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An earlier chapel of the same name was situated at 54 rue Lamartine but was destroyed during the French Revolution. In 1821, plans were made to rebuild Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, with Louis-Hippolyte Lebas the sole architect. Originally, the church was planned to face northward towards Montmartre, but eventually faced southward towards rue Laffitte.
Two notable figures in French culture were baptized at Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. Musician Georges Bizet received his baptism at the church on March 16, 1840, while painter Claude Monet was baptized on May 20, 1841.
The early 19th century was characterized with neoclassical building styles, with the church also being designed in this manner. Instead of decorative paintings being placed on the church's walls, murals were painted directly onto them, similarly to the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. The façade features Charles-François Lebœuf's sculpture Six angels in adoration before the Madonna and Child. Inside are the statues of Charles-René Laitié, Philippe Joseph Henri Lemaire and Denis Foyatier, who represent the three theological virtues of charity, hope and faith, respectively.
France's motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, fraternity) was added above the church's main entrance in 1902.