November 1981

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1981
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
01 02 03 04 05 06 07
08 09 10 11 12 13 14
15 16 17 18 19 20 21
22 23 24 25 26 27 28
29 30  
November 12, 1981: Joe Engle and Richard Truly become first people to fly a used spacecraft
November 20, 1981: Karpov retains world chess championship
second launch of Columbia
November 2, 1981: U.S. nuclear missile dropped on Scotland

The following events occurred in November 1981:

November 1, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

Antiguan Barbudan flag
  • The nation of Antigua and Barbuda gained independence from the United Kingdom. At midnight in St. John's, Antigua, the British flag was hauled down and the Antiguan flag raised in its place at the city's cricket park. Princess Margaret, appearing on behalf of her sister, Queen Elizabeth II, presented the instruments of state to Prime Minister Vere Cornwall Bird.[1]
  • Paid maternity leave was introduced in the Soviet Union as part of the 11th Party Congress reforms.[2]
  • Born: LaTavia Roberson, American singer (Destiny's Child), in Houston

November 2, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • At the U.S. Polaris nuclear submarine base at the Holy Loch in Scotland, a Poseidon missile slipped from a crane that was transferring the weapon from a ballistic missile submarine to the submarine tender USS Holland. The missile fell 17 feet without incident, although the magazine New Statesman reported in its November 27 issue that the missile had ten nuclear warheads, that there had been the risk of an explosion that could have released a large radioactive cloud, and that the crews had been evacuated.[3] Although the story has sometimes been retold as an incident where "we almost nuked Scotland" and that the fully armed Poseidon missile "did not detonate, but it could have",[4] the magazine itself emphasized that "The risk was not thermonuclear explosion but detonation in the fierce, sensitive chemical explosives of the warhead trigger-system" that would have released a radioactive cloud.[5]
  • Born:
  • Died: Kenneth Oakley, 70, English anthropologist whose testing exposed the Piltdown Man as a fraud.

November 3, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • High school junior Anthony Jacques Broussard raped and strangled his 14-year-old girlfriend, Marcy Conrad, in Milpitas, California. "The unusual, and perhaps more disturbing, aspect of the crime was what ensued in the two days between the murder and the notification of police",[6] an author would write later. Broussard not only bragged about the murder, he took at least 13 of his classmates to see the body before one of them finally told the police.[7]
  • Demonstrators marched in Codrington, on the island of Barbuda, the smaller (population 1,200) of the islands of Antigua and Barbuda, in support of secession from the newly independent nation. T. Hilbourne Frank, president of Codrington's village council, declared that at least 75% of the people wanted to separate from the more populous (76,000 people) island of Antigua.[8]

November 4, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

Jaruzelski
Walesa

November 5, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

November 6, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • What was intended as a "tune-up" bout for WBC heavyweight boxing champion Larry Holmes nearly became an upset when unheralded challenger Renaldo Snipes nearly knocked out Holmes in the 7th round in their fight at Pittsburgh.[20] A powerful overhand right by Snipes sent Holmes to the canvas, and the champ staggered into the post in his corner. Holmes came back into the fight as the count reached 8 and continued. In the 11th round, referee Rudy Ortega stopped the fight as Holmes was hitting Snipes with a barrage of punches, and declared Holmes the winner.[21]
  • The government of Sweden permitted Soviet submarine U-137 to leave its territorial waters, nine days after the sub had run aground while approaching the Karlskrona naval base.[22]
  • Born: Cassie Bernall, American victim of the Columbine High School massacre and subject of the book She Said Yes; in Wheat Ridge, Colorado (killed 1999)

November 7, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • The skeleton of Saint Lucy, who was martyred in the year 304 and was designated at the patron saint of eyesight, was taken by two masked youths from the Church of San Geremia in Venice, near the Santa Lucia railway station.[23] Saint Lucy and her relics were recovered on December 13, 1981, which coincided with her feast day. Gianfranco Tiozzo was arrested at a hunting lodge in nearby Marcon, where Lucy's remains had been kept by him.;[24]
  • Colonel Ryszard Kukliński, the Chief of Strategic Defense Planning for the People's Army of Poland, escaped to West Germany along with his wife and children, then flew to the United States four days later. Only after his departure was it revealed that the adviser to General Jaruzelski had been spying for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency since 1970.[25]
  • Died: Will Durant, 96, American historian and co-author, with his wife Ariel Durant, of The Story of Civilization

