Jump to content

Northern Sea Route

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Map of the Arctic region showing the Northern Sea Route, in the context of the Northeast Passage, and Northwest Passage[1]

The Northern Sea Route (NSR) (Russian: Се́верный морско́й путь, romanizedSevernyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping route about 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi) long. The Northern Sea Route (NSR) is the shortest shipping route between the western part of Eurasia and the Asia-Pacific region.[2]

Administratively, the Northern Sea Route begins at the boundary between the Barents and Kara Seas (the Kara Strait) and ends in the Bering Strait (Cape Dezhnev). The NSR straddles the seas of the Arctic Ocean (Kara, Laptev, East Siberian and Chukchi Seas). [3]

The entire route lies in Arctic waters and within Russia's exclusive economic zone (EEZ), and is included in what has been called the Northeast Passage, analogous to Canada's Northwest Passage. The Northern Sea Route itself does not include the Barents Sea, and it therefore does not reach the Atlantic.[1][4][5]

The Northern Sea Route currently serves the Arctic ports and major rivers of Siberia by importing fuel, equipment, food and exporting timber and minerals. There are currently six major seaports located on the NSR route in the Arctic Zone of the Russian Federation: Sabetta, Dikson, Dudinka, Khatanga, Tiksi, and Pevek ports.[6] Some parts of the route are only free of ice for two months per year, but melting Arctic ice caps are likely to increase traffic and the commercial viability of the Northern Sea Route.[7][8] One study, for instance, projects "remarkable shifts in trade flows between Asia and Europe, diversion of trade within Europe, heavy shipping traffic in the Arctic and a substantial drop in Suez traffic. Projected shifts in trade also imply substantial pressure on an already threatened Arctic ecosystem".[9] At the same time, research conducted by the Center for Marine Research showed that exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations in the atmospheric air, sea waters, and bottom sediments, which could indicate the impact of economic activities at this stage of development of the NSR was not recorded.[10] [11]

Proponents of using the sea route for global trade claim that because it is considerably shorter than the existing sea routes from Asia to Europe, usage emits less CO2,[12] by cutting time at sea, and fuel consumption, by more than half. The distance from Murmansk (Russia) to Yokohama (Japan) through the Suez Canal is 12,840 nautical miles, but only 5,770 nautical miles through the Northern Sea Route. For the corporate players in bulk shipping of relatively low-value raw materials, cost savings for fuel are a crucial driver to explore the Northern Sea Route for commercial transits, more than delivery time, or environmental concerns. Sailing along the NSR can also help to reduce emission costs due to shorter distances. With the maritime industry joining the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) from 2024 and large freight companies receiving huge carbon bills, the savings on the EU ETS from reducing emissions could be in addition to the economic benefits for shippers.[13]


19th century[edit]

The route was first conquered by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld's Vega expedition with a single wintering in 1878–79.

20th century[edit]

The Northern Sea Route is one of several Arctic shipping routes. Since the mid-1930s the Northern Sea Route has been an officially managed and administered shipping route along the northern/Arctic coast of Russia. A convoy of seven brand new merchant vessels (900 DWT to 5,500 DWT) built for People's Republic of China but under Polish flag from Gdynia with the assistance of Soviet icebreakers reached port of Pevek (via Kara Gates, Vilkitsky, Dmitry Laptev and Sannikov Straits), two days of navigation before Bering Strait in 1956.[14] The administrative entity was sequentially updated, upgraded and renamed. Thus, in 2013, the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Administration of the Northern Sea Route” was created. In 2022 organizational authority  was transferred to the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route of Rosatom.[15]

21st century[edit]

Since 2008, the structure of Rosatom includes the Russian nuclear icebreaker fleet, which is the largest in the world with a container ship, four service vessels and seven nuclear-powered icebreakers (“Yamal”, "50 Let Pobedy", "Taymyr", "Vaygach", "Arctic", "Siberia" and "Ural"[16]).[17] The last three are the latest universal icebreakers of the 22220 project, and the world's only transport vessel with the Sevmorput nuclear power plant in operation.[18]

Beginning in the late 2010s, Russia began improving its defense resources near the Northern Sea Route.[19]

