The station opened on 5 November 1910 as part of the original section of the Nord-Sud Company's line A between Porte de Versailles and Notre-Dame-de-Lorette. On 27 March 1931 line A became line 12 of the Métro. It is named after the nearby Notre-Dame des Champs Church on the Boulevard du Montparnasse and is designed by the architect and engineer Gustave Eiffel.
The entrance to the station, and the ceramics throughout the station, have maintained the pure style of the Nord-Sud Company. The ceramics above the tunnel entrances indicating the direction of the tunnel are still present. The station's ceramics are by Boulenger & Co; they used pre-printed tiles for the tablets indicating the name of the station, as did the Gien ceramics company subsequently, but the edges of the letters are rounded not angular.