November 1911

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November 9, 1911:Kentucky monument to Lincoln's birthplace dedicated
November 5, 1911: Cal Rodgers completes first plane trip across the United States
November 9, 1911: Sultan Abdelhafid of Morocco accepts French protectorate rule
November 10, 1911: Andrew Carnegie charitable bequests pass $200 million

The following events occurred in November 1911:

November 1, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • The first aerial bombardment in history took place when Second Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti of the Italian Army threw three Cipelli hand grenades on Turkish troops at Tagiura in Libya, then flew his Etrich Taube monoplane to Ain and dropped an additional grenade.[1] Nobody was injured in these first bombings.[2]
  • Robert Falcon Scott and his party of 12 departed Cape Evans, at 77°38′ south on their quest to become the first persons to reach the South Pole.[3] Roald Amundsen of Norway had begun his trek to the Pole on October 19 and was already at the Ross Ice Shelf at 81° south.[4]
  • In the largest American fleet of warships ever assembled, more than 100 U.S. Navy ships sailed on the Hudson River off of New York City for review by Secretary of the Navy George von L. Meyer, led by the USS Connecticut. "This mobilization has demonstrated the preparedness of the American Navy for any emergency." [5][6][6] On the same day, most of the U.S. Navy's Pacific Ocean fleet sailed past Los Angeles, with 22 ships and 2 submarines, led by the USS Oregon.[7]
  • Pope Pius X issued the papal bull Divino afflatu, requiring that the new breviary be used in all Roman Catholic churches no later than October 23, 1917.[8]
  • Chinese Imperial troops were successful in recapturing Hankou for the benefit of the Manchu dynasty Emperor, but a contingent of troops from the Shanxi Province, brought along for assistance, mutinied at Shikiatan. The group massacred 1,000 Manchu civilians, including their own commander and the Governor, his family, and their own general.[9][10][10]
  • Born:

November 2, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

  • U.S. President Taft received a 3,690 gun salute on "the greatest naval day this country has known in time of peace", as he reviewed most of the fleet of the U.S. Navy. The occasion was marred by the death of Seaman Gustav Frey, who fell overboard and drowned.[11]
  • Born:
  • Died: Kyrle Bellew, 61, celebrated English actor who was popular in the late 19th and early 20th century.

November 3, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Chevrolet Motor Company was incorporated by former General Motors Chairman William C. Durant, to begin manufacture of an inexpensive automobile that had been designed by race car driver Louis Chevrolet. The Chevrolet would prove so successful that Durant would be able to acquire sufficient GM stock to regain control of that company.[12]
  • Shanghai was taken over by rebels, led by Chen Qimei, without resistance.[13]
  • Prince Chun, the regent for his young son, the Emperor of China, issued an edict accepting the National Assembly's 19 basic points for a new Constitution. The reform, which would have permitted the Emperor to remain on the throne in a constitutional monarchy in a parliamentary government, came too late to prevent the foundation of a republic.[14]
  • Born: Vladimir Ussachevsky, Russian-American composer of electronic music (d. 1990)
  • Died:
    • Norman J. Colman, 84, the first person to ever serve as U.S. Secretary of Agriculture after the U.S. Agricultural Commission was elevated to cabinet status in 1889
    • Daniel Drawbaugh, 84, who claimed to have invented the telephone, pneumatic tools, hydraulic rams, folding lunchboxes, barrel faucets, self-measuring wrapping machines, coin separators, and a wireless burglar alarm.[15]

November 4, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Agadir Crisis ended with the signing of Franco-German peace treaty at Berlin between German Foreign Minister Alfred von Kiderlen-Waechter and France's Ambassador to Germany, Jules Cambon, ending Germany's threat to go to war over Morocco.[16] Germany withdrew all claims to North Africa, with Morocco being partitioned between France (as a protectorate) and Spain (as the colony the Spanish Sahara). In return, France ceded to Germany 107,270 mi² of the French Congo, as part of Kamerun, and Germany ceded 6,450 mi² of German Kamerun to France as part of Chad. The territorial changes would last only seven years, and after Germany's defeat in World War One, German Kamerun would become French Cameroun and, decades later, the independent nation of Cameroon.[17]
  • Piloted by Melvin Vaniman, the dirigible balloon Akron (not to be confused with the 1930s airship USS Akron), was tested at Atlantic City in its first flight, but lost altitude and came down nine miles north at Grassy Bay.[18]
  • Born:

