Nougat

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This article is about the confectionery. For the Android version, see Android Nougat.
Nougat
Nougat.jpg
Nougat bar
Type Confection
Main ingredients White nougat: sugar or honey, nuts (almonds, walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts), egg whites, sometimes candied fruit
Brown nougat: sugar or honey, nuts (almonds, walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts)
Viennese or German nougat: sugar, chocolate, nuts
Variations Gaz (candy), Torrone and turrón
Food energy
(per serving)
200 kcal (837 kJ)
Cookbook: Nougat  Media: Nougat

Nougat (US pronunciation: /ˈnɡət/ NOO-gət; UK /ˈnɡɑː/ NOO-gaa or UK /ˈnʌɡət/ NUG-ət;[1][2][3][4] French pronunciation: ​[nu.ɡa]) is a family of confections made with sugar or honey, roasted nuts (almonds, walnuts, pistachios, hazelnuts, and macadamia nuts are common), whipped egg whites, and sometimes chopped candied fruit. The consistency of nougat is chewy, and it is used in a variety of candy bars and chocolates. The word nougat comes from Occitan pan nogat (pronounced [ˈpa nuˈɣat]), seemingly from Latin panis nucatus 'nut bread' (the late colloquial Latin adjective nucatum means 'nutted' or 'nutty').

There are three basic kinds of nougat. The first, and most common, is white nougat ("mandorlato" or "torrone" in Italy), made with beaten egg whites and honey; it appeared in Cologna Veneta, Italy, in the early 15th century, in Alicante, Spain, probably earlier but with the first published recipe in the 16th century,[5] and in Montélimar, France, in the 18th century. The second is brown nougat (nougatine in French), which is made without egg whites and has a firmer, often crunchy texture. The third is the Viennese or German nougat which is essentially a chocolate and nut (usually hazelnut) praline.

History[edit]

Many legends exist around nougat’s origins. The early recipes of white nougat were found in a Middle Eastern book in Baghdad the 10th century where it was borrowed from Central Asia. That nougat was called ناطف nāṭif.[6] One of these recipes indicates that the nāṭif comes from Harran, a city located between Urfa (now in southeast Turkey) and Aleppo, Syria. Mention of nāṭif was found in a triangle between Urfa, Aleppo, and Baghdad. At the end of the 10th century, the traveler and geographer Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn Ḥawqal wrote that he ate some nāṭif in Manbij, Syria, and in Bukhara, Uzbekistan.[7]

Distribution and popularity[edit]

In southern Europe, where it is likely to have originated,[8] nougat is largely associated with the Christmas season.[clarification needed]

Nougat of Tabriz.

Turrón, a candy related to the traditional French nougat, is produced in Spain (turrón, or, in Catalan, torró) and some neighboring parts of France, in Cremona, Taurianova and Sicily in Italy (where it is called torrone, or Cupeta from Latin Cupedia;[9] the most famous Sicilian nougat is called cubbaita), Greece (where it is known as mandolato), Malta (where it is known as qubbajd and sold in village festivals), and it was customized in Tabriz in Iran with the same name.

The "nougat" used as an ingredient in many modern candy bars in the United States and United Kingdom is different from traditional recipes, being a mixture of sucrose and corn syrup aerated with a whipping agent such as egg white or hydrolyzed soya protein or gelatine. It is a preferred and often used ingredient of large candy companies, being inexpensive to make and used as a "filler". It may also have vegetable fats and milk powder added, and is typically combined with nuts, caramel, or chocolate. In contrast, some American confections feature such "nougat" as the primary component, rather than one of several. Varieties of nougat are found in 3 Musketeers, Double Decker, ZERO bars, and Baby Ruth bars.

In Britain, nougat is traditionally made in imitation of the southern European varieties and is still commonly found at fairgrounds and the seaside. The most common industrially produced type[10] is coloured pink and white, the pink often fruit flavoured, and sometimes wrapped in edible rice paper with almonds and cherries, sometimes substituted with peanuts, or omitted altogether.

Variations[edit]

Turrón de Alicante (top) and Turrón de Jijona (bottom)
Viennese nougat, a German variety with finely ground hazelnuts produced since 1920

Spanish turrón follows the traditional recipes with toasted almonds, sugar, honey, and egg whites. It has a minimum 60% almond content.

Torrone from Italy includes these same basic ingredients as well as vanilla or citrus flavoring, and is often sandwiched between two very thin sheets of rice paper.[11] In the Venetian town of Cologna Veneta is produced mandorlato, always based on honey, sugar, egg whites and almonds (mandorle in Italian) but with a different taste and harder to bite than torrone. Cologna Veneta is well known for its nougat production.

"Wiener (Viennese) Nougat" is a variant which contains only sugar, cocoa butter, nuts, and cocoa mass, and has a mellow consistency. The nuts used for Viennese nougat are usually hazelnuts. In both Germany, Sweden and Denmark, Viennese nougat is what has traditionally been associated with and labelled as nougat,[12][13] while in Sweden and Denmark the original nougat is referred to as "French nougat".[14][15] In Germany, gianduja is traditionally called nougat.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "nougat noun - definition in the British English Dictionary & Thesaurus - Cambridge Dictionaries Online". Cambridge Dictionary Online. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  2. ^ "Nougat | Define Nougat at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  3. ^ "nougat - definition of nougat by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
  4. ^ "nougat - definition of nougat in English from the Oxford dictionary". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 30 June 2016. 
  5. ^ "Manual de mujeres en el cual se contienen muchas y diversas recetas muy buenas". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  6. ^ Derived from the triliteral root nṭf 'to dribble, trickle', literally denoting a white viscous mass, as in ناطف الحوت nāṭif al-ḥūt, 'spermaceti' "ترجمة ومعنى كلمة ناطف" [Translation and meaning of the word nāṭif]. almaany.com. Retrieved 26 June 2016. 
  7. ^ "Le nougat dans tous ses états, une histoire méditerranéenne de confiserie, Marie Josèphe Moncorgé, Tambao livres, 2013". Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  8. ^ "Nougat". Linda's Culinary Dictionary. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  9. ^ "TORRONE DI BENEVENTO". www.sito.regione.campania.it. Retrieved 2016-02-12. 
  10. ^ "Barrat Nougat Bar Sweets product reviews and price comparison". www.dooyoo.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-12. 
  11. ^ Gangi, Roberta (2005). "Sicilian Torrone". Best of Sicily Magazine. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  12. ^ Odense: Nougat - ingredients (Danish)
  13. ^ Odense: Blød Nougat Pictures and description. (Danish)
  14. ^ Københavns Madhus (17 December 2010). "Fransk Nougat" (in Danish). Politiken. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  15. ^ Marabou. "Fransk Nougat". nemlig.com (in Danish). Retrieved 31 August 2014.