The Dutch Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis projected in 2015 that the Northern Sea Route may be ice-free by 2030, earlier than the Northwest Passage or Transpolar Sea Route.[20] A 2016 report by the Copenhagen Business School found that large-scale trans-Arctic shipping may become economically viable by 2040.[21][22] According to the report of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “AARI” “Forecast estimates of the state of sea ice in the period 2030–2050” ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean (AO) in the period 2030–2050 will change towards lighter temperatures, but only slightly compared to modern ones, since these years will be the phase of decreasing air temperature during the 74-year fluctuation. Scientists conclude that ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean in 2030–2050 are expected to be milder from August to October. There will be no seasonal loss of ice cover in the Arctic Ocean by 2050. Even in the “lightest” year, the Arctic seas will be ice-free only from August to October. For the period 2030–2050 there will be a phase of decreasing air temperature during the 74-year fluctuation, and ice conditions in the Arctic seas will be close to modern ones.[23]

Two-thirds of the Arctic seas remain ice-free in summer, that is why ships have more route options. In August 2017, the first ship traversed the Northern Sea Route without the use of icebreakers.[21] According to the New York Times, this foreshadows more shipping through the Arctic, as the sea ice melts and makes shipping easier.[21]

The Russian Maritime Register of Shipping maintains an ice class. The Rosneft corporation often contracts the Zvezda Shipyard to build its LNG carriers,[24] for use with the output of Trebsa field and Titova field.[citation needed] The Yamal LNG project of Novatek is another industrial scale development which transports product via the NSR.

In 2018 Maersk Line sent the new "ice-class" container ship Venta Maersk through the route to gather data on operational feasibility, though they did not currently see it as commercially attractive.[25][17] Escort assistance was required for three days from the Russian nuclear-powered icebreaker 50 Let Pobedy.[26][27]

In 2018 the Russian government transferred the main responsibility for the Northern Sea Route to Rosatom.[17][28]. Rosatom is a state corporation that manages the world's only nuclear icebreakers fleet with seven nuclear-powered icebreakers (Yamal, 50 Let Pobedy, Taymyr, Vaygach, Arctic, Siberia and Ural and the world's only transport vessel the Sevmorput with nuclear power plant in operation. The last three nuclear icebreakers are the latest universal icebreakers of the 22220 project. Rosatom also provides navigation and hydrographic support in the waters of the Northern Sea Route, develops the infrastructure of sea harbors, and manages the state property of these ports.[29]

In June 2019 DP World signed agreements with the Russian Direct Investment Fund, ROSATOM, and Norilsk Nickel aiming to develop the Northern Sea Route.[30]

As the Northern Sea Route is a strategically important transport artery, it can already be called economically profitable in comparison, for example, with the Suez Canal due to a number of reasons:

  • Fuel savings due to reduced distance;
  • The shorter distance reduces the cost of staff labor and chartering vessels;
  • The Northern Sea Route does not charge payments for the passage (unlike, for example, the Suez Canal);
  • There are no queues (unlike, for example, the Suez Canal);
  • There is no risk of a pirate attack.

As the development of the icebreaking fleet is the most important condition for constant navigation in Arctic waters, other two universal nuclear icebreakers of project 22220 are currently being built in St. Petersburg. They are Yakutiya (2024) and Chukotka (2026). These icebreakers will be universal, which means they will be able to change the draft from 10.5 to 8.1 meters, depending on the depth, which will allow them to work both at sea and in the mouths of Siberian rivers. The Chukotka class icebreakers will be powered by two RITM-200 reactors[19] and will be capable of overcoming ice up to 3 meters thick. At the same time, the 5th and 6th icebreakers of the 22220 project are planned to be constructed as well as 4 non-nuclear icebreakers to serve shippers' investment projects.