November 5, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Calbraith P. Rodgers arrived in Pasadena, California, landing his airplane, the Vin Fiz Flyer at 4:04 pm, to become the first person to fly across the United States. A crowd of 20,000 greeted him, with a large group breaking through police guards to mob him. Reportedly, "hundreds threw hats and caps into the air, and trampled them into the dirt when they fell".[19] He had started in New York City on September 17 and flown 3,220 miles, making 69 stops.[20] Rodgers, who had replaced 98% of the original wood, wire and fabric of the plane during the trip, and had sustained a dozen crashes, would be killed in another crash five months later, on April 3, 1912.[21]
  • Giovanni Giolitti, the Prime Minister of Italy, announced the royal decree annexing the Ottoman Empire provinces of Tripoli and Cyrenaica (both part of modern Libya) to the Kingdom of Italy. The decree would be confirmed by the Parliament on February 25, 1912.[22]
  • Born: Roy Rogers, American cowboy, singer and actor; as Leonard Slye in Cincinnati (d. 1998)
  • Died: Sir Hugh Gilzean-Reid, 75, who published the first halfpenny priced newspaper in Great Britain, the Middlesbrough Daily Gazette.

November 6, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

November 7, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • It was announced that Marie Curie had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1903, she had been co-winner, with Pierre Curie, for the Nobel Prize in Physics, making her the first person to win a second Nobel Prize, and the first of only two (the other one being Linus Pauling) to have won in two different categories.[26]
  • Yuan Shih-kai was named as the Prime Minister of the Chinese Empire.[27]
  • The legislature of the Fujian Province of China voted to declare its independence from the Empire, and joined the Republic of China four days later.[28]
  • General Wu Lu-cheng, the Governor-General of the Shaanxi Province, committed suicide after refusing instructions from the Emperor's court to surrender.[29]

November 8, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Arthur Balfour resigned as leader of the Conservative Party and as Leader of the Opposition in the British House of Commons, after being blamed by the B.M.G. ("Balfour Must Go") campaign for not opposing the Parliament Bill.[30]
  • João Pinheiro Chagas resigned as Prime Minister of Portugal along with his entire cabinet.[31]
  • The legislature of the Anhui Province voted to secede from Imperial China.[32]
  • At his basement in St. Louis, inventor Anthony F. Wice tested his idea to generate heat by mixing compressed air and gasoline, after telling his son that he was on the verge of a breakthrough. An explosion killed him instantly.[33]
  • Born: Jacob B. Agus, Polish-born American rabbi, as Yakov Dov Agushewitz in Swislocz (now Svislach, Belarus) (d. 1986)

November 9, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

  • At Hodgenville, Kentucky, President Taft dedicated the granite temple surrounding a replica of Abraham Lincoln's log cabin. "Few men have come into public prominence who came absolutely from the soil as did Abraham Lincoln," said Taft. "With an illiterate and shiftless father and a mother who, though of education and force, died before he reached youth," said Taft, "his future was dark indeed." [34]
  • The Kwangtung Province became the latest to secede from China as the National Assembly at Canton (now Guangzhou) proclaimed a republic.[35]
  • Sultan Abdelhafid of Morocco announced that he would consent to the conditions of the Franco-German peace treaty, which provided for French protection and control of all of Morocco's foreign affairs.[10]
  • The first, and only, time a November palindrome day occurred in the 20th Century was on this date (11-9-1911). (Note that this is a seven-digit palindrome day which can also be interpreted as the full date number of January 19, 1911 if written as 1-19-1911 instead of 11-9-1911. The next one would occur on November 2, 2011 (11-02-2011).
  • Died: Howard Pyle, 76, American artist described as "the father of American magazine illustration" and "the most successful of American artists"

