November 1913

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November 9, 1913: The "White Hurricane" gale sinks 19 ships on Michigan's Great Lakes, drowns hundreds
Map of casualties of the storm

The following events occurred in November 1913:

November 1, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

Notre Dame's Knute Rockne demonstrates the superiority of the forward pass in football, Irish upset Army Cadets 35-13

November 2, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

November 3, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

November 4, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

November 5, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

King Otto
King Ludwig III

November 6, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

Attorney Mohandas K. Gandhi
2nd Lieutenant von Forstner
  • Mohandas Gandhi was arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.[15]
  • The "Zabern Affair" was started in Saverne, Alsace (now France but part of Germany in 1913), when two local newspapers, Elsässer Anzeiger and Zaberner Anzeiger, ran articles concerning reports of disparaging remarks about Alsace residents, that had been made by 19-year-old Second Lieutenant Günter Freiherr von Forstner of the 2nd Upper Rhine Infantry Regiment No. 99 during a troop induction ceremony on October 28. Forstner reportedly told his soldiers, "If you are attacked, then make use of your weapon; if you stab such a Wackes (slur for a person who lived in the Alsace region) in the process, then you'll get ten marks from me."[16]
  • All 3,000 members of the Indiana National Guard were activated by order of Governor Samuel M. Ralston and called to Indianapolis to preserve order during the streetcar strike. The walkout was settled the next day.[17]
  • Two major storm fronts converged on the western side of Lake Superior and grew into an extra-tropical cyclone. The storm - known as the 'White Hurricane' and eventually the Great Lakes Storm of 1913 - created hurricane-force winds, massive waves and whiteout conditions.[18]
  • Died: William Henry Preece, British engineer, developed wireless communication for the United Kingdom (b. 1834)

November 7, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

November 8, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

November 9, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

  • The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 ravaged four of the five Great Lakes around Michigan, sinking 19 ships (six of which have never been located) and killing 250 people. [26] Most of the damage occurred in Lake Huron where huge waves battered ships, scrambling to seek shelter along the lake's southern end. Most of the ships would remain missing more than a century after the storm, including:
    • British bulk freighter SS Wexford, which sank in Lake Huron with a loss of all 17 hands. The wreck would eventually be found on the lake bottom, 87 years after the disaster, on August 25, 2000.[27]
    • American freighter SS Hydrus, which sank in 35 feet (11 m) high waves on Lake Huron with 25 crew on board. It would be located more than a century later in 2015.[28]
    • American freighter SS Argus, sister ship to the Hydrus, which was also lost on Lake Huron. Parts of the wreckage were found days later on the shore of Bayfield, Ontario but the entire ship was never located.[29][30]
    • Canadian freighter SS James Carruthers, which drowned in Lake Huron with all 22 crew lost. The wreckage was never found.[31]
    • Canadian freighter SS Regina, which went down following the sending of a distress signal with 32 men on board. The vessel sent word that it had hit a shoal while trying to reach Port Huron, Michigan, then capsized and sank.[32] The Regina would be located in 80-feet deep waters some 65 years later.[33]
    • American ore transporter SS Henry B. Smith, which sank in Lake Superior with all 25 crew killed after leaving Marquette, Michigan to cross the lake in the belief that the storm had abated. Shortly after the storm returned, on-shore witnesses reported seeing the Henry B. Smith struggling through high waves to reach shelter at Keweenaw Point north of the harbor. It is believed the ship sank either the evening of the 9th or early morning of the 10th; only two bodies were recovered. The Henry B Smith wreck would not be found until May 2013 by shipwreck hunters, 535 feet (163 m) off Marquette.[34][35]
  • The United States and Honduras signed a peace treaty in Washington, DC, with Honduras becoming the latest of the Central American nations to accept the proposals of U.S. Secretary of State William Jennings Bryan.[36]

November 10, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

Mayor Archer

November 11, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

November 12, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

November 13, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

Nobel Laureate Tagore
British suffragette Pankhurst delivers "Freedom or Death Speech to American women in Harford

November 14, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

November 15, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

Pancho Villa

November 16, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

November 17, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

November 18, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

"Lincoln Beachey and his aeroplane"
  • Twenty-one coal miners were killed in the explosion of the Alabama Fuel and Iron Company's Mine Number 2 near Acton, Alabama.[65]
  • American aviator Lincoln Beachey first performed his inside loop (called the "loop the loop") at an airshow at Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego. Beachey climbed to 3,500 feet (1,066 meters) before turning the airplane down. He brought the machine up at the 1,000-foot mark and completed a 300-foot (91-meter) loop.[66]
  • French aviator Maurice Chevillard performed the first somersault loop with an airplane while a passenger was on board, something previously done solo by aviators.[67]
  • Born: Endre Rozsda, Hungarian-French painter, member of the Surrealism movement, in Mohács, Hungary (d. 1999)

