Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law
Northwestern University seal.svg
MottoQuaecumque sunt vera (Latin)

Ὁ Λόγος πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας - Ho logos pleres charitos khoe aletheias (Greek)
Whatsoever things are true (Philippians 4:8 AV)

The word full of grace and truth (Gospel of John 1:14)
Established1859 (as law department of the Old University of Chicago)

1873 (as Union College of Law)
1891 (as Northwestern University School of Law)

2015 (current name)
School typePrivate law school
Parent endowmentUS $10.19 billion
DeanHari M. Osofsky
LocationChicago, Illinois, U.S.
41°53′47″N 87°37′03″W / 41.8963°N 87.6174°W / 41.8963; -87.6174Coordinates: 41°53′47″N 87°37′03″W / 41.8963°N 87.6174°W / 41.8963; -87.6174
Enrollment658[1]
Faculty190[1]
USNWR ranking13th (2023)[1]
Bar pass rate92% (2017)[1]
Websitelaw.northwestern.edu
ABA profileNorthwestern Law Profile
Northwestern-Pritzker-School-of-Law.svg

Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law[2] is the law school of Northwestern University, a private research university. It is located on the university's Chicago campus. Northwestern Law has been ranked among the top 14, or "T14" law schools, since U.S. News & World Report began publishing its annual rankings.[3]

Founded in 1859, it was the first law school established in Chicago. Notable alumni include Arthur Goldberg, United States Supreme Court justice; Adlai Stevenson, governor of Illinois, cabinet secretary, and Democratic presidential candidate;[4] John Paul Stevens, United States Supreme Court justice;[5] Newton Minow, former chairman of the FCC;[6] and Harold Washington, the first black Mayor of Chicago (1983–87) and, previously, a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.[7]

History[edit]

Founded in 1859, the school that would become known as the Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law was the first law school established in the city of Chicago. The school was originally the law department of the Old University of Chicago under the founding direction of Henry Booth[8] and enrolled twenty-three students. The law school became Union College of Law when it jointly affiliated with Northwestern University in 1873.[9] In 1891, the law school formally became Northwestern University School of Law when Northwestern assumed total control. Throughout the 20th century, programs such as the JD-MBA and JD-PhD were added to maintain the law school's position as one of America's top-ranked schools of law. In October 2015, it was named, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law, after J.B. Pritzker and his wife, M.K. Pritzker, gave $100 million to the law school.[10]

Campus[edit]

The modernist Rubloff Building is part of the law school section of Northwestern's Chicago campus and overlooks Lake Michigan. To its west in the foreground are partial views of the original law school buildings designed by James Gamble Rogers in the 1920s

Northwestern Law is located on Northwestern University's downtown campus in Chicago's Streeterville/Gold Coast neighborhood. The law school is on Lake Shore Drive and Chicago Avenue, adjacent to Lake Shore Park and Lake Michigan, and a few blocks from the John Hancock Center, Magnificent Mile, Water Tower, Oak Street Beach, and Navy Pier.

The law school's location in the heart of downtown Chicago provides a wealth of part-time employment options for students while in school and a setting in which to study law. The proximity to courts, commerce, and public interest activities enables students to experience the practice of law, as well as its theory.

Entrance to Levy Meyer Hall

Admissions[edit]

Admission to Northwestern Law is extremely selective. For the class entering in the fall of 2021, 1,031 out of 7,410 (13.9%) were offered admission, with 234 matriculating.[11] The 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2021 entering class were 167 and 172, respectively, with a median of 171.[12] The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.60 and 3.93, respectively, with a median of 3.86.[12]

The law school's practical philosophy is manifested in a strong preference for applicants with at least two years of work experience. Approximately 90% of the school's students enter with at least one year of full-time work experience; 70% possess more than two years of experience.[13]

Employment[edit]

According to U.S. News & World Report's 2017 Edition, 79% of the law school's 2016 graduates obtained prospective, full-time employment prior to graduation, with a median starting salary of $180,000.[1] According to Northwestern's official 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 91% of the Class of 2015 obtained full-time, long-term employment nine months after graduation.[14] Northwestern's Law School Transparency under-employment score is 4.4%, indicating the percentage of the Class of 2018 unemployed, pursuing an additional degree, or working in a non-professional, short-term, or part-time job nine months after graduation.[15]

Northwestern Law is well-established among BigLaw firms (defined as firms with 150 or more associates). In Vault's 2016 survey,[16] of over 15,000 BigLaw associates, Northwestern Law ranked #2 as a "feeder" school for BigLaw firms, after accounting for school size. According to Vault, Northwestern Law outperforms its expected BigLaw representation by 315%.