November 10, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

  • Manchu troops in Nanjing, following the command of their Tartar general, carried out what a reporter described as "a scene of fire, rapine, desolation and butchery unrecorded in modern history" attacking the Chinese residents there indiscriminately, murdering "the aged, the young, and babies in arms". Any rebel who had cut off his queue was beheaded; even the simple act of wearing white clothing (associated with the rebellion), or foreign clothing, was cause for murder.[36]
  • Andrew Carnegie donated $25,000,000 (equivalent to $500,000,000 in 2011) to the Carnegie Corporation to carry on his philanthropic work. His total bequests, to that time, were counted as $208,233,000 and, of that, $50,935,000 had endowed "Carnegie libraries".[37]
  • King George V turned over British royal authority to a four-member Commission, empowered to act on his behalf during his absence. The group consisted of the King's cousin, Prince Arthur of Connaught (who, at 28, was the only adult male member of the British royal family in the U.K.); the Archbishop of Canterbury (Randall Davidson); the Lord Chancellor (Robert Reid, 1st Earl Loreburn); and the Lord President of the Council (John Morley). The King and his wife, Queen Mary departed Portsmouth the next day en route to India, where they were Emperor and Empress.[10][38]

November 11, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II rebuked his son, the Crown Prince for openly siding with the opposition to Germany's policy on Morocco, and transferred him to a job in Danzig.[6]
  • The German battleship SMS Kaiserin was launched at Kiel.[10]
  • A tornado struck Janesville, Wisconsin, killing 20 residents[6][39]
  • The French film Zigomar premiered in Japan, and became an unexpected hit, particularly among kids who had never seen violence portrayed in a theatre production. Later, when Japanese producers would begin making their own Zigomar action thrillers, "scores of juvenile offenders were produced", and Japan's Home Ministry would respond with strict censorship.[40]
  • The temperature in Oklahoma City stood at 83 °F in the afternoon, until a cold front arrived, dropping the mercury dramatically to 17 °F in before midnight.[41]

November 12, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

November 13, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

November 14, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Pinellas County, Florida was created from west Hillsborough County.[45]
  • The German government announced that the approval of the Reichstag would be necessary for any treaties changing boundaries of any part of the German Empire.[6]
  • Maurice Bienaime and Rene Rumpelmayer became the first persons to fly an airplane non-stop for 1,000 miles, covering 1,056 miles in 16 1/2 hours.[10]

November 15, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

November 16, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

November 17, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Omega Psi Phi fraternity, first black fraternity at a historically black college, was founded by three Howard University undergraduates (Edgar Amos Love, Oscar James Cooper and Frank Coleman) and Professor Ernest Everett Just. As of its 100th anniversary, it had more than 700 chapters in nine nations.[51]
  • The United States Navy temporarily abandoned the use of fish names for submarine classification, renaming the Adder, Viper, Octopus and Narwhal class subs as A, B, C and D class, respectively. Names would be revived in 1931.[52]

November 18, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The Princeton Tigers, unbeaten with a record of 7-0-2, wrapped up their season at New Haven, Connecticut, defeating the 7-1-0 Yale Bulldogs by a score of 6-3. The Helms Athletic Foundation, which would be founded in 1936, would later declare, retroactively, that Princeton had been the best team of the 1911 college football season.[53]
  • Thirty miners at the Bottom Creek Coal and Coke Company died in an explosion at Vivian, West Virginia in McDowell County.[10]
  • Train robbers in France attacked three cars carrying $600,000 worth of gifts, breaking in through the roofs after the cars departed from Paris en route to Lyons. The theft was discovered when the train stopped at Mâcon.[54]

November 19, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

November 20, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

November 21, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

November 22, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Russian troops invaded Iran, with several hundred occupying Rasht, the largest port on the Persian side of the Caspian Sea. The conditions given for the troops' withdrawal included the dismissal of W. Morgan Shuster as the Persian Treasurer, and an agreement not to employ foreign advisers without the approval of Russia and Britain.[61]
  • Born: Ernie Caceres, American jazz musician, in Rockport, Texas (d. 1971)

