport, Delaware, 18 October 1956 – 8 January 1958
- Dover AFB, Delaware, 8 February 1957 – 1 July 1958
- McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 8 February 1957 – 1 August 1959
- Dover AFB, Delaware, 1 March 1956 – 8 February 1957
- Dover AFB, Delaware, 1 July 1963 – 1 Apr 1966
- Dover AFB, Delaware, 1 October 1956 – 8 February 1957; 1 July 1958 – 1 February 1959; 1 July 1961 – 1 July 1963
- Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1 July 1963 – 30 September 1968
- McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1 October 1956 – 8 February 1957
- McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1 October 1956 – 8 February 1957; 1 August 1959 – 1 April 1966
- Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1 February 1959 – 15 December 1964
- McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1 January 1959 – 1 Apr 1966
- Highlands AFS, New Jersey, 18 October 1956 – 1 April 1966
- Palermo AFS, New Jersey, 8 June 1957 – 1 October 1961
- Montauk AFS, New York, 18 October 1956 – 1 April 1966
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG), 1 June 1998 – 31 May 1999
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG) 11 September 2001
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG) 1 November 2008 - 31 October 2010
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG) 1 June 2011 - 31 May 2013
- Northeast Air Defense Sector, 1 July 1987 – 1 April 1989
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG), 1 January 1990 – 1 January 1992
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG), 1 June 1994 – 31 May 1996
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG), 1 January 2001 – 30 April 2002
- Northeastern Air Defense Sector (ANG), 31 July 2005 – 31 May 2007
- List of USAF Aerospace Defense Command General Surveillance Radar Stations
- List of United States Air Force aircraft control and warning squadrons
- Aerospace Defense Command Fighter Squadrons
- Alaskan Air Defense Sector
- Hawaii Region Air Operations Center
- North American Aerospace Defense Command
- Western Air Defense Sector
- Southeast Air Defense Sector
- AFHRA Factsheet, Eastern Air Defense Force (accessed 22 January 2012)
- Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases, Vol. I, Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 414–415. ISBN 0-912799-53-6.
- See generally Redmond, Kent C; Smith, Thomas M (2000). From Whirlwind to MITRE: The R&D Story of The SAGE Air Defense Computer. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-18201-0.
- Ravenstein, Charles A (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947–1977 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 85. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 114. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
- AFHRA Factsheet, 52nd Operations Group Archived 27 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. (accessed 3 March 2012)
- Maurer, Combat Units, p. 148
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980 (PDF). Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. p. 89.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 204. ISBN 0-405-12194-6.
- Cornett & Johnson p. 121
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 327
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 410
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, P. 646
- Factsheet, Eastern Air Defense Force
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 156
- Cornett & Johnson pp. 166–167
- Leonard, Barry (2009). History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense (PDF). , Vol II, 1955–1972. Fort McNair, DC: Center for Military History. ISBN 9781437921311.
- Radomes.org New York Air Defense Sector
- NORAD Regions
- AFHRA Factsheet, Eastern Air Defense Sector
- Western Air Defense Sector History
- First Air Force Units