Northern Rail

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Northern Rail
Northern Rail Logo.svg
Northern Rail Class 323, 323224, Alderley Edge railway station (geograph 4524576).jpg
Franchise(s): Northern
12 December 2004 – 1 April 2016
Main Region(s): North West, North East,
Yorkshire and the Humber
Other Region(s): East Midlands and Staffordshire
Fleet size: 330
Stations called at: 526
Stations operated: 463
Route km operated: 2,695.7
National Rail abbreviation: NT
Parent company: Serco-Abellio

Northern Rail,[1] often referred to as Northern, is the main train operator in the North of England and is a British train operating company owned by Serco-Abellio[2] operating the Northern Rail franchise.

Northern runs a mix of commuter rural and some longer-distance services around Cheshire, County Durham, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire, Merseyside, Northumberland, Teesside, Tyne and Wear and Yorkshire. Northern's services also extend to the north Midland counties of Derbyshire, Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, and Staffordshire. Most services are supported by passenger transport executives.

Northern Rail also operates the Northern Electrics sub-brand on recently electrified services in North West England.

Of all the train operating companies in the UK, Northern Rail operates the most stations.


In 2000 the Strategic Rail Authority announced that it planned to reorganise the North West Regional Railways and Regional Railways North East franchises operated by First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern. A TransPennine Express franchise would be created for the long-distance regional services, with the remaining services to be operated by a new Northern franchise.[3]

On 1 July 2004 the Strategic Rail Authority awarded the franchise to Serco-NedRailways, beating FirstGroup.[4][5][6] The franchise was awarded for six years and nine months, with a two-year extension subject to performance targets being achieved.

Serco-NedRailways' bid had assumed that some Class 142 Pacer trains would be released imminently when Manchester Metrolink services started between Manchester and Oldham. Due to a substantial delay in extending the Metrolink, it became clear that this was not going to be the case.[7] As a result the contract signing was delayed, and the services operated by First North Western and Arriva Trains Northern did not transfer to Northern until 12 December 2004.

In May 2010 the Department for Transport confirmed that Northern had met the performance targets, and the franchise was extended for two years until September 2013.[8][9] In May 2012 the Department for Transport granted Northern a six-month extension until 31 March 2014.[10][11][12] In March 2013 the Secretary of State for Transport announced the franchise would be further extended to April 2016.[13]

In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced Abellio, Arriva and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next franchise.[14]


Additional services[edit]

In December 2008 Northern Rail introduced an express service from Leeds to Nottingham calling at Wakefield Kirkgate, Barnsley, Meadowhall, Sheffield, Dronfield, Chesterfield, Alfreton and Langley Mill[15][16] using a Class 158 unit.

In May 2015 Northern Rail announced the re-introduction of a direct service between Blackburn to Manchester Victoria via Burnley following the reopening of the Todmorden Curve.[17] The service operates hourly, seven days a week.[18]

Former services[edit]

Services on the route from Thorpes Bridge Junction, Newton Heath to Rochdale East Junction via Oldham, known as the Oldham Loop Line, ceased on 3 October 2009. The line was subsequently converted for Metrolink operation and reopened as a Metrolink route in 2012.[19]


Northern Rail won Public Transport Operator of the Year 2007 at the National Transport Awards and was praised by the judges for attracting 20% more passengers since 2004.[20] When the extension of its franchise was announced, Northern stated that it had improved punctuality from 83.7% in the 12 months to December 2004 to 91.6% in the 12 months to May 2010, meaning that around 200 more trains per day were on time than in 2004.[8]

In the period 15 October 2009 to 14 November 2009, Northern's punctuality was 91.1% and reliability was 92.2%.[21] Northern's passenger charter targets are 91% for punctuality and 99% for reliability.

The franchise agreement commits to a 15% reduction in delays in the first five years and to a new 'incentive/penalty regime' and a more 'local focus on performance'.[22]

The latest official figures released by NR (Network Rail) rate punctuality (PPM) at 91.9% and an MAA of 90.7% for period 7 (2013/2014) and the 12 months up to 12 October 2013.[23]

The annual report for 2012, published in March 2013, of the Nederlandse Spoorwegen[24] stated that Northern Rail transported 263,000 passengers daily. The customer satisfaction decreased to 80%. In May 2011 Northern Rail received the "Sustainable Business of the Year" award.