November 23, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The collapse of a railway bridge in France, near Montreuil-Bellay, killed 30 people. The cars carried about 100 passengers who were on their way from Angers to Poitiers, and sank in the Thouet River. Some persons, who had escaped the cars before they sank, were swept away in the flood-swollen waters.[62]
  • As the Italo-Turkish War continued, Italy informed the other European powers that it would send its Navy into Turkish waters to create a blockade of the Dardanelles.[63]
  • Wu Tingfang, a leader of the Republican revolution in China, informed foreign diplomats in Nanjing an attack would be held off for three days, in order to give foreign residents a chance to evacuate before November 26.[64]
  • Died: Bernard Tancred, 47, South African cricketer

November 24, 1911 (Friday)[edit]

  • At the Hotel Gotham in Manhattan, Texas businessman Edward M. House had his first meeting with New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson, and began the process for a successful campaign to elect Wilson to the office of President of the United States in 1912[65]
  • After seven years, the secret articles of the Anglo-French declaration of 1904 (which concerned Egypt and Morocco) were published.[66]
  • A boiler explosion at the J. Bibby & Sons oil cake mills in Liverpool killed 27 people and injured 100.[67]
  • Born: Erik Bergman, Finnish classical music composer (d. 2006)

November 25, 1911 (Saturday)[edit]

November 26, 1911 (Sunday)[edit]

  • In an elaborate ceremony at the ancestral temple, the Regent for China's Emperor took an oath to uphold the 19 Articles of the new Chinese constitution, stating "Following the fall of the sacred dynasty I accept the advice of the national assembly. I swear to uphold the nineteen constitutional articles and organize a parliament, excluding the nobles from administrative posts. I and my descendants will adhere to it forever. Your heavenly spirits will see and understand." Bombardment of Nanjing began the same day.[69]
  • Six members of the family of Norbert Randall of Lafayette, Louisiana, were killed in their beds by an axe murderer, continuing a string of similar killings that had already claimed eleven people in January and five more in April. Police arrested an African-American woman, Clementine Bernabet, but would release her after nine more killings took place during her incarceration.[70]
  • Born: Gilbert F. White, American geographer described as "The Father of Floodplain Management"; in Chicago (d. 2006)
  • Died:

November 27, 1911 (Monday)[edit]

November 28, 1911 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • Renowned lawyer Clarence Darrow was accused of attempting to bribe a juror after a detective whom he had hired, Bert Franklin, was arrested in Los Angeles for offering a juror $4,000 to bring about a hung jury in the trial of the McNamara brothers for the bombing of the Los Angeles Times building. After Franklin testified that Darrow had ordered him to attempt bribery, Darrow was indicted on two separate charges. He would be acquitted in both trials.[73]
  • Born:

November 29, 1911 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Russia delivered its ultimatum to Persia, giving the government 48 hours to either dismiss American businessman W. Morgan Shuster from his post as Persia's Treasurer General, or to see Tehran invaded.[74]

November 30, 1911 (Thursday)[edit]