November 8, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

November 9, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

November 10, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

  • David Stockman, the budget director for President Reagan, was celebrating his 35th birthday when the December issue of The Atlantic magazine reached newsstands with the article "The Education of David Stockman".[30] In the article, based on Stockman's interviews by William Greider, the President's chief economic strategist criticized supply-side economics.[31] Democrats in Congress were quick to cite the article as proof that the President's program would not work. Stockman protested that his comments had been made off the record with understanding that they would not be published.[32] Stockman remained as OMB Director, but with less influence than he had had as an adviser.[33]
  • Born:
  • Died: Abel Gance, 92, French film director

November 11, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

November 12, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

  • The space shuttle Columbia became the first space vehicle to be reused, launching at 10:09 am from Cape Canaveral with astronauts Joe Engle and Richard Truly. It was only the second shuttle mission overall.[37] A failure of some of the fuel cells forced the early end of the mission, and Engle and Truly landed two days later.[38]
  • November 12, 1981, had also been the date, planned back in 1969, for the launch of a manned mission to Mars, based on the expected planning time and the proximity of Earth to Mars and Venus. Cuts to NASA budget in 1970 stopped the project, but the plan had been for a nine-month trip to Mars, with arrival on August 9, 1982; ten weeks of exploration ending with departure on October 28, 1982; a flyby of Venus February 28, 1983; and a return to Earth on August 14, 1983.[39]
  • Double Eagle V became the first balloon to cross the Pacific Ocean. After launching on November 10 from Nagashima, Japan with four men (Rocky Aoki, Ron Clark, Larry Newman and Ben Abruzzo) and crossing the International Date Line, the Double Eagle traveled 5,768 miles and landed 84 hours and 31 minutes later in the U.S., near Covelo, California.[40]

November 13, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • The Canadarm, officially the Remote Manipulator System, was used for the first time on the second day of the Columbia mission. Astronaut Richard Truly began the successful test of the robotic arm at 1400 UTC "Flight History of Canadarm", Canadian Space Agency. With a reach of 15 meters, the robotic arm was used in space shuttle missions to bring satellites out of orbit and into the cargo bay for repair, and then redeployment. Designed with a grant from the National Research Council of Canada, and built in Toronto at the Spar Aerospace factory, the device was famous as "Canada's contribution to the US space shuttle program".[41]
  • The Tokyo daily newspaper Mainichi Shimbun reported that U.S. National Security Adviser Richard Allen had accepted a $1,000 payment from the Japanese women's magazine Shufunotomo, in return for arranging an interview with Nancy Reagan, on January 21. Allen confirmed the story, but said that he had forgotten that the cash was in his office safe.[42] Though Allen was cleared of wrongdoing, he was asked by President Reagan to resign on January 4, 1982.[43]

November 14, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

Rev. Bradford
  • The Reverend Robert Bradford, 40, member of the United Kingdom House of Commons for South Belfast, Northern Ireland, was assassinated by three Irish Republican Army members. Bradford had been at the community center in Finaghy, along with 60 teenagers who were attending a dance. A caretaker for the center was shot and killed as the gunmen fled, and Bradford, an outspoken critic of the IRA, died after being shot six times.[44]

November 15, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Abdus Sattar was confirmed as President of Bangladesh in an election suspected of being rigged. Running on the Nationalist Party ticket as one of 23 candidates, Sattar, who had been the acting President since the May 30 assassination of Ziaur Rahman, officially received 14,217,601 votes, nearly two-thirds of those cast, while runner up Kamal Hossain of the Awami League got 5,694,884.[45]
  • A force of 100 paratroopers from Zaire, arrived in Chad as the first part of a peacekeeping mission by member nations of the Organisation of African Unity, to maintain order while occupying soldiers from Libya departed. The contingent was followed by troops from Senegal and Nigeria.[46]
  • Born: Lorena Ochoa, Mexican-born golfer, in Guadalajara
  • Died:
    • Enid Markey, 87, American film actress who originated the role of "Jane" in the 1918 silent Tarzan of the Apes
    • Khawar Rizvi, 43, Pakistani poet