Rolling stock[edit]

Northern Rail operates a large diesel fleet, which is used on most services. There is also a smaller electric fleet used on shorter distance services around Leeds and Manchester and on services between Liverpool and Manchester.

Northern inherited a fleet of Class 142, Class 144, Class 150, Class 153 Class 155, Class 156, Class 158, Class 321. Class 323 and Class 333s from Arriva Trains Northern and First North Western.

In October 2006 Northern leased six former Central Trains Class 158s that had been on loan to First Great Western.[25]

In March 2007 Northern announced it would be acquiring a further 30 Class 158s from Arriva Trains Wales, Central Trains and First Great Western to replace 26 Class 142 Pacers.[26][27] Northern ended up only receiving 19 Class 158s, but did gain eight centre carriages from East Midlands Trains in 2008 that were inserted into Northern’s ex First North Western Class 158s.[28][29] 12 Class 142 Pacers were placed in store but reactivated by the end of 2008 when they were sublet to First Great Western from December 2008 and the balance returning to service with Northern.

In Autumn 2008 five Class 142 Pacers returned from First Great Western with the remaining seven following in Autumn 2011.

From December 2008 until December 2011 Northern leased three Class 180s for use on Blackpool North to Manchester Victoria and Hazel Grove services.[30]

From July 2011 Northern received 18 Class 150s from London Midland. From October 2011, five Class 322s from First ScotRail entered service.[31]

In January 2015 it was confirmed Chiltern Railways will take five of the First TransPennine Express Class 170s from May 2015. First TransPennine Express will sublease Class 156 trains from Northern Rail (which were originally intended to be used for extra capacity on Northern Rail services) to cover for the shortfall until February 2016.[32][33]

In March 2015 the first Class 319 units entered service on the Liverpool Lime Street to Manchester Airport service.[34]

Current fleet[edit]

Class Image Type Top speed Total Routes Built
mph km/h
Class 37 37423 & Caroline Danesmoor.jpg Loco 80 130 2[35]
  • Cumbrian Coast Line (Monday to Saturday only)[36]

Loco-hauled services are operated by Direct Rail Services on behalf of Northern Rail

Mark 2 Carriage Coach 8 TBC
Class 142 Pacer Northern Rail Class 142, 142071, Eccleston Park railway station (geograph 3795616).jpg DMU 75 120 79
  • Manchester Victoria–Southport/Kirkby
  • Chester–Manchester Piccadilly
  • Southport–Chester (Sundays only)
  • Manchester Piccadilly–New Mills/Rose Hill Marple/Sheffield
  • Leeds–Morecambe/Lancaster/Sheffield/York
  • Liverpool Lime St–Manchester Oxford Rd/Blackpool North/Warrington Bank Quay
  • Huddersfield–Manchester Victoria
  • Colne–Blackpool South
  • Cumbrian Coast Line
  • Newcastle–Hexham/Middlesbrough
  • Bishop Auckland/Darlington–Saltburn
  • Middlesbrough–Hexham
  • Crewe/Alderley Edge/Macclesfield–Manchester Piccadilly
  • Metrocentre & Newcastle–Morpeth & Chathill
  • Sheffield–Lincoln
  • Sheffield–Brigg–Cleethorpes (Saturdays only)
  • Hull–York
  • Blackburn–Manchester Victoria
Class 144 Pacer Cleethorpes railway station MMB 01 144006.jpg DMU 75 120 23
  • Leeds–Harrogate/York/Manchester Victoria (stopper)/Huddersfield/Goole/Sheffield/Morecambe
  • Sheffield/Wakefield Westgate–Huddersfield
  • Sheffield–Scunthorpe/Lincoln
  • Sheffield–Brigg–Cleethorpes (Saturdays only)

Also seen sometimes pulling Class 158s on the Caldervale line during peak time where extra capacity is needed.

