Northern Pashto

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Northern Pashto
Yusufzai
یوسفزئی پښتو
Native to Pakistan, Afghanistan
Region

(Pakistan) Peshawar, Dir, Swat, Bajaur, Chitral, Malakand, Nowshehra, Charsadda, Swabi, Hazara

(Afghanistan) Jalalabad, Kunar, Kunduz
Ethnicity Pashtun
Native speakers
21 million  (2013)[1]
Pashto alphabet
Official status
Regulated by Pashto Academy (Peshawar, Pakistan)[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 pbu
Glottolog nort2646[3]

Northern Pashto, sometimes known as Yusufzai or Pekhawari (Pashto: يوسفزیی، پېښوریyūsufzəyi, pexawərī) after its principal subdialect, is a dialect of Pashto spoken in northern Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan, including city of Peshawar and by most of the Yusufzai Pashtoon tribe.

Subdialects[edit]

Strictly speaking, Yusufzai is a subdialect of Northern Pashto. Other subdialects are Durani, Ghilzai, Ningraharian, Afridi, Kohat, Mohmand, Shilmani, Shinwari, and Northwestern Pashto.

Phonology[edit]

Yusufzai Pashto has a difference in affricates: in other dialects t͡s, d͡z/z, ʒ, in Peshawari instead s, z, j. Such as in most Northern dialects, in Yusufzai is pronounced x and g instead southern ʂ, ʐ.

Dialects[4] ښ ږ څ ځ ژ ā ū
Kandahari Pashto [ʂ] [ʐ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ] [ɑ] [u]
Quetta Pashto [ʃ] [ʒ] [t͡s] [d͡z] [ʒ, z] [ɑ] [u]
Ghilji, central Pashto [ç] [ʝ] [t͡s] [z] [ʒ, z] [ɑ] [u]
Northern (Peshawari) Pashto [x] [ɡ] [s] [z] [d͡ʒ] [ɑ] [u]

Grammar[edit]

Peshawari pronouns are very simplifed, especially əğə (he, she) and muŋ/muŋg (we).

Pronouns Kandahar Quetta Peshawar Jalal-Abad Meaning
زه I
ته tə, реже təi tə, реже təi tʰə, tə you (sing)
هغه hağə ağə əğə hağə he
هغه hağe ağə əğə hağe she
موږ/مونږ mʊž̥ mʊž/məž muŋ/muŋg muŋg we
تاسو/تاسې tāse/tāsī tāse/tāsī tāso tāso you (pl)
هغوی hağwi/hağūi ağwi/ağūi ağʷi/ağʷəi hağʷi/hağʷəi they

References[edit]

  1. ^ Northern Pashto at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Sebeok, Thomas Albert (1976). Current Trends in Linguistics: Index. Walter de Gruyter. p. 705. 
  3. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Northern Pashto". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  4. ^ Hallberg, Daniel G. 1992. Pashto, Waneci, Ormuri. Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 4.