Downtown Northfield, September 2010
|Motto: "Striving For Excellence Committed To Service"|
Location of the city of Northfield
within Rice and Dakota Counties
in the state of Minnesota
|• Mayor||Rhonda Pownell|
|• Total||8.61 sq mi (22.30 km2)|
|• Land||8.56 sq mi (22.17 km2)|
|• Water||0.05 sq mi (0.13 km2) 0.58%|
|Elevation||912 ft (278 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||20,445|
|• Density||2,300/sq mi (900/km2)|
|Time zone||Central (UTC-6)|
|• Summer (DST)||Central (UTC-5)|
|GNIS feature ID||0648725|
|Website||City of Northfield|
Northfield is a city in Dakota and Rice counties in the State of Minnesota. The city is mostly in Rice County, with a small portion in Dakota County. The population was 20,007 during the 2010 census.
Northfield was platted in 1856 by John W. North. Northfield was founded by immigrants from New England known as "Yankees" as part of a New England colonization of what was then the far west. Northfield was an early agricultural center with many wheat and corn farms. The town also supported lumber and flour mills powered by the Cannon River. As the "wheat frontier" moved west, dairy operations and diversified farms replaced the wheat-based agriculture. The region has since moved away from dairy and beef operations. Today it produces substantial crops of corn, and soybeans, as well as producing hogs. The local cereal producer Malt-O-Meal is one of the few remnants of Northfield's historic wheat boom. The city's motto, "Cows, Colleges, and Contentment", reflects the influence of the dairy farms as well as its two liberal arts colleges.
Since early in its history, Northfield has been a center of higher education. Carleton College (then Northfield College) was founded in 1866 on the northern edge of town by the Minnesota Conference of Congregational Churches whose Congregation consisted of the "Yankee" settlers who had largely founded the town. These were people descended from the English Puritans who settled New England in the 1600s. St. Olaf College was founded in 1874 on the western edge of town by Norwegian Lutheran immigrant pastors and farmers, who were eager to preserve their faith and culture by training teachers and preachers. These two institutions, which today enroll a total of more than 5,000 students, make Northfield a college town.
In the 1970s, completion of Interstate Highway 35 six miles west of Northfield enabled the expansion of the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metro area south of the Minnesota River. The downtown grain elevator accepted its last load of corn in 2000 and was torn down in 2002. Residential growth has been rapid since the mid-1990s A new area hospital, which opened in 2003 in the northwest corner of town, is in Dakota County.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.61 square miles (22.30 km2); 8.56 square miles (22.17 km2) is land and 0.05 square miles (0.13 km2) is water. The peak elevation is about 912 feet.
Roughly speaking, the town is centered around the Cannon River and rises both to the east and the west away from this bisecting river body.
|U.S. Decennial Census
As of the census of 2010, there were 20,007 people, 6,272 households, and 3,946 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,337.3 inhabitants per square mile (902.4/km2). There were 6,832 housing units at an average density of 798.1 per square mile (308.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 88.8% White, 1.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 3.5% Asian, 4.0% from other races, and 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.4% of the population.
There were 6,272 households of which 32.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 37.1% were non-families. 30.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.04.
The median age in the city was 26.4 years. 19.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 29% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 19.1% were from 25 to 44; 20.1% were from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.4% male and 52.6% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 17,147 people, 4,909 households, and 3,210 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,452.2 people per square mile (947.1/km²). There were 5,119 housing units at an average density of 732.1 per square mile (282.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 92.57% White, 0.90% African American, 0.34% Native American, 2.36% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 1.78% from other races, and 1.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.73% of the population.