November 16, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • The wedding of Luke and Laura was watched by 14 million households, setting a record, still standing, for an episode on a "daytime television" show. Luke Spencer (Tony Geary) and Laura Webber (Genie Francis) married on the American soap opera General Hospital.[47] It was estimated that 30 million television viewers witnessed the fictitious ceremony.[48]
  • C. Everett Koop was confirmed as the Surgeon General of the United States by a 68-24 in the United States Senate. The outspoken Koop would go on to become perhaps the most memorable holder of the office.[49]
  • Stephen Sondheim's Merrily We Roll Along debuted at the Alvin Theatre and proved to be a rare flop for the otherwise successful composer and lyricist. The musical ran for only 16 performances.[50]
  • Died:
    • William Holden, 63, American film actor died at his home, apparently after drinking heavily, tripping on a throw rug, and striking his head on the edge of a nightstand. Holden, who had won the 1953 Academy Award for Best Actor (for the film Stalag 17) had been the best man at the March 4, 1952 wedding of Ronald Reagan and Nancy Reagan. Film director Billy Wilder would later comment to the New York Times, "To be killed by a bottle of vodka and a night table! What a lousy fadeout for a great guy!"[51]
    • Frank Malina, 69, American aeronautical engineer

November 17, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

November 18, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • In a speech to the National Press Club in Washington D.C., President Reagan unveiled what he called the zero option proposal, the first attempt to reduce the number of nuclear missiles. Reagan, also announced the term "START" for upcoming negotiations in Vienna, with the goal being a strategic arms reduction treaty, going beyond SALT (strategic arms limitation treaty) negotiations. The proposal was for the U.S. to cancel deployment of Pershing II missiles and cruise missiles if the U.S.S.R. made similar reductions of its arsenal of SS-20, SS-4 and SS-5 missiles.[54]
  • Died: Fredric Wertham, 86, German-born American psychiatrist whose 1954 book, Seduction of the Innocent, resulted in a backlash against the American comic book industry and the creation of the Comics Code Authority.

November 19, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

November 20, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

  • Reigning champion Anatoly Karpov retained his title world chess champion when challenger Viktor Korchnoi conceded the 18th game of the series, giving Karpov the sixth win in the match, that had started on October 1 at the Kurzentrum playing hall in Merano, Italy. The game had been adjourned the day before. With the game set to resume at 5:00 pm, Korchnoi submitted his resignation of the game to chief referee Paul Klein at 3:15.[56]
  • The Canada-U.S. Boundary Settlement Treaty for the Gulf of Maine went into effect, after having been ratified by the U.S. Senate on June 3 and by the Canadian Senate on November 17.[57]

November 21, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

Klep
  • In the largest anti-nuclear protest to that time, a crowd of 350,000 marched in Amsterdam against the deployment of American missiles in Europe.[58]
  • The Gibraltar-registered tanker Globe Asimi ran aground in the Lithuanian S.S.R. port of Klaipėda during a storm, and spilled 16,000 tons of fuel oil in the Baltic Sea, much of which then washed on to the beaches of what was then a Soviet Union port. The Soviet solution for cleaning the coastline was to remove 600,000 tons of oil soaked sand and then to dump it into landfills, where it seeped into the groundwater.[59]
  • Died: Eddie Klep, 63, the first white person to play in American baseball's Negro Leagues. On May 29, 1946, Klep debuted for the Cleveland Buckeyes in an 8-6 win over the Chicago American Giants.[60]

November 22, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

November 23, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • England was swept by 105 tornadoes over the space of five hours. Normally, the United Kingdom has 30 tornadoes in an entire year. The twisters formed at random along a cold front sweeping from Anglesey to East Anglia.[64]
  • Iran-Contra scandal: President Reagan signed the top-secret NSDD-17, a National Security Decision Directive, authorizing the CIA to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua and allotting $19,950,000 funding.[65]
  • After 45 years, the New Jersey State Police files on the Lindbergh kidnapping were opened for public viewing. The release of the files had followed a lawsuit brought by Anna Hauptmann, the widow of Bruno Hauptmann, who had been convicted of the 1930 kidnapping and murder of Charles A. Lindbergh, Jr., the 18-month-old son of legendary aviator Charles Lindbergh and Anne Morrow Lindbergh. The materials are now housed at the state police Museum and Learning Center in West Trenton.[66]
  • Nurse Robert Diaz was arrested at his home and charged with murdering 12 hospital patients by injecting them with overdoses of the heart medicine Lidocaine.[67] Eleven of the murders had taken place in April at the Community Hospital of the Valley, in Perris, California. Diaz was suspected in the deaths of as many as 60 other lidocaine related deaths. He was convicted on the 12 counts of murder on March 29, 1984, and sentenced to death, but would die of natural causes on August 11, 2010 at the age of 72.[68]
  • U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig and Cuba's Vice-President Carlos Rafael Rodríguez met secretly in Mexico City at the home of Mexican Foreign Minister Jorge Castañeda Gutman, to discuss whether Cuba would cease funding of guerilla operations in Central America. The meeting was unsuccessful, and did not remain a secret for long, being reported by the Mexico City newspaper El Pais two weeks later.[69]