In addition, the Zvezda shipyard is working on the construction of the world's most powerful nuclear icebreaker project 10510 "Russia", scheduled to commissioning in 2027. It is also planned to build two more icebreakers of this prototype. These icebreakers will be equipped with a two-reactor power plant with RITM-400 reactors with a capacity of 315 MW. The maximum ice thickness overcome by these icebreakers will exceed 4 meters.[31]

It was reported in 2023 that Rosmorport, a state-owned agency of the Russian Ministry of Transport, has plans to run cruises for tourists in icebreakers along the entire Northern Sea Route between Murmansk and Vladivostok.[32]

Rosatom and the Atomflot[edit]

Rosatom is a state corporation that organizes the navigation of vessels in the waters of the NSR in accordance with the Merchant Shipping Code, manages a fleet of powerful nuclear icebreakers, ensures the safety and uninterrupted operation of navigation, provides port services for gas tankers in case of unfavorable weather conditions. Rosatom also provides navigation and hydrographic support in the waters of the Northern Sea Route, develops the infrastructure of sea harbors, and manages the state property of these ports.[33] For this purpose, the Directorate of the Northern Sea Route was formed, that now manages three subordinate organizations "Atomflot" (ROSATOMFLOT), "Hydrographic Enterprise" and "ChukotAtomEnergo".

Rosatom is a Legacy Member of the Arctic Economic Council, that’s why all the operations are aimed to establish economic well-being, environmental neutrality, and human capital development.


Recently, the "Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route" ("Glavsevmorput") was established on the basis of the Naval Operations Headquarters of FSUE “Atomflot”.[34] The main purpose of the creation of Glavsevmorput is to organize the navigation of vessels in the waters of the Northern Sea Route. Glavsevmorput Federal State Budgetary Institution solves the following tasks: ensuring the organization of icebreaking vessels taking into account the hydrometeorological, ice, and navigation conditions in the waters of the NSR; vessels navigation in the waters of the NSR; issuance, suspension, renewal, and termination of permits for sailing vessels in the waters of the NSR. To solve these tasks, the department arranges icebreaker fleet vessels in the waters of the NSR, monitors the traffic in the NSR water area, provides information on hydrometeorological, ice, and navigation conditions, and processes information from vessels located in the NSR water area.

Economic assessment[edit]

Researchers and economists usually compare the Northern Sea Route with the conventional Suez Canal Route. The first route is shorter, which allow to save on fuel, but it is connected with environmental risks and increased operating costs.[35] However, the above-mentioned research can be considered disputable and incomplete, as it does not consider such factors like the reduced length of the Northern Sea Route (comparing to the Suez Canal) and, therefore, reduced CO2 emissions; the absence of charge payments for the passage; no risks of a pirate attack; the reduced cost of journey due to its reduced length.[36]

Major shipping companies encounter substantial costs due to carbon emissions, whereas the deployment of nuclear icebreakers, which operate without hydrocarbon fuel and produce very low carbon emissions, offers an economic advantage for shippers.

Some studies recommend the joint usage of the two routes where the Northern Sea Route is used in summer when it is almost ice-free, and the Suez Canal Route is sailed in the rest of the year.[37] The researchers also claim that the economic feasibility of the NSR largely depends on its weather conditions.

Even though the Arctic ice is melting and Polar routes are being extensively studied, the amount of cargo shipped through the Northern Sea Route (NSR) remains low in comparison to the Suez Canal. Though, the cargo traffic is steadily growing every year. The research shows that the NSR-SCR combined shipping scheme can be more competitive than the use of the Suez Canal Route only. If the shipping company provides sufficient loading on the NSR, uses a reliable ice-class vessel for navigation and the price of crude oil is high, the economic advantage of the NSR-SCR combined shipping scheme is obvious. Ice thickness directly affects the shipping cost. Now, when the Arctic ice is slowly melting due to weather conditions, the cost of icebreaking service is expected to reduce. Also, vessels of some ice classes can sail on the NSR independently. That is why the NSR icebreaker escort fee may be several times lower than the SCR toll.[38]

State Corporation Rosatom assumes the possibility and functions of the NSR and ensures the safety of navigation on the high technological level. Besides organizing the navigation along the NSR and the icebreaking services with the world's only nuclear icebreaker fleet, Rosatom is planning to implement the Arctic Ice Regime Shipping System (AIRSS) methodology. This system will represent a digital space that will provide various services to cargo carriers, shipowners, captains, insurers, and other participants in the logistics market on the NSR. In particular, it involves issuing permits for the passage of vessels, monitoring, dispatching, and managing the work of the fleet. The single digital platform will collect information from all the available sources, for example, hydrometeorological data, the location of ships and icebreakers, port congestion. As a result, users will receive an advanced "ice navigator" that will allow to plot a precise route in view of the changing ice conditions of the NSR. In other words, the study of Sibul et al. proposed a path-finding algorithm for the NSR strategic assessment.[39] It uses real weather as input and find the optimal shipping route.[40]