There were 4,909 households out of which 35.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the city, the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 32.1% from 18 to 24 (a figure heavily influenced by the student population of St. Olaf and Carleton College), 21.0% from 25 to 44, 16.1% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females there were 91.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.7 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $49,972, and the median income for a family was $61,055. Males had a median income of $40,008 versus $28,456 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,619. About 2.8% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.3% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
Early in the city's history, local merchants created a small town square between Fourth Street to the north, Division Street to the east, the Cannon River to the west, and the southern storefronts. The old Ames Mill/Malt-O-Meal plant was also nearby, originally powered by the dam on the river. Bridge Square and the surrounding downtown area remain a strong cultural attraction for the city. The square has several amenities including a large fountain, a memorial statue, and a concession stand known as "the popcorn wagon" run by the senior center. Several scenic walkways follow the river, and numerous shops and boutiques can be found on the neighboring streets.
Businesses serving the growing senior citizen community of Northfield have expanded to include the Northfield Senior Center (warm water pool, fitness studio, meeting rooms, fitness center, dining program, art classes, computer lab), the Village on the Cannon, Millstream Commons, and new construction at the Northfield Retirement Center complex. The northern edge of the city has also been expanding with several residential and commercial developments.
Jesse James' and the James-Younger Gang's 1876 attempt to rob the First National Bank of Northfield serves as a heritage tourism draw for the town. The original bank building was converted to a museum operated by the Northfield Historical Society. The First National Bank of Northfield operates from a main office built half a block away from the historic site. In its front lobby, a glass case showcases a gun used during the robbery.
The Northfield Convention and Visitors Bureau provides comprehensive tourism information and visit planning services.
Arts and culture
Defeat of Jesse James Days
On September 7, 1876, Northfield experienced one of its most important historical events, when The James-Younger Gang attempted a robbery on the First National Bank of Northfield. Local citizens, recognizing what was happening, armed themselves and resisted the robbers and successfully thwarted the theft. The gang killed the bank's cashier, Joseph Lee Heywood and a Swedish immigrant, Nicholas Gustafson. A couple of members of the gang were killed in the street, while Cole, Bob and Jim Younger were cornered near Madelia, Minnesota. Jesse and Frank James escaped west into the Dakotas, while the remaining gang members were killed or taken into custody. Considering the James gang as related to postwar insurgency, the raid has sometimes been called the last major event of the American Civil War. One of Northfield's slogans is "Jesse James Slipped Here", based on the raid's failure.
The events have become the basis of an annual outdoor heritage festival called The Defeat of Jesse James Days. It is held the weekend after Labor Day and is among the largest outdoor celebrations in Minnesota. Thousands of visitors witness reenactments of the robbery, which is staged on Division street, outside of the First National Bank of Northfield. Other activities during the festival include: a championship rodeo, carnival, car show, and parade, as well as arts and crafts expositions, and musical performances. Many food stations are set up in Bridge Square, and during the evenings live music is played in a "beer tent" on Water Street. A horseshoe hunt takes place the week prior to the celebration; an antique horseshoe is hidden somewhere within the city on public grounds and the finder claims that year's cash purse.
In popular media
- Films based on the failed raid include The Great Northfield Minnesota Raid (1972) and The Long Riders (1980).
Park and recreation
The Carleton College Cowling Arboretum is a sizable, well-established arboretum and nature preserve adjacent to and owned by Carleton College. It offers extensive trails for walking in the summer and cross-country skiing in the winter.
Government and politics
The Northfield Public School district operates three elementary schools, a middle school, a high school, and an alternative learning center. In addition, Northfield has public charter schools: Arcadia (grades 6–12) and Prairie Creek Community School (grades K–5) in nearby Castle Rock. They receive state funding from the State of Minnesota.
- Peter Agre (born January 30, 1949), Nobel laureate in chemistry
- Adelbert Ames (October 31, 1835 – April 13, 1933), Civilian Governor of Mississippi during Reconstruction Era
- Cyril Archibald (1837 – April 13, 1914), member of Canadian Parliament
- Ian Barbour (October 5, 1923 – December 24, 2013), winner of 1999 Templeton Prize
- Steven Brust (born November 23, 1955), author and musician
- Lincoln Child (born 1957), author
- F. Melius Christiansen (April 1, 1871 – June 1, 1955), pioneer of 'a cappella' choral music
- Michael Dorris (January 30, 1945 – April 10, 1997), author
- Corrie Erickson (born 1981), Artist
- Joan N. Ericksen (born 1954), a Federal judge
- Laurence McKinley Gould (August 22, 1896 – June 21, 1995), geologist, educator, polar explorer.