Class 150/1 Sprinter Starbeck railway station MMB 16 150211 150118.jpg DMU 75 120 32
  • Manchester Victoria–Clitheroe/Leeds/Selby
  • Colne–Blackpool South
  • Manchester Piccadilly–Buxton/Sheffield/Rose Hill Marple
  • Liverpool Lime Street–Blackpool North/Warrington Bank Quay/Manchester Oxford Rd
  • Manchester Victoria/Airport–Wigan Wallgate/Southport/Kirkby
  • Chester–Manchester Piccadilly
  • Southport–Altrincham–Chester (Sundays only)
  • Blackburn–Manchester Victoria
Class 150/2 Sprinter 150277 Northern Rail Castleton East Jcn.jpg DMU 75 120 26
  • Manchester Victoria–Clitheroe/Leeds
  • Huddersfield–Selby
  • Colne–Blackpool South
  • Wakefield Kirkgate–Knottingley
  • Manchester Piccadilly–Buxton/Sheffield/Rose Hill Marple
  • Liverpool Lime Street–Blackpool North/Warrington Bank Quay/Manchester Oxford Rd
  • Manchester Victoria/Airport–Wigan Wallgate/Southport
  • Chester–Altrincham–Manchester Piccadilly
  • Southport–Altrincham–Chester (Sundays only)
  • Blackburn–Manchester Victoria
Class 153 Super Sprinter 153328 Doncaster.JPG DMU 75 120 18
  • Manchester Victoria–Clitheroe
  • Colne–Blackpool South
  • Preston–Ormskirk
  • Leeds–Knottingley
  • Wakefield Kirkgate–Knottingley
  • Cumbrian Coast Line
  • Cleethorpes–Barton-on-Humber (Barton Line)

Also seen coupled to other trains for additional capacity, sometimes seen in South Yorkshire replacing services usually run by Pacers.

(Converted 1991-2)
Class 155 Super Sprinter Leeds railway station MMB 33 155347.jpg DMU 75 120 7 1988
Class 156 Super Sprinter Northern Rail Class 156, 156421, Liverpool South Parkway railway station (geograph 3786972).jpg DMU 75 120 42
  • Colne–Blackpool South (Sundays only)
  • Cumbrian Coast Line
  • Newcastle–Carlisle
  • Blackpool North–Manchester Victoria
  • Preston–Hazel Grove
  • Liverpool Lime Street–Blackpool North/Warrington Bank Quay/Manchester Oxford Road
  • Manchester Piccadilly–Rose Hill Marple/Buxton/Sheffield
  • Helsby–Ellesmere Port/Warrington Bank Quay
  • Manchester Victoria/Airport–Wigan Wallgate/Southport/Kirkby
  • Chester–Manchester Piccadilly
  • Southport–Altrincham–Chester (Sundays only)
  • Nunthorpe–Hexham (Select journeys only)
  • Middlesbrough–Whitby
  • Middlesbrough–Carlisle (1 in 3 services only)
Class 158/0 Express Sprinter 158755 Castleton East Junction.jpg DMU 90 140 35 Express services including:
  • York–Blackpool North
  • Nottingham–Sheffield–Barnsley–Leeds
  • Hull–York
  • Sheffield/Hull–Bridlington/Scarborough
  • Leeds–Carlisle
  • Leeds–Bradford–Manchester Victoria[37]

Also occasionally seen on the Harrogate Line and other services as a replacement for booked Class 142/144/150s etc.

Class 158 Northern Rail Diagram.PNG
Class 158/9 Express Sprinter 158901 , Lower Pilsley.jpg DMU 90 140 10 Express services including:
  • York–Blackpool North
  • Nottingham–Sheffield–Barnsley–Leeds
  • Hull–York
  • Sheffield/Hull–Bridlington/Scarborough
  • Leeds–Carlisle
  • Leeds–Bradford–Manchester Victoria[37]

Also occasionally seen on the Harrogate Line and other services as a replacement for booked Class 142/144/150s etc.

Class 319/3 Northern Electrics Class 319, 319382, platform 3, Huyton railway station (geograph 4511991).jpg EMU 100 161 17
  • Liverpool Lime Street–Manchester Airport/Manchester Victoria/Preston/Wigan North Western

Further units are to receive a repaint and refresh prior to entering service.

Class 319 First Capital Connect Diagram.PNG
Class 321/9 Hugh llewelyn 321 902 (6286267604).jpg EMU 100 160 3

Also used on peak-time weekday services on the Airedale and Wharfedale lines

Class 321 Diagram.png
Class 322 Leeds railway station MMB 38 322482.jpg EMU 100 160 5

Also used on peak-time weekday services on the Airedale and Wharfedale lines

Class 323 Northern Rail Class 323, 323224, Alderley Edge railway station (geograph 4524576).jpg EMU 90 140 17 Electrified routes in and out of Manchester Piccadilly:
  • Manchester Piccadilly–Alderley Edge/Crewe/Glossop/Hadfield/Hazel Grove/Macclesfield/Manchester Airport/Stoke-on-Trent/Manchester United Football Ground (selected matchdays only)
Class 333 333002 A Leeds.JPG EMU 100 160 16 2000
Class 333 Northern Rail Diagram.PNG