November 24, 1981 (Tuesday)[edit]

November 25, 1981 (Wednesday)[edit]

  • A group of mercenary soldiers, led by "Mad Mike" Hoare, arrived at the airport in Mahé with plans to overthrow the government of the Seychelles. Posing as players and fans of a visiting rugby club, most of the 45 mercenaries had passed through customs, when an inspector discovered that one of them had brought in a prohibited fruit, prompting a search of the other bags. When an assault rifle was discovered, the visitors grabbed their weapons and took control of the terminal, then escaped the country by hijacking Air India Flight 224 to Durban, South Africa, where they were arrested, then released the next day.[71]
  • The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief adopted by the General Assembly as UN Resolution 36/55.[72]
  • Cardinal Josef Ratzinger, who would later become Pope Benedict XVI, was appointed Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of Faith by Pope John Paul II.[73]
  • Born:
  • Died: Jack Albertson, 74, American TV actor (Chico and the Man), stage actor (The Subject Was Roses) and film actor (Willie Wonka and the Chocolate Factory); winner of an Oscar, an Emmy and a Tony award.

November 26, 1981 (Thursday)[edit]

November 27, 1981 (Friday)[edit]

November 28, 1981 (Saturday)[edit]

  • Bear Bryant became the winningest coach in college football history when Alabama beat Auburn, 28-17, for his 315th victory.[77] Bryant would finish his career the next year with 323 wins, 85 losses and 17 ties.[78] Four years later, Eddie Robinson of Grambling State would surpass Bryant,[79] and would retire in 1997 with a 408-167-16 record.[80]
  • The Kibeho apparitions in Rwanda began at a time of increasing tension between the Tutsis and the Hutus.

November 29, 1981 (Sunday)[edit]

  • Shortly after noon, a car bomb exploded outside of a school in the Azbakiyah section of Damascus killed more than 200 people, many of them children. The blast tore away the fronts of nearby buildings. The death toll, initially measured at 64, rose as additional bodies were unearthed from the rubble. The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood claimed responsibility for the attack.[81]
  • In Honduras, voting took place for the first time in 17 years for a civilian President, in the first election in a decade. Dr. Roberto Suazo Cordova, from the Liberal Party was the winner, defeating Ricardo Zuniga Augustinus.[82]
  • Born: Tom Hurndall, British photographer and murder victim, in London (killed 2004)
  • Died:

November 30, 1981 (Monday)[edit]