- Joel Heatwole (August 22, 1856 – April 4, 1910), member of U.S. House of Representatives
- Lucius Roy Holbrook (April 30, 1875 – October 19, 1952), U.S. Army major general
- Alexandra Holden (born April 30, 1977), actress
- Siri Hustvedt (born February 19, 1955), author, poet, and essayist
- Karl Rolvaag (July 18, 1913 – December 20, 1990), governor of Minnesota
- Ole Edvart Rølvaag (April 22, 1876 – November 5, 1931), author
- Gilmore Schjeldahl (June 1, 1912 – March 10, 2002), inventor and entrepreneur
- Peter Schjeldahl (born March 20, 1942), art critic and writer
- Marilyn Sellars (born 1944), country music singer
- Chad Setterstrom (born June 13, 1980), professional football player
- Mark Setterstrom (born March 3, 1984), professional football player
- Edward Sovik (June 9, 1918 – May 4, 2014), noted architect, liturgist
- Steve Strachan (born January 26, 1965), Former Member of the Minnesota House of Representatives, Former Sheriff of King County, Washington
- Edward John Thye (April 26, 1896 – August 28, 1969), governor of Minnesota, and U.S. Senator
- Thorstein Veblen (July 30, 1857 – August 3, 1929), notable economist and sociologist
- Paul Wellstone (July 21, 1944 – October 25, 2002), U.S. Senator
- Jon Wee (born 1965?), professional juggler
- Johnny Western (born October 28, 1934), singer-songwriter, actor, radio host
- Charles Augustus Wheaton (July 1, 1809, - March 14, 1882), major figure in the abolitionist movement and Underground Railroad
- Ida Belle Clary Wilcox (August 6, 1850 – January 26, 1928), was a missionary honoured by South Africa in 2009.
- Jerome J. Workman, Jr. (born on August 6, 1952), American spectroscopist, editor, author
- "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- "Minnesota HomeTownLocator". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 13, 2012.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- "2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File". American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
- Upham, Warren (1920). Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 463.
- Fedo, Michael (2002). Pocket Guide to Minnesota Place Names. Canada: Minnesota Historical Society Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-87351-424-6.
- The Minds of the West: Ethnocultural Evolution in the Rural Middle West, 1830-1917 page 339
- The expansion of New England: the spread of New England settlement and institutions to the Mississippi River, 1620-1865
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- "Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 13, 2016.
- "Raid by robbers". The Worthington Advance. Worthington, Minnesota. September 14, 1876. Retrieved September 9, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "The Defeat of Jesse James Days Celebration". DJJD Committee, Inc. 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2007.
- "Horse Shoe Hunt - Defeat of Jesse James Days". Djjd.org. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
- "Parks". Streets, Parks and Facilities Division. City of Northfield. 2008. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
- "Mayor Rhonda Pownell". City of Northfield. Retrieved January 29, 2017.
- Cohn, Jacob (January 25, 2013). "Professor Cherif Keita’s Documentary Film "Cemetery Stories" Links South Africa to Northfield". Carleton College. Retrieved August 1, 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Northfield, Minnesota.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Northfield, Minnesota.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article about Northfield, Minnesota.|
- City of Northfield, MN – Official site
- Northfield Convention and Visitors Bureau – Visitor Information
- Northfield History Collaborative
- James-Younger Gang photos at the Minnesota Historical Society
- Northfield photos at the Minnesota Historical Society
- Northfield, Minnesota at DMOZ
- The Defeat of Jesse James Days Celebration