Future fleet[edit]

Class Image Type Top speed Number Routes operated Built
mph km/h
Class 319/3 319363 at Liverpool Lime Street (2).jpg EMU 100 161 3 Newly electrified routes (from December 2015):
  • Services between Manchester/Liverpool and Preston/Blackpool
    (exact services and frequency to be confirmed when the next franchise is awarded)

17 units have entered service so far with a further three units due to receive a repaint and refresh prior to entering service[40]



As of 2009, Northern Rail operated 471 stations; more than any other train operating company in the UK.[41] The number fell to 462 later in the same year[42] following closure of the Oldham Loop Line, and increased to 463 by 2013.[43] New stations include Buckshaw Parkway in 2011 and James Cook in 2014. As of 2013, trains operated by Northern Rail called at 526 stations.[43]


The depots used by Northern Rail are at:

  • Hull Botanic Gardens (BG)
  • Blackpool North LMD (BP)
  • Barrow-in-Furness (BW)
  • Carlisle Station (Overnight cleaning)
  • Heaton (Newcastle upon Tyne) (HT)
  • Neville Hill (Leeds) (NL)
  • Newton Heath (Manchester) (NH)
  • Sheffield Station (SM)
  • Workington (WK) (overnight cleaning for Cumbrian Coast)
  • Buxton (BX) (Overnight Cleaning Depot)
  • Allerton (AN)
Train Crew Depots
  • Leeds
  • York
  • Newcastle
  • Darlington (Driver only)
  • Middlesbrough (guard only)
  • Carlisle
  • Workington
  • Blackpool North
  • Liverpool Lime Street
  • Wigan Wallgate
  • Manchester Victoria
  • Manchester Piccadilly
  • Buxton
  • Sheffield
  • Skipton
  • Huddersfield
  • Harrogate
  • Hull Paragon
  • Barrow-in-Furness
  • Doncaster


Northern Rail operates a total of 102 Pacer trains, more than any other train operator in Britain. These were built on a low budget during the 1980s recession and the upper body is based on a Leyland National bus. Many passengers are unhappy with the ride quality of these trains, noting that they provide an uncomfortable ride, are very noisy when going around bends, and are far too small for the number of passengers travelling today.[44][45] One politician has even said they are not safe, but this was strongly denied by the company and the government.[46] High fares in non-PTE areas adds to criticism about what some called life-expired trains being used.[47]

Northern Rail has a tough approach on fare evasion, and has been known to take passengers to court for underpaying by a matter of pence even where the company has no concrete proof.[48] Northern Rail tried to prosecute one passenger who they claimed had tried to avoid paying part of his fare but the court case failed, costing Northern over £2,000 in legal fees.[49] The court case was believed to have failed as Northern requires some passengers to carry special tickets saying which station they boarded at and tried to use that as evidence of attempting to combat fare evasion by not having passengers paying for shorter journeys than they make.[49] However, any such requirement to force a passenger to produce a special ticket to prove where they boarded would be a breach of the National Rail Conditions of Carriage, to which both passengers and rail operators must adhere.[50]

Due to increased passenger numbers, Northern has installed new ticket machines at some stations. However, these do not sell the full range of tickets, for instance they do not sell Cheap Evening Returns,[51][52] so that in the evening passengers can pay double the fare that they need to pay for the journey they are making, if they purchase tickets from the machine. Northern Duo tickets are also unavailable from these machines and can be purchased only from an open ticket office or on the train.