The law school enrolls approximately 985 students in its J.D., LL.M., S.J.D. and M.S.L. (Master of Science in Law) programs. The school employs an interdisciplinary research faculty, and has a low student-faculty ratio. According to Northwestern's 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 93% of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term employment nine months after graduation.[14]

Costs[edit]

The total cost of attendance (indicating the cost of tuition, fees, living expenses, books, and other miscellaneous expenses) at Northwestern Law for the 2015-2016 academic year is $79,904.[1] The Law School Transparency estimated debt-financed cost of attendance for three years is $292,586.[17]

2015-16 Expenses[12]
Category Per Annum
Tuition and Fees $58,398
Room and board $14,040
Books $1,418
Miscellaneous expenses $6,048
Total $79,904
Levy Mayer Hall

Journals[edit]

Northwestern Law sponsors six student-run scholarly legal journals. Student staff members are selected based on a writing competition, editing competition, and first-year grades, or a publishable note or comment on a legal topic.[18]

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business[edit]

The Journal of International Law and Business has a substantive focus on private international law, as opposed to public international law or human rights. It seeks scholarship analyzing transnational and international legal problems and their effect on private entities. The Journal's stated goal is to promote an understanding of the future course of international legal developments as they relate to private entities.[19]

Northwestern University Law Review[edit]

The Northwestern University Law Review was first published in 1906 when it was called the "Illinois Law Review." Prior editors include: Roscoe Pound, long-time dean of Harvard Law School; Judge Robert A. Sprecher of the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit; US Supreme Court Justice John Paul Stevens; Dean James A. Rahl; Illinois Governor Daniel Walker; and former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission Newton N. Minow; US Supreme Court Justice Arthur Goldberg and Presidential Candidate Adlai Stevenson.

Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property[edit]

The Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property addresses subjects relating to law at the intersection of technology and intellectual property, including law and biotechnology, copyrights, the Internet, media, patents, telecommunications, and trademarks.

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology[edit]

The School states that its Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology "is one of the most widely read and widely cited publications in the world".[20] It is the second most widely subscribed journal published by any law school in the country.[20] It is one of the most widely circulated law journals in the country.[20] The journal was founded in 1910 by Dean John Henry Wigmore.[21]

Journal of Law and Social Policy[edit]

The Journal of Law and Social Policy is an interdisciplinary journal that explores the impact of the law on different aspects of society. Topics covered include race, gender, sexual orientation, housing, immigration, health care, juvenile justice, voting rights, family law, civil rights, poverty, the environment, and privacy rights.[22]

Journal of Human Rights[edit]

The Journal of Human Rights is an interdisciplinary journal dedicated to providing a dynamic forum for the discussion of human rights issues and law.[23] The Journal seeks contributions from professionals, scholars, and experienced field workers of every background, including but not limited to law, business, political science, public policy, economics, sociology, religion, and international relations. In addition to publication, the Journal seeks to promote the discussion of human rights law by organizing semi-annual Symposia and a Speaker Series. The Journal of Human Rights was founded in 2003 as the Journal of International Human Rights, but adopted its present name in 2016 to better reflect its focus.

Pritzker Legal Research Center[edit]

The Pritzker Legal Research Center is home to more than 829,974 books, journals, and other publications.[24]

The Pritzker Legal Research Center is the library, and fulfills the research and information needs of the faculty and students of Northwestern Law. The Center is named after the Pritzker family, a philanthropic Chicago family. Jay A. Pritzker (1922-1999) graduated from Northwestern University in 1941 and Northwestern University School of Law in 1947.

Bluhm Legal Clinic[edit]

Clinical education at Northwestern dates back to the law school's beginnings. An innovative program developed by Dean John Henry Wigmore in 1910 with the Chicago Legal Aid Society evolved into the Legal Clinic, which opened its doors in 1969 with only two staff attorneys. In 2000, the Clinic was named for Northwestern University trustee and alum Neil Bluhm. Today, the Bluhm Legal Clinic houses more than 20 clinics within 14 centers and is widely recognized as one of the most comprehensive and effective clinical programs in the country. Through the law school's clinical program, students gain direct experience representing clients and fine-tune their skills as advocates. They also work with clinical faculty and staff to challenge the fairness of our legal institutions and to propose solutions for reform. From 2000 to 2013, its director was Steven Drizin.