Economic effects[edit]

Number of complete through transits per flag state.[41]

Year Total Russia Singapore Finland Norway Germany Spain China Greece Hong Kong Sweden Netherlands Portugal Other
2007 2 2
2008 3 3
2009 5 5
2010 10 10
2011 41 26 4 2 2 1 1 5
2012 46 18 6 5 2 15
2013 71 46 2 2 2 1 18
2014 53 47 3 3
2015 18 10 2 1 1 4
2016 18 7 1 2 8
2017 27 9 2 3 2 1 10
2018 27 8 1 7 1 1 2 6
2019 37
2020 64
2021 85 12 4 11 7 8 13 30
2022 43 36 7

The total traffic volume on the Northern Sea Route in 2022 was 34.034 million tonnes, slightly less than in 2021. Total number of voyages in 2022 was 2994, made by 314 vessels. In the months from January to July, the number of voyages was higher than in 2021. 280 voyages was made with LNG from the Sabetta port.[42]

In 2023, a record 35 million tonnes was transported, exceeding the 34.1 million tonne record of 2021.[43]

Environmental assessments[edit]

According to the Fourth IMO GHG Study 2020, sea cargo transportation is responsible for 2.9% of global emissions.[44] In the next 20 years the trading maritime volume is expected to double.[45] Marine transport produces about 1 gigaton of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per year and has been struggling for many years to reduce its environmental impact. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) has obliged sea carriers to reduce CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050.