  1. ^ Christopher Chant, Austro-Hungarian aces of World War I (Osprey Publishing, 2002) p39
  2. ^ Gerard J. De Groot, The Bomb: A Life (Harvard University Press, 2005) p2
  3. ^ Susan Solomon, The Coldest March: Scott's Fatal Antarctic Expedition (Yale University Press, 2002) p173
  4. ^ David Crane, Scott of the Antarctic: A Life of Courage and Tragedy (Random House, 2007)
  5. ^ "Our Greatest Fleet Reviewed by Meyer", New York Times, November 2, 1911
  6. ^ a b c d e "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (December 1911), pp678-681
  7. ^ "Pacific Fleet Reviewed", New York Times, November 2, 1911
  8. ^ "Pius X", in The Catholic Encyclopedia (The Encyclopedia Press, 1922) p584
  9. ^ "Chinese Troops Kill Thousands", New York Times, November 3, 1911
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Britannica Year-Book 1913: A Survey of the World's Progress Since the Completion in 1910 of the Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica, 1913) pp. xviii to xix
  11. ^ "Taft Reviews Mighty Fleet", New York Times, November 3, 1911
  12. ^ Ottilie M. Leland and Minnie Dubbs Millbrook, The Master of Precision: Henry M. Leland (Wayne State University Press, 1996) p117
  13. ^ "Rebels Take Shanghai", New York Times, November 4, 1911; Jonathan Fenby, Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost (Da Capo Press, 2005) p31
  14. ^ "Curbs Chinese Ruler's Power", New York Times, November 4, 1911; Stanley K. Hornbeck, Contemporary Politics in the Far East (D. Appleton & Co., 1916, reprinted by Ayer Publishing, 1970) p38
  15. ^ "Daniel F. Drawbaugh Dead", New York Times, November 4, 1911
  16. ^ Frank E. Trout, Morocco's Saharan Frontiers (Librairie Droz, 1969) pp198-199
  17. ^ Ieuan Ll Griffiths, The African Inheritance (Routledge, 1995) p37
  18. ^ "Vaniman Confident Despite Mishaps", New York Times, November 6, 1911
  19. ^ "20,000 See Rodgers Land", New York Times, November 6, 1911
  20. ^ "Rodgers Ends Long Flight", New York Times, November 6, 1911
  21. ^ Carlos A. Schwantes, Going Places: Transportation Redefines the Twentieth-Century West (Indiana University Press, 2003) pp192-193
  22. ^ Waniss A. Otman and Erling Karlberg, The Libyan Economy: Economic Diversification and International Repositioning (Springer, 2007) p13
  23. ^ Mike Shamos, The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards (Globe Pequot, 2002) p107
  24. ^ "Inaugurate Madero in Mexican Capital", New York Times, November 6, 1911
  25. ^ James W. Hurst, Pancho Villa and Black Jack Pershing: the Punitive Expedition in Mexico (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008)
  26. ^ "Awarded to Mme. Curie", New York Times, November 7, 1911
  27. ^ Michael Dillon, China: A Modern History (I.B.Tauris, 2010) p147
  28. ^ Ryan Dunch, Fuzhou Protestants and the Making of a Modern China, 1857-1927 (Yale University Press, 2001) p108
  29. ^ "Viceroy Dies by Own Hand", New York Times, November 9, 1911
  30. ^ Alfred F. Havighurst, Britain in Transition: The Twentieth Century (University of Chicago Press, 1985) p103; "Balfour Quits His Leadership", New York Times, November 9, 1911
  31. ^ "Portuguese Ministry Resigns", New York Times, November 9, 1911
  32. ^ Annping Chin, Four Sisters of Hofei: A History (Simon and Schuster, 2002) p19
  33. ^ "His Invention was Fatal", New York Times, November 9, 1911
  34. ^ "Lincoln Memorial Dedicated by Taft", New York Times, November 10, 1911
  35. ^ Edward J. M. Rhoads, China's Republican Revolution: The Case of Kwangtung, 1895-1913 (Harvard University Press, 1975) p234
  36. ^ "Manchus' Day of Massacre; Ruthlessly Slaughter Thousands in Nanking, Sparing Neither the Aged Nor Babes", New York Times, November 11, 1911
  37. ^ "Carnegie Gives $25,000,000 Fund", New York Times, November 11, 1911
  38. ^ "King George Sails for Great Durbar", New York Times, November 12, 1911
  39. ^ "23 Die in Cyclone in the Middle West", New York Times, November 12, 1911
  40. ^ Aaron Gerow and Abe Mark Nornes, In Praise of Film Studies: Essays in Honor of Makino Mamoru (Trafford Publishing, 2001) p59
  41. ^ Robert Henson, The Rough Guide to Weather (Penguin, 2007) p105
