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This use of light and dark translates shape and form into flat shapes on a two-dimensional surface. Nōtan is traditionally presented in paint, ink, or cut paper, but it is relevant to a host of modern-day image-making techniques, such as lithography in printmaking, and rotoscoping in animation.
- Composition: A Series of Exercises in Art Structure for the Use of Students and teachers by Arthur Wesley Dow (1899)(1855)
- Notan: A Virtual Art Academy building block by Barry John Raybould, MA (2004/2010) Course on Notan
- Notan: The Dark-Light Principle of Design by Dorr Bothwell and Marlys Mayfield (1968/1991)
- The Interaction of Color by Josef Albers (1963 )
- Perception and Imaging by Richard D. Zakia (1997/2001)