Center on Wrongful Convictions[edit]

The Center on Wrongful Convictions[25] (CWC) is dedicated to identifying and rectifying wrongful convictions. The Center investigates possible wrongful convictions and represents imprisoned clients with claims of actual innocence. It also focuses on raising public awareness of the prevalence, causes, and social costs of wrongful convictions and promoting reform of the criminal justice system. Faculty member Prof Steven Drizin founded the sister project to this Center which is specifically aimed at juvenile convicts; Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth.

Appellate Advocacy Center[edit]

Established in 2006, the Appellate Advocacy Center includes the Federal Appellate Clinic and the Supreme Court Clinic, along with a moot program for practitioners. The Appellate Advocacy Center is directed by Xiao Wang.[26]

Federal Appellate Clinic[edit]

In the Federal Appellate Clinic, students research and brief cases in federal appellate courts across the country. In certain instances, where a case involves significant federal issues or interests, students will also participate in state appellate court work. Clinic cases generally focus on immigration, qualified immunity, and criminal sentencing and post-conviction issues, although other topics and matters are covered as well. Where possible, Clinic students participate in oral argument before a United States court of appeals.[27]

Supreme Court Clinic[edit]

In the Supreme Court Clinic, students work with attorneys at Sidley Austin to draft certiorari, merits, and amicus briefs before the Supreme Court.[28] Sidley attorneys Carter Phillips and Jeffrey Green co-direct the Supreme Court Clinic.

The Clinic works on a variety of legal matters. During any given year, the Clinic will file briefs in cases concerning international law, tribal law, sentencing, criminal procedure, habeas, and the First Amendment.[29] The Clinic frequently collaborates with state and federal public defenders. The Clinic also works with nonprofit organizations, including the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers. In fall 2021, the Clinic partnered with Northwestern's Center for International Human Rights, Amnesty International, Global Justice Center, and Human Rights Watch to file an amicus brief in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, asserting that Mississippi's abortion ban was inconsistent with international law.[30]

Children and Family Justice Center[edit]

The Children and Family Justice Center represents young people on matters of delinquency and crime, family violence, school discipline, health and disability, and immigration and asylum.[31] Attorneys, a social worker, and affiliated professionals help second- and third-year law students meet with clients, research legal issues, learn pretrial investigation, interviewing, and counseling skills, and litigate cases.

MacArthur Justice Center[edit]

The MacArthur Justice Center focuses its work on police misconduct, wrongful detention compensation, post-9/11 work, and other public interest and civil rights issues. Of particular note is the Guantanamo Bay detainee representation led by Joseph Margulies, author of Guantanamo and the Abuse of Presidential Power and lead counsel in Rasul v. Bush.

Donald Pritzker Entrepreneurship Law Center[edit]

The Donald Pritzker Entrepreneurship Law Center (DPELC),[32] founded as the Small Business Opportunity Center (SBOC), is a transactional clinic that was founded in 1998. Clients include technology executives, consultants, inventors, manufacturers and sellers of consumer products, musical groups, and persons interested in establishing nonprofit organizations.

The Center is also heavily involved in teaching in the field of entrepreneurship law, and hosts symposia and conferences to facilitate that endeavor.

Center for International Human Rights[edit]

The Center for International Human Rights works to advance human rights while enabling students to test and refine their academic learning in real cases. Stressing a comprehensive interdisciplinary approach, the center provides policy perspectives to the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the U.S. Department of State, foreign governments, and nongovernmental organizations. Over the years faculty and staff working in the center have addressed, among other matters, the role of the International Criminal Court, international terrorism, U.S. death penalty laws, truth commissions, economic rights, NATO's humanitarian intervention, and political asylum cases. Students have investigated cases and had summer internships in Guatemala, Indonesia, and at the U.N. Human Rights Centre in Geneva.

The Center also offers students an opportunity to earn an LLM in Human Rights. The degree program is designed for students from transitional democracies and for those with career interests in international human rights law.

Investor Protection Center[edit]

The Investor Protection Center provides assistance to investors with limited income or small dollar claims who are unable to obtain legal representation. Law students, under the supervision of faculty attorneys, represent customers in handling their disputes with broker-dealers.