  1. ^ Companies House extract company no 4619954 Northern Rail Limited
  2. ^ "Abellio Group Head Office" Group corporate website, Abellio, Utrecht, Netherlands, Undate. Retrieved 19 June 2015.
  3. ^ The Trans-Pennine Express rail franchise. Yorkshire & The Humber Transport Activist's Roundtable Briefing Note. October 2001.
  4. ^ "Serco-NedRailways Announced as Preferred Bidder for new Northern Rail Franchise" (PDF) (Press release). Strategic Rail Authority. 1 July 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009. 
  5. ^ "Rail Report No.62" (PDF). Mid Cheshire Rail Users Association. Christmas 2004. Retrieved 23 June 2009. 
  6. ^ Rail (492) (Peterborough). 21 July 2004. p. 14.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  7. ^ "Rail Report No.61" (PDF). Mid Cheshire Rail Users Association. Autumn 2004. 
  8. ^ a b "Northern Secures Two Year Franchise Extension" (Press release). Northern Rail. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Northern Rail granted franchise continuation". 10 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "Franchise Continuation for Northern Rail" (Press release). Northern Rail. 9 May 2012. 
  12. ^ "Contract News Update 14" (PDF) (Press release). Serco. 14 May 2012. 
  13. ^ "Railway plan puts new focus on passengers". Secretary of State for Transport statement 26 March 2013.
  14. ^ "Shortlist for Northern and TransPennine operators revealed" (Press release). Department for Transport. 19 August 2014. 
  15. ^ "Extra Leeds Nottingham Train Services Announced" (Press release). Northern Rail. 22 November 2006. 
  16. ^ "Northern Introduces New Nottingham-Leeds Service" (Press release). Northern Rail. 12 December 2008. 
  17. ^ "Celebrate The Curve As East Lancashire To Manchester Services Return" (Press release). Northern Rail. 14 May 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  18. ^ "Todmorden Curve". Northern Rail. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Oldham Loop rail line closure" (PDF). GMPTE information poster. Greater Manchester Passenger Transport Executive. September 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2009. 
  20. ^ "Northern Rail Wins Public Transport Operator of the Year" (Press release). Northern Rail. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 31 May 2008. The judges praised the company, which runs local and regional trains across the north of England, for its success in attracting 20% more passengers since it started in 2004. 
  21. ^ Performance figures, Northern Rail.
  22. ^ "New Northern Rail Franchise Signed" (PDF) (Press release). Strategic Rail Authority. 19 October 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2009. Retrieved 22 December 2008. 
  23. ^ "Rail performance results period 7". Network Rail. Retrieved 20 December 2013. 
  24. ^ Annual report 2012
  25. ^ Rail Magazine (551), 25 October 2006: 55  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ Angel Trains Leases 30 Class 158 Diesel Multiple Units to Northern Rail Northern News 19 March 2007
  27. ^ Rail Magazine (562), 28 March 2007: 17  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  28. ^ Rail Magazine (580), 5 December 2007: 12  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  29. ^ Rail Magazine (583), 16 January 2008: 45  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ Rail Magazine (606), 3 December 2008: 69  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  31. ^ Class 322
  32. ^
  33. ^
  34. ^ "Better Rail Services Between Liverpool Lime Street and Manchester Airport". Northern Rail. Retrieved 5 March 2015. 
  35. ^ "Bigger Trains and Changes Ahead For Cumbria's Coastal Rail Route". Northern Rail. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  36. ^ "Loco-hauled services to return to the Cumbrian coast". Railway Herald. Retrieved 9 January 2015. 
  37. ^ a b "Northern launches first regular direct service between Nottingham and Leeds for 25 years" (Press release). Northern Rail. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. 
  38. ^ "Yorkshire and Humber Route Utilisation Strategy Draft" (PDF). Network Rail. Retrieved 23 June 2009. 
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Northern Launches New Look Electric Trains". Northern Rail. Retrieved 12 February 2015. 
  41. ^ Better Rail Stations – Part B, Department for Transport, 2009
  42. ^ Action stations booklet, Network Rail, 2009
  43. ^ a b Transformation in Partnership – Northern Prospectus, Department for Transport, June 2014
  44. ^ "Pacer line users - RailUK Forums". Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  45. ^ "Pacer's or Roof??? - RailUK Forums". Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  46. ^ "MP says trains in area are 'unsafe'". Lancashire Evening Post (Preston). 17 February 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  47. ^ Siddle, John (2 January 2009). "Northern Rail, which runs the Southport to Manchester line, told to improve its services after announcing ticket price hikes". Southport Visiter. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  48. ^ "Law student gets £1,000 bill". Yorkshire Post (Leeds). 9 March 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  49. ^ a b Linton, Deborah (27 May 2011). "Commuter finally cleared over 50p train fare fraud after 11-month legal battle costing thousands". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  50. ^ "National Rail Conditions of Carriage" (PDF). National Rail. Retrieved 20 September 2011. 
  51. ^ "Northern Rail Self Service Ticket Machines". Retrieved 19 September 2011. 
  52. ^ "Offers - Cheap Evening Return (Greater Manchester area)". Northern Rail. 2 January 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2011. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Arriva Trains Northern
Regional Railways North East franchise
Operator of Northern franchise
Preceded by
First North Western
North West Regional Railways franchise