  42. ^ "President Taft Ends His 15,000-mile Tour", New York Times, November 12, 1911; "None to Welcome Taft", New York Times, November 13, 1911
  43. ^ Larry L. Witherell, Rebel on the Right: Henry Page Croft and the Crisis of British Conservatism, 1903-1914 (University of Delaware Press, 1997); "Unionists Elect Bonar Law", New York Times, November 14, 1911
  44. ^ Kerry Segrave, Piracy in the Motion Picture Industry (McFarland, 2003) p48
  45. ^ Pinellas County Court Clerk
  46. ^ Yuan May Assume Office To-day, New York Times, November 16, 1911
  47. ^ "Tobacco Trust Plan Has Final Approval", New York Times, November 17, 1911
  48. ^ Jeffrey L. Cruikshank, Arthur W. Schultz, The Man who Sold America: The Amazing (but true!) Story of Albert D. Lasker and the Creation of the Advertising Century (Harvard Business Press, 2010) p248
  49. ^ "Earthquake in Germany", New York Times, November 17, 1911 "Earthquake Scares Swiss and Germans" (10:27 pm), New York Times, November 18, 1911
  50. ^ Jack Harpster, King of the Slots: William "Si" Redd (ABC-CLIO, 2010); "'Si' Redd, gaming legend, dies", Seattle Times, October 20, 2003
  51. ^ Omega Psi Phi website
  52. ^ Norman Friedman, U.S. Submarines through 1945: An Illustrated Design History (Naval Institute Press, 1995) p33
  53. ^ 2001 ESPN Information Please Sports Almanac, p152
  54. ^ "$600,000 India Mail Theft", New York Times, November 19, 1911
  55. ^ "Santo Domingan President Slain", New York Times, November 21, 1911
  56. ^ Michael R. Hall, Sugar and Power in the Dominican Republic: Eisenhower, Kennedy, and the Trujillos (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000) p14
  57. ^ "First Wireless from Italy; Marconi Sends Greetings to The Times Across 4,000 Miles of Space", New York Times, November 20, 1911
  58. ^ F. Arturo Rosales, Pobre Raza!: Violence, Justice, and Mobilization among México Lindo Immigrants, 1900-1936 (University of Texas Press, 1999) p12
  59. ^ Jens Malte Fischer and Stewart Spencer, Gustav Mahler (Yale University Press, 2011) p563
  60. ^ Gunter Faure and Teresa M. Mensing, The Transantarctic Mountains: Rocks, Ice, Meteorites and Water (Springer, 2010) p173
  61. ^ Janet Afary, The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906-1911: Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, & the Origins of Feminism (Columbia University Press, 1996) p330
  62. ^ "30 Drowned in a Train", New York Times, November 24, 1911
  63. ^ "Italy to Blockade the Dardanelles", New York Times, November 23, 1911
  64. ^ Eiko Woodhouse, The Chinese Hsinhai revolution: G.E. Morrison and Anglo-Japanese relations, 1897-1920 (Routledge, 2004) p85
  65. ^ Jim Powell, Wilson's War: How Woodrow Wilson's Great Blunder Led to Hitler, Lenin, Stalin, and World War II (Random House, 2005) p79
  66. ^ "Anglo-French Secret Out", New York Times, November 25, 1911
  67. ^ "Explosion Kills 33", New York Times, November 25, 1911
  68. ^ Robert Ryal Miller, Mexico: A History (University of Oklahoma Press, 1989) p292; "Plan de Ayala", from John Womack, Zapata and the Mexican Revolution (Knopf, 1969) pp400-404
  69. ^ "Rebels Pour Shot into Chinese City", Milwaukee Sentinel, November 27, 1911, p1
  70. ^ Michael Newton, The Encyclopedia of Unsolved Crimes (Infobase Publishing, 2010) 263
  71. ^ "'Freedom of the Theatre' and 'Practical Censorship': Two Theater Riots in the Early Twentieth Century, by M. Alison Kibler, in OAH Magazine of History (April 2010)
  72. ^ "Riot in Theatre over an Irish Play", New York Times, November 28, 1911
  73. ^ Diana Klebanow and Franklin L. Jonas, People's Lawyers: Crusaders for Justice in American History (M.E. Sharpe, 2003) pp123-125; "Charges of Bribery in M'Namara Trial", New York Times, November 29, 1911
  74. ^ "Persia Inclined to Defy Russia", New York Times, November 30, 1911; Janet Afary, The Iranian Constitutional Revolution, 1906-1911: Grassroots Democracy, Social Democracy, and the Origins of Feminism (Columbia University Press, 1996) p204
  75. ^ "Jammed Bleachers Fall", Milwaukee Sentinel, December 1, 1911, p1
  76. ^ "Titanic's sister ship to become divers' paradise", The Telegraph (London), 20 May 2007