November 19, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • Jack Thompson showed up at his own funeral visitation in Hamilton, Ontario, eight days after he had been believed to have drowned in the sinking of the SS James Carruthers. The body that had washed ashore from Lake Huron had been identified by his bereaved father, Thomas, at a morgue in Goderich, Ontario. In reality, Thompson had not accompanied the ship on its final voyage. The body his father identified was the same height and build, had similar facial features, tattoos (including the initials "J.T."), scars (crossed toes), and other markings on the body. Upon reading his name among the list of known dead in a newspaper while in Toronto, Thompson took a train back to his hometown and walked into his home, where his family was preparing for his burial. The identity of the body mistaken for Thompson remains unknown, and is buried with four other unknown seamen in Goderich.[68]
  • The Governor of Pennsylvania, John K. Tener, agreed to serve as the new president of the pro baseball National League.[69]
  • Born: Harry Friedman, American orchestra leader, known as the Blue Barron in the Big Band era, in Cleveland (d. 2005)

November 20, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

Radio Eiffel
  • The Eiffel Tower, made of iron, was used as a radio antenna for wireless transmission and reception by the Paris Observatory. For three weeks, the Paris Observatory and the U.S. Naval Observatory in Arlington, Virginia had been attempting to signal each other and "on November 20 the exchange worked well for the first time", in an experiment that continued until March.[70] The New York Times reported that the earlier tests had encountered interference from atmospheric conditions and other radio transmissions, but that on the evening of the 20th, "the beats of the Paris clock, as transmitted by wireless, were compared with the Washington clock for several minutes".[71]
  • Born:Judy Canova, American singer and actress, famous for playing an Ozark hick character in various broadcasts and her USO tours during World War II, in Starke, Florida (d. 1983); Libertas Schulze-Boysen, French-German resistance fighter, member of the Red Orchestra group during World War Two, in Paris (d. 1942, executed); Charles Bettelheim, French economist, founder of Center for the Study of Modes of Industrialization (CEMI), in Paris (d. 2006)

November 21, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Olds School of Agriculture and Home Economics officially opened on the site of a demonstration farm in Olds, Alberta, the second of three agricultural schools opened by the Alberta Department of Agriculture. The school would expand its programs and campus over decades and is now the Olds College.[72]
  • Born: John Boulting, English film director (d. 1985) and Roy Boulting, English film director and producer (d. 2001), identical twin brothers who produced films such as Brighton Rock and I'm All Right, Jack, in Bray, Berkshire

November 22, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

November 23, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

November 24, 1913 (Monday)[edit]

November 25, 1913 (Tuesday)[edit]

White House wedding couple Wilson and Sayre

November 26, 1913 (Wednesday)[edit]

November 27, 1913 (Thursday)[edit]

November 28, 1913 (Friday)[edit]

  • Prussian soldiers occupying Saverne arrested and imprisoned 26 demonstrators without probable cause, after a crowd of demonstrators made their angriest protests up to that time over Lt. von Forstner's offensive remarks and the insufficiency of the discipline taken against the young officer. When the crowd ignored warnings to disperse, the soldiers charged the crowd, seized whomever they could detain, and imprisoned the 26 in the basement of the Rohan Palace. Martial law was declared in the town soon after.[89]
  • Pancho Villa gained control of Chihuahua City, Mexico and established a base of operations in the city for División del Norte.[90]
  • New rules to speed up the game of ice hockey were tested for the first time in a game, as the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) implemented ideas by Frank Patrick, including an end to the prohibition against passing the puck forward beyond one's own side of the rink.[91] Previously, players could only pass the puck forward until they reached the blue line that marked the neutral zone, after which they had to maintain possession while they skated forward, and could only pass to a player behind them. The penalties that resulted from frequent infractions of the rule delayed the games. Patrick's idea, which would later be accepted by the NHL forerunner, the National Hockey Association, was to allow forward passing by either team in the neutral zone. In a preseason exhibition at Victoria Arena in Victoria, British Columbia, the Victoria Aristocrats beat the Vancouver Millionaires 4 to 3 in overtime. [92]
  • Died: George B. Post, American architect, noted proponent of the Beaux-Arts tradition and designer of many public New York City buildings including the New York Stock Exchange (b. 1837)

November 29, 1913 (Saturday)[edit]

November 30, 1913 (Sunday)[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cross, Harry, "Inventing the Forward Pass", November 1, 1913, reprinted in "This Day in Sports", The New York Times, November 1, 2004
  2. ^ "Notre Dame Outclasses the Army Team— Westerners Show Great Speed and Execute 12 Forward Passes for Big Gains", Pittsburgh Gazette-Times, pIII-4
  3. ^ Emmerson, Charles (2013). 1913: The World before the Great War (2013 ed.). Random House. p. 13. ISBN 9781448137329.
  4. ^ Constantelos, Stephen. "George Stovall". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 13 April 2014.; "Federal League Contract", New York Times, November 3, 1913
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  6. ^ "Record of Current Events", The American Monthly Review of Reviews (December 1913), pp. 671-674
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  12. ^ John V.A. MacMurray, comp., Treaties and Agreements with and concerning China, 1894-1919 (New York, 1921), v. 2, no. 1913/11, pp. 1066-67
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  35. ^ Krueger, Andrew (1 July 2013). "Video confirms wreck is freighter Henry B. Smith: New video taken more than 500 feet beneath the surface of Lake Superior confirms that a shipwreck discovered earlier this year is indeed the long-lost freighter Henry B. Smith". Duluth News Tribune.
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  66. ^ "Beachey Loops the Loop" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  67. ^ "'Loops' with a Passenger", New York Times, November 19, 1913
  68. ^ "'Corpse' Looks on as Family Mourns", Montreal Gazette, November 20, 1913, p. 1
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