During the last few years, the (Financial Industry Regulatory Authority)(FINRA) and other organizations have taken steps to make more information and services available to investors. Northwestern Law's Investor Protection Center operates with the aid of grants from the FINRA Investor Education Foundation and other organizations to focus on priority areas. In particular, the Center is focused on helping to meet the needs of women, novice investors, and the elderly, in connection with securities arbitration.

Fred Bartlit Center for Trial Advocacy[edit]

Named in honor of an innovative leader[33] in litigation and business strategies, the Fred Bartlit Center for Trial Advocacy was established in 1999 to conduct research and teach innovative and technologically advanced trial strategy. The Bartlit Center focuses on changes in trial craft brought on by new technologies and compensation approaches.

The Bartlit Center sponsors and conducts academic research on the litigation process; support teaching skills in the JD program; and holds national conferences to explore and teach innovative trial and trial management strategies. The Bartlit Center works to complement the law school's program in simulation-based teaching of trial skills and builds on the research produced by Northwestern Law faculty.

Buildings gallery[edit]

Rankings and honors[edit]

The 2021 edition of U.S. News & World Report Best Grad Schools[34] ranked Northwestern Law:
  • 9th in the country Overall
The Above the Law 2019 law school rankings [35] ranked Northwestern Law:
  • 4th in the country Overall
Leiter's Law School Rankings placed the law school:
  • 5th in Percentage of Federal Appellate Clerkships for 2008–2009
  • 6th in Success Rate of Graduates on the Teaching Market 2006-2008
  • 9th in Student Quality
  • 10th in Total Supreme Court Clerks for 2000-2007 terms
  • 11th for Largest Gross Endowment[36]
The Princeton Review (2007)[37] placed the law school:
  • 1st for Best Career Prospects
  • 7th for Toughest to Get Into
  • 9th for Best Quality of Life
  • 10th for Best Overall Academic Experience
Judging the Law Schools (2009)[38] ranked the law school:
  • 7th in the country Overall
The 2010 National Law Journal "Go-To Schools" list[39] ranked Northwestern Law:
  • 1st for Percentage of Graduates Hired by NLJ250 Firms

Notable faculty[edit]

The 2016 student/faculty ratio was 6.5 to 1.[1]

Notable Northwestern Law faculty, past and present, include:

Popular media[edit]

  • The Chicago Code was substantially filmed on the Northwestern Law campus in Chicago.[40] This television drama premiered on Fox on February 7, 2011.[41] Filming at Northwestern Law began in August 2010.[40] Classrooms in the law school are depicted as interior offices for the fictional offices for City administration. Levy Mayer 212 served as the main taping location at the law school.[40]
  • In The Judge, Robert Downey Jr. plays the role of a Chicago defense attorney who is a Northwestern Law graduate.
  • Prof Steven Drizin and Prof Laura Nirider feature heavily in the 2016 Netflix documentary Making a Murderer as the post-conviction legal representatives of Brendan Dassey. Dassey’s confession is thought by many to be false and coerced, so both Drizin and Nirider are acting as part of work by the Center on Wrongful Convictions of Youth.

Alumni[edit]

Selected prominent Northwestern Law alumni include:

Academia[edit]

For-profit / Non-profit organizations[edit]

Government and politics[edit]

Judiciary[edit]

