Northeastern coastal forests
|Northeastern coastal forests|
|Biome||Temperate broadleaf and mixed forests|
|Area||89,691 km2 (34,630 sq mi)|
The Northeastern coastal forests are a temperate broadleaf and mixed forests ecoregion of the northeast and middle Atlantic region of the United States. The ecoregion covers an area of 34,630 sq miles (89,691 km²) encompassing the Piedmont and coastal plain of seven states, extending from coastal southwestern Maine, southeastern New Hampshire, eastern Massachusetts, and Rhode Island, southward through Connecticut, southern New York State, New Jersey, southeast Pennsylvania, Delaware and northern Maryland.
The ecoregion is bounded on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. To the north, it transitions to the New England-Acadian forests, which cover most of northern and inland New England. To the west, the ecoregion transitions to Allegheny Highlands forests and the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests of the Appalachian Mountains. To the south lie the Southeastern mixed forests and the Middle Atlantic coastal forests. The ecoregion surrounds the distinct Atlantic coastal pine barrens ecoregion, which covers portions of southern New Jersey, Long Island and Cape Cod in southeastern Massachusetts.
The climate in this ecoregion is the broad transition from the northern humid continental of southeast Canada and New England, to the humid subtropical of the middle and lower East Coast to the south.
Dry-mesic oak forests
Northeastern interior dry-mesic oak forests are found throughout this ecoregion. They cover large areas at low and middle elevations, typically on flat to gently rolling terrain. Red oak (Quercus rubra), white oak (Quercus alba), and black oak (Quercus velutina) are common oaks in this habitat. Other trees include hickories (Carya spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), white ash (Fraxinus americana), tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black cherry (Prunus serotina), black birch (Betula lenta), black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), and American elm (Ulmus americana). Flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) is a common understory tree.
Common shrubs are maple-leaved viburnum (Viburnum acerifolium), spicebush (Lindera benzoin), and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). In sandier or more acidic soils are mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum), huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), and swamp azalea (Rhododendron viscosum).
Hemlock-northern hardwood forests
Hemlock-northern hardwood forests occur in deep coves, moist flats, and ravines. They include sugar maple, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), and beech. These trees often form a deciduous canopy, but are sometimes mixed with hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) or white pine (Pinus strobus). Other common trees include oaks (most commonly red oak), tuliptree, black cherry, and sweet birch. In the Northeast, red spruce (Picea rubens) can be a minor canopy associate. Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) is frequent but not dominant.
Dry oak-pine forests
Central Appalachian dry oak-pine forests occur on dry sites with loamy to sandy soils. A mix of oak and pine tree species dominate the canopy, typically chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and white pine (Pinus strobus), but sometimes white oak (Quercus alba) or scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea). Varying amounts of oaks and pines result in oak forests, mixed oak-pine forests, or small pine forests. Shrubs such as hillside blueberry (Vaccinium pallidum), black huckleberry (Gaylussacia baccata), and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) are common in the understory and can form a dense layer.
Pine-oak rocky woodlands
Central Appalachian pine-oak rocky woodlands occur on lower-elevation hilltops, outcrops, and rocky slopes and have a patchy or open aspect. Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) and Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) are common within their respective ranges. These pines are often mixed with dry-site oaks such as chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), bear oak (Quercus ilicifolia), northern red oak (Quercus rubra), and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea). Sprouts of chestnut (Castanea dentata) can also be found. In the northeast, eastern red-cedar (Juniperus virginiana) or hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) are sometimes important. In the understory, some areas have a fairly well-developed heath shrub layer, others a graminoid layer, the latter particularly common under deciduous trees such as oaks.
Successional plant communities
Swamps and floodplains occur where standing water is present for only some parts of the year. Red maple is common tree, and can be found with swamp tupelo, white ash, American elm, pin oak (Quercus palustris), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), and silver maple (Acer saccharinum). Spicebush is a common shrub. Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) is found here.
Some of the animals that live in the Northeastern coastal deciduous forests are white-tailed deer, eastern gray squirrels, chipmunks, red foxes, sparrows, chickadees, garter snakes, snails, coyotes, black bears, and raccoons. Chickadees, white-tailed deer, and eastern gray squirrels can be seen quite often. Gray wolves used to be quite common, but are extirpated, causing endemic growth in deer populations near suburban areas, with eastern coyotes generally taking their place by the mid-20th century.
Areas of intact habitat
The following natural areas are within this ecoregion
- New Hampshire
- Rhode Island
- New York
- New Jersey
- Abram S. Hewitt State Forest
- Allamuchy Mountain State Park
- Cape May National Wildlife Refuge
- Cheesequake State Park
- Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge
- Farny State Park
- Gateway National Recreation Area
- Great Piece Meadows
- Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
- Jenny Jump State Forest
- Mahlon Dickerson Reservation
- Norvin Green State Forest
- Rancocas State Park
- Ringwood State Park
- Sourland Mountain
- Troy Meadows
- Wawayanda State Park
- Hoekstra, J. M.; Molnar, J. L.; Jennings, M.; Revenga, C.; Spalding, M. D.; Boucher, T. M.; Robertson, J. C.; Heibel, T. J.; Ellison, K. (2010). Molnar, J. L., ed. The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26256-0.
- Collins, B. R.; Anderson, K. H. (1994). Plant Communities of New Jersey: A Study in Landscape Diversity. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2071-1.
- "Northeastern Interior Dry-Mesic Oak Forest". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Appalachian (Hemlock)-Northern Hardwood Forest". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Central Appalachian Dry Oak-Pine Forest". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "Central Appalachian Pine-Oak Rocky Woodland". NatureServe Explorer. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
- Olson; D. M; E. Dinerstein et al. (2001). "Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth". BioScience 51 (11): 933–938. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0933:TEOTWA]2.0.CO;2.