Originally dedicated to l'Enfant Jésus, it received the name Notre-Dame-de-la-Victoire following the Battle of Quebec of 1690, in which an English expedition commanded by William Phips was forced to retreat. In 1711, its name was changed again, to Notre-Dame-des-Victoires, after bad weather had sunk a British fleet commanded by Hovenden Walker.
The church was largely destroyed by the British bombardment that preceded the Battle of the Plains of Abraham in September 1759. A complete restoration of the church was finished in 1816.
The church, which was listed as a historic monument in 1929, remains a popular tourist attraction within the city, as well as a place of worship. It has undergone extensive restoration in recent decades, to restore its colonial French character. It was designated a National Historic Sites of Canada in 1988 and plaqued in 1992.