Firsts[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Northwestern University (Pritzker)". U.S. News & World Report – Best Law Schools. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Northwestern Pritzker School of Law Logo and Identity". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  3. ^ "Best Law Schools". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Arthur J. Goldberg". Oyez.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  5. ^ a b "John Paul Stevens". Oyez.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Newton Minow". Sidley.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  7. ^ a b c "Harold Washington". Biography.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on December 23, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ Tokarz, Karen (January 1990). "A Tribute to the Nation's First Women Law Students". Washington University Law Review. 68: 101.
  10. ^ Bowean, Lolly. "Northwestern's law school gets $100 million Pritzker gift, new name". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 26, 2018.
  11. ^ (PDF) https://wwws.law.northwestern.edu/admissions/disclosures/documents/aba-standard-509-information-report.pdf. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. ^ a b c "US News: Login page". Premium.usnews.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  13. ^ "Admissions: Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  14. ^ a b "Employment Statistics" (PDF). Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  15. ^ "Northwestern University Profile". Lstscorereports.com. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  16. ^ "The Best Law Schools for BigLaw Jobs". Vault. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  17. ^ "Northwestern University Profile". Lstscorereports.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  18. ^ "Journals, Research & Faculty: Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  19. ^ "Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business - Northwestern University School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  20. ^ a b c "Northwestern Law - TLS wiki". Top-law-schools.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  21. ^ "Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology - Northwestern University School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  22. ^ "Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy - Northwestern University School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  23. ^ "Northwestern Journal of Human Rights - Northwestern University School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  24. ^ "U.S. News & World Report LP". Grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  25. ^ "Center on Wrongful Convictions: Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  26. ^ "Appellate Advocacy Center, Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  27. ^ "Federal Appellate Clinic: Appellate Advocacy Center, Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  28. ^ "Supreme Court Clinic: Appellate Advocacy Center, Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  29. ^ "Supreme Court Clinic Recent Filings: Appellate Advocacy Center, Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  30. ^ "Brief of Amicus Curiae Human Rights Watch, Global Justice Center, and Amnesty International on Behalf of Respondents" (PDF). SupremeCourt.gov. Retrieved May 19, 2022.
  31. ^ "About Us, Children and Family Justice Center: Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  32. ^ "Donald Pritzker Entrepreneurship Law Center: Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  33. ^ "Bartlit Center for Trial Advocacy: Bluhm Legal Clinic, Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  34. ^ "U.S. News & World Report 2021 Top Law School Rankings". usnews.com. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  35. ^ "The Rankins". abovethelaw.com. Retrieved May 5, 2020.
  36. ^ "Brian Leiter's Law School Reports". Leiterlawschool.typepad.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 30, 2007. Retrieved May 16, 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on September 30, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "THE GO-TO SCHOOLS". Law.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  40. ^ a b c "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 20, 2011. Retrieved December 15, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ Seidman, Robert (November 3, 2010). "'The Chicago Code' (FKA 'Ride Along') Premieres Night After Super Bowl XLV, Monday, February 7". TV by the Numbers. Archived from the original on November 7, 2010. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
  42. ^ "Diane Marie Amann | University of Georgia School of Law".
  43. ^ "Scholars and Jurists Honor Raoul Berger, About: Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  44. ^ Bob Goldsborough (March 28, 2013). "George Miller Burditt Jr., former Illinois state representative, 1922–2013". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  45. ^ School, Stanford Law. "G. Marcus Cole - Stanford Law School". Law.stanford.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  46. ^ "Thomas F. Geraghty, Research & Faculty: Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  47. ^ "Kristin Hickman". University of Minnesota Law School.
  48. ^ University, Suffolk. "Charles P. Kindregan - Suffolk University". Suffolk.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  49. ^ a b c d e f "History, About: Northwestern Pritzker School of Law". Law.northwestern.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  50. ^ "Jonathan Turley - GW Law - The George Washington University". Law.gwu.edu. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  51. ^ "Chicago White Sox: Front Office". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  52. ^ CareerBuilder.com. "CareerBuilder.com Names Matt Ferguson President". Prnewswire.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  53. ^ "Elbert Henry Gary facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Elbert Henry Gary". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  54. ^ Goodkin, Michael. The Wrong Answer Faster: The Inside Story of Making the Machine that Trades Trillions. John Wiley & Sons, 2012