Marine transport generates 14% of all transport emissions, and effective techniques that could replace marine engines powered by fossil fuels are not currently used, in the case of nuclear power, or still in modern era redevelopment, such as wind and solar power. [46] Due to its shorter length, navigation on the NSR contributes to reducing the carbon footprint of maritime transport, although this entails considerable risks for fragile Arctic ecosystems.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Brigham, L.; McCalla, R.; Cunningham, E.; Barr, W.; VanderZwaag, D.; Chircop, A.; Santos-Pedro, V.M.; MacDonald, R.; Harder, S.; Ellis, B.; Snyder, J.; Huntington, H.; Skjoldal, H.; Gold, M.; Williams, M.; Wojhan, T.; Williams, M.; Falkingham, J. (2009). Brigham, Lawson; Santos-Pedro, V.M.; Juurmaa, K. (eds.). Arctic marine shipping assessment (AMSA) (PDF). Norway: Protection of the Arctic Marine Environment (PAME), Arctic Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 1, 2014.
  2. ^ Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (2024-01-15). "Russia's Northern Sea Route emerges as key connectivity initiative in Indo-Pacific region". The Economic Times. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 2024-05-13.
  3. ^ "Northern Sea Route garnering attention as fast, efficient trade route". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2024-05-13.
  4. ^ Østreng, Willy; Eger, Karl Magnus; Fløistad, Brit; Jørgensen-Dahl, Arnfinn; Lothe, Lars; Mejlænder-Larsen, Morten; Wergeland, Tor (2013). Shipping in Arctic Waters: A Comparison of the Northeast, Northwest and Trans Polar Passages. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16790-4. ISBN 978-3642167898. S2CID 41481012.
  5. ^ Buixadé Farré, Albert; Stephenson, Scott R.; Chen, Linling; Czub, Michael; Dai, Ying; Demchev, Denis; Efimov, Yaroslav; Graczyk, Piotr; Grythe, Henrik; Keil, Kathrin; Kivekäs, Niku; Kumar, Naresh; Liu, Nengye; Matelenok, Igor; Myksvoll, Mari; O'Leary, Derek; Olsen, Julia; Pavithran .A.P., Sachin; Petersen, Edward; Raspotnik, Andreas; Ryzhov, Ivan; Solski, Jan; Suo, Lingling; Troein, Caroline; Valeeva, Vilena; van Rijckevorsel, Jaap; Wighting, Jonathan (October 16, 2014). "Commercial Arctic shipping through the Northeast Passage: Routes, resources, governance, technology, and infrastructure". Polar Geography. 37 (4): 298–324. Bibcode:2014PolGe..37..298B. doi:10.1080/1088937X.2014.965769.
  6. ^ Schislyaev, S. M.; Kovalenko, E. A.; Barykin*, S. E.; Schislyaeva, E. R. (2019-12-31). "International Logistics Northern Sea Rouite Hubs Infrastructure". European Proceedings of Social and Behavioural Sciences. Project Management in the Regions of Russia. doi:10.15405/epsbs.2019.12.05.123. ISSN 2357-1330.
  7. ^ Fountain, Henry (2017-07-23). "With More Ships in the Arctic, Fears of Disaster Rise". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-07-24.
  8. ^ McGrath, Matt (2017-08-24). "First tanker crosses northern sea route without ice breaker". BBC News. Retrieved 2017-08-24.
  9. ^ Bekkers, Eddy; Francois, Joseph F.; Rojas-Romagosa, Hugo (2016-12-01). "Melting Ice Caps and the Economic Impact of Opening the Northern Sea Route" (PDF). The Economic Journal. 128 (610): 1095–1127. doi:10.1111/ecoj.12460. ISSN 1468-0297. S2CID 55162828.
  10. ^ "14 Temmuz 2022 - MERSİN". interpress.com. Retrieved 2024-05-15.
  11. ^ "Rosatom and DP World discuss the Northern Sea Route's role in supply chain sustainability at Expo 2020". www.zawya.com. Retrieved 2024-05-15.
  12. ^ Schøyen, H., & Bråthen, S. (2011) Archived 21 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Northern Sea Route versus the Suez Canal: cases from bulk shipping. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(4), 977–983
  13. ^ "Red Sea Crisis Could Lead to a Fundamental Restructuring of Global Trade Patterns". EconoTimes. 2024-03-17. Retrieved 2024-05-22.
  14. ^ Bugajski, Dariusz R. (2021). Navigational rights and freedoms in the international law and practice. Akademia Marynarki Wojennej. p. 146. ISBN 978-83-961549-1-0. OCLC 1267382284.
  15. ^ "The Cabinet of Ministers approved the creation of the main directorate of the Northern Sea Route". AKM EN. 2022-08-01. Retrieved 2024-06-03.
  16. ^ Строительство ледокола «Арктика» завершится в 2020 году = The construction of the Arctic icebreaker will be completed in 2020 // Рамблер. Дата обращения: 28 апреля 2019. Архивировано 28 апреля 2019 года.
  17. ^ a b c Henderson, Isaiah (July 18, 2019). "Cold Ambition: The New Geopolitical Faultline". The California Review. Retrieved July 18, 2019.
  18. ^ Manaranche, Martin (2020-05-04)."Russia Signs Contract to Build World's Largest Nuclear-Powered Icebreaker". Naval News. Retrieved 2021-12-23.