  55. ^ "Stocks". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  56. ^ "History of Kirkland & Ellis LLP – FundingUniverse". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  57. ^ "Robert R. McCormick's Biography - First Division Museum". Firstdivisionmuseum.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  58. ^ "Morgan E. O'Brien - Executive Bio, Compensation History, and Contacts - Equilar Atlas". People.equilar.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  59. ^ "History of Hyatt Corporation – FundingUniverse". Fundinguniverse.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  60. ^ "Today in Masonic History - Frank C. Rathje was Born". Masonrytoday.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  61. ^ "Chicago White Sox: Front Office". Chicago.whitesox.mlb.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  62. ^ Christensen, Kim (April 21, 2012). "What kind of man is Dodgers' next owner?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  63. ^ "George Ball : Alumni Exhibit: Northwestern University Archives". Exhibits.library.northwestern.edu. 17 September 2000. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  64. ^ Lupton, John A. (February 24, 2020). "Illinois Supreme Court e-Newsletter". illinoiscourts.gov. Archived from the original on August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  65. ^ "Legends in the Law: Richard Ben-Veniste". Dcbar.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  66. ^ "BIGGERT, Judy Borg - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  67. ^ "William Jennings Bryan : Alumni Exhibit: Northwestern University Archives". Exhibits.library.northwestern.edu. 17 September 2000. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  68. ^ root. "Dale Bumpers". Nga.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  69. ^ a b Quarterly, Middle East (September 1, 2004). "Salem Chalabi: Judging Saddam". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  70. ^ 'Illinois Blue Book 1943-1944,' Biographical Sketch of Alfred Cilella, pg. 398-399
  71. ^ root. "Dennis Daugaard". Nga.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  72. ^ "DAWSON, William Levi - US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
  73. ^ "Cozen O'Connor: Devine, Richard A." Cozen.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  74. ^ "Mayor Edward F. Dunne Biography". Chipublib.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  75. ^ Savage, Charlie (April 21, 2014). "Obama Names White House Counsel". The New York Times. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  76. ^ "The Wisconsin Blue Book". Industrial Commission. October 11, 1887. Retrieved October 11, 2017 – via Google Books.
  77. ^ This alumnus attended the law school when it formed part of the Old University of Chicago, which closed in 1886 after it was damaged by a fire, and which was later renamed the Northwestern University School of Law.
  78. ^ root. "Frank Orren Lowden". Nga.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  79. ^ "Converted by Text2Web". Freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  80. ^ "Washington Governor Albert E. Mead". National Governors Association. Retrieved October 10, 2012.
  81. ^ a b Caruba, Lauren (14 April 2013). "Northwestern Law Prof. Dawn Clark Netsch remembered for 'absolute, unshakeable integrity'". Dailynorthwestern.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  82. ^ "J.B. Pritzker - Pritzker Group". Pritzkergroup.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  83. ^ "Pat Quinn". Governorquinn.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  84. ^ "RAILSBACK, Thomas Fisher, (1932 - )". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved October 19, 2012.
  85. ^ "RAINEY, Henry Thomas - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  86. ^ "Jose Abad Santos bio". Bcf.usc.edu. Archived from the original on July 31, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  87. ^ "A Biography on the life of Jerry Springer". Nytix.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  88. ^ A Political Guide for the Workers: Socialist Party Campaign, Book 1920, The Socialist Party of the United States, 1920, p. 15.
  89. ^ Compendium of History and Biography of Central and Northern Minnesota, G.A. Ogle & Company, 1904, p. 143.
  90. ^ "Adlai E. Stevenson : Alumni Exhibit: Northwestern University Archives". Exhibits.library.northwestern.edu. 17 September 2000. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  91. ^ "THOMSON, Charles Marsh - Biographical Information". Bioguide.congress.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  92. ^ "James Thompson". Navigant.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  93. ^ root. "Daniel Walker". Nga.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  94. ^ "Richard E. Wiley". Fed-soc.org. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  95. ^ Albert Glotzer, "Albert Goldman," in Bernard K. Johnpoll and Harvey Klehr (eds.), Biographical Dictionary of the American Left. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986; pp. 159-160.
  96. ^ "Associate Justice Simeon R. Acoba Jr". Courts.state.hi.us. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  97. ^ a b Sawyers, June (March 12, 1989). "'SUITCASE MARY' LEADS A CRUSADE FOR NEEDY GIRLS". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  98. ^ "The Honorable Dalveer Bhandari". Icj-cij.org. Archived from the original on June 2, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  99. ^ "Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present - Federal Judicial Center". Fjc.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  100. ^ "Chang, Edmond E-Min - Federal Judicial Center". Fjc.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  101. ^ "Flaum, Joel Martin - Federal Judicial Center". Fjc.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  102. ^ "Chief Justice Jim Jones". Isc.idaho.gov. Archived from the original on August 21, 2015. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  103. ^ a b "Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis (1920-1944)". Sportsecyclopedia.com. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  104. ^ "Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present - Federal Judicial Center". Fjc.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  105. ^ Paul Egan, "U.S. Senate confirms appointment of Joan Larsen to federal appeals court", Detroit Free Press, Detroit, November 1, 2017. Retrieved December 11, 2017.
  106. ^ "Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present - Federal Judicial Center". Fjc.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  107. ^ "Biographical Directory of Article III Federal Judges, 1789-present - Federal Judicial Center". Fjc.gov. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
  108. ^ Lupton, John A. (February 24, 2020). "Illinois Supreme Court e-Newsletter". illinoiscourts.gov. Archived from the original on August 25, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  109. ^ "DAWSON, William Levi - US House of Representatives: History, Art & Archives". history.house.gov. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
  110. ^ Charlton Thomas Lewis, Joseph H. Willsey. "Harper's book of facts: a classified history of the world; embracing science, literature, and art". Harper & Brothers, 1895, p. 939.

External links[edit]