  19. ^ a b "Russia Ramps Up Arctic Route Ambitions". The Moscow Times. 5 December 2023. Archived from the original on 6 December 2023. Retrieved 5 December 2023.
  20. ^ Dams, Ties; van Schaik, Louise; Stoetman, Adája (2020). Presence before power: why China became a near-Arctic state (Report). Clingendael Institute. pp. 6–19. JSTOR resrep24677.5.
  21. ^ a b c Goldman, Russell (2017-08-25). "Russian Tanker Completes Arctic Passage Without Aid of Icebreakers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-08-26.
  22. ^ Arctic shipping - Commercial opportunities and challenges (PDF). Copenhangen Business School Maritime. January 2016. ISBN 978-87-93262-03-4.
  23. ^ "Icebreakers Still Needed In This Era Of Global Warming To Keep Northern Sea Route Open In The Winter Months". Times Now. 2023-08-27. Retrieved 2024-06-03.
  24. ^ "Ice-Class Shuttle Tanker «Valentin Pikul» Has Been Laid Down at Zvezda Shipbuilding Complex".
  25. ^ "Container ship to break the ice on Russian Arctic route". BBC News. 23 August 2018. Retrieved 23 August 2018.
  26. ^ Embury-Dennis, Tom (2017-09-18). "Container ship crosses Arctic route for first time in history due to melting sea ice". The Independent. ISSN 0951-9467. Archived from the original on 2022-06-21. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  27. ^ Humpert, Malte (2017-09-14). "Maersk Container Ship Transits Arctic Ocean With Icebreaker Escort". High North News. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  28. ^ Nilsen, Thomas (2018-07-18). "Vyacheslav Ruksha will lead the newly established Northern Sea Route Directorate". The Barents Observer.
  29. ^ Dangwal, Ashish (2024-05-21). "World's 'Most Powerful' Nuclear Icebreaker 'Rossiya' To Be Ready By 2030, Russian Deputy PM Says". Latest Asian, Middle-East, EurAsian, Indian News. Retrieved 2024-06-06.
  30. ^ "Russian vessel successes transmit through NSR". 30 September 2019.
  31. ^ Реакторная установка для атомохода Лидер. Какой она будет? = Reactor plant for the nuclear-powered “Leader”. What will it be like? Дата обращения: 29 октября 2021. Архивировано 29 октября 2021 года.
  32. ^ "Old icebreakers eye upgrades for Murmansk-Vladivostok tourism". The Barents Observer. 2023-03-07. Retrieved 2023-03-07.
  33. ^ Путин назначил «Росатом» инфраструктурным оператором Северного морского пути = Rosatom as the infrastructure operator of the Northern Sea Route // Коммерсантъ (28 декабря 2018). Дата обращения: 27 июля 2019. Архивировано 27 июля 2019 года.
  34. ^ Администрация Северного морского пути на официальном сайте Федерального агентства морского и речного транспорта = Administration of the Northern Sea Route on the official website of the Federal Agency for Sea and River Transport
  35. ^ THE NORTHERN SEA ROUTE COST CALCULATION [EN/RUS/CH], 4 April 2021, archived from the original on 2021-12-21, retrieved 2021-05-14
  36. ^ Lepic, Bojan (2023-09-18). "Milestones reached along the increasingly busy Northern Sea Route". Splash247. Retrieved 2024-06-06.
  37. ^ Sibul, Gleb; Jin, Jian Gang (May 2021). "Evaluating the feasibility of combined use of the Northern Sea Route and the Suez Canal Route considering ice parameters". Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 147: 350–369. doi:10.1016/j.tra.2021.03.024. ISSN 0965-8564. S2CID 233567189.
  38. ^ Sibul, Gleb, Jian Gang Jin. Evaluating the feasibility of combined use of the Northern Sea Route and the Suez Canal Route considering ice parameters // Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. — 2021. — № 147. — pp. 350-369
  39. ^ Sibul, Gleb; Yang, Peihao; Muravev, Dmitri; Jin, Jian Gang; Kong, Linghe (2022-04-14). "Revealing the true navigability of the Northern Sea Route from ice conditions and weather observations". Maritime Policy & Management. 50 (7): 924–940. doi:10.1080/03088839.2022.2059717. ISSN 0308-8839. S2CID 248211083.
  40. ^ THE NORTHERN SEA ROUTE NAVIGABILITY [EN/RUS/CH], 15 April 2022, retrieved 2022-05-05
  41. ^ "NSR transit statistics". Centre for high north logistics. Retrieved 2020-12-14.
  42. ^ Center for High North Logistics: NSR Shipping activities in 2022
  43. ^ "Nuclear icebreakers help Northern Sea Route to record year". World Nuclear News. 5 January 2024. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  44. ^ IMO, International Maritime Organization.Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The Fourth IMO GHG Study (2020) Archived 2023-03-08 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved December 9, 2022
  45. ^ Gareth, Evans.A world afloat: why seaborne trade will double before 2030 Archived 2022-12-12 at the Wayback Machine // Ship Technology. — 2013.
  46. ^ European Commission.Reducing emissions from the shipping sector: research (2022), retrieved December 9, 2022

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]