  • In Geneva, negotiations began for the reduction of intermediate range nuclear missiles, with Paul Nitze and Yuli Kvitsinsky appearing for the United States and the Soviet Union, respectively. The START talks would eventually lead to the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty on December 8, 1987.[84] "START", an American acronym for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, was referred to in Russian as the "SNV" (Strategicheskih Nastupatel'nyh Vooruzhenij) Treaty
  • The Memorandum of Understanding on Strategic Cooperation was signed by U.S. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and Israeli Defense Minister Ariel Sharon. The MOU lasted only 17 days, and was suspended after Israel announced its annexation of the Golan Heights.[85]
  • Died: Ken Horne, the original AIDS patient to be reported to the CDC.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "349 years of British rule end", Glasgow Herald, November 2, 1981, p4
  2. ^ Henry W. Morton, Robert C. Stuart, The Contemporary Soviet city (M.E. Sharpe, 1984) p101
  3. ^ "Potential hazard seen in Navy missile mishap, Milwaukee Sentinel, November 27, 1981, p2-7
  4. ^ Carl Jensen, 20 years of censored news (Seven Stories Press, 1997) p116
  5. ^ "Accidents Will Happen", by Norman Solomon and Duncan Campbell, New Statesman, November 27, 1981
  6. ^ Geoffrey T. Holtz, Welcome to the jungle: the why behind "Generation X" (Macmillan, 1995) p55
  7. ^ "Police say boy bragged, showed body of victim", Milwaukee Sentinel, November 25, 1981, p1
  8. ^ "Barbuda Island wants to secede from newly independent Antigua", Lewiston (ID) Morning Tribune, November 4, 1981, p6A
  9. ^ "Doctor Ruled Innocent In Elvis Drug Case", Pittsburgh Press, November 5, 1981, pA-6
  10. ^ "Space Shuttle Flight Halted 31 Seconds Short of Launch", Los Angeles Times, November 4, 1981, pA1
  11. ^ Adam Zwass, The Economies of Eastern Europe in a Time of Change (M.E. Sharpe, 1984) p100, p119; "Hungary Seeks To Join IMF" NYTimes Nov 5, 1981
  12. ^ Philip Taylor, Modernity and Re-Enchantment: Religion in Post-Revolutionary Vietnam (Lexington Books, 2008) p309
  13. ^ Don B. Wilmeth and Christopher Bigsby, eds., The Cambridge History of American Theatre: Post-World War II to the 1990s (Cambridge University Press, 2000) p382
  14. ^ Marcia Langton, Settling with Indigenous People: Modern Treaty and Agreement-making (Federation Press, 2006)
  15. ^ Eric Frattini and Dick Cluster, The Entity: Five Centuries of Secret Vatican Espionage (Macmillan, 2008) p335
  16. ^ Stephen L. Newman, Constitutional politics in Canada and the United States (SUNY Press, 2004) p255; John F. Conway, Debts to pay: the future of federalism in Quebec (James Lorimer & Company, 2004) p115; "Ottawa, 9 provinces get BNA deal but Levesque vows he'll fight on", Montreal Gazette, November 6, 1981, p1
  17. ^ "'Di' Is Cast As Lady Waiting June Birth", Pittsburgh Press, November 5, 1981, pA-1
  18. ^ "Portable Meter To Aid Diabetics", Pittsburgh Press, November 6, 1981, pA-6
  19. ^ Michele Martin, Music in the sky: the life, art, and teachings of the 17th Gyalwa Karmapa Ogyen Trinley Dorje (Snow Lion Publications, 2003) p19
  20. ^ ["'Easy' tuneup nearly a nightmare for Holmes"], Milwaukee Journal, November 7, 1981, p9
  21. ^ "Referee Stops Fight; Holmes Retains Title", Anchorage Daily News, November 7, 1981, pB-1
  22. ^ "Swedes free sub; outcry mounts", Milwaukee Journal, November 6, 1981, p3
  23. ^ "Saint's remains stolen", Milwaukee Journal, November 9, 1981, p2
  24. ^ "Venetian police recover stolen skeleton of saint", Milwaukee Journal, December 14, 1981, p15
  25. ^ Douglas J. MacEachin, U.S. Intelligence and the Confrontation in Poland, 1980-1981 (Penn State Press, 1998) p204
  26. ^ "Weak coalition regime likely after Belgian vote", Milwaukee Journal, November 9, 1981, p3
  27. ^ . Inter-Parliamentary Union report on Belgium election 8 November 1981
  28. ^ Edward H. Lawson and Mary Lou Bertucci, Encyclopedia of Human Rights (Taylor & Francis, 1996) p990.
  29. ^ "Mauritania has 100,000 slaves: report", The Age (Melbourne), October 8, 1981, p7
  30. ^ "The Education of David Stockman"
  31. ^ "Stockman Says Tax Cut Was Meant To Aid Rich", Milwaukee Journal, November 11, 1981, p1
  32. ^ "Stockman Cries Foul; Reaganomics Ideas 'off The Record'", Spokane Daily Chronicle, November 11, 1981, p1
  33. ^ Lou Cannon, President Reagan: The Role of a Lifetime (1991) p221; Martin Anderson, Revolution: the Reagan legacy (Hoover Press, 1990) p235
  34. ^ Paul E. Fontenoy, Submarines: An Illustrated History of Their Impact (ABC-CLIO, 2007) p57
  35. ^ "Nuclear-Firing Sub Joins Fleet", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, November 12, 1981, p1
  36. ^ "Fernando Is First Rookie to Win Cy Young Award", Los Angeles Times, November 12, 1981, p1
  37. ^ "Columbia returns to space", Ottawa Citizen, November 12, 1981, p1
  38. ^ "Space: Radiant Lift-Off, Hasty Landing", TIME Magazine, November 23, 1981; "Dead fuel cell forces early return for the Columbia", Deseret News (Salt Lake City), November 12, 1981, p1
  39. ^ Bill Yenne, Secret Gadgets and Strange Gizmos: High-Tech (and Low-Tech) Innovations of the U.S. Military (Zenith Imprint, 2006) p58; "MAN ON MARS: SCIENTIST'S PLAN FOR LANDING, Sydney Morning Herald, August 3, 1969, p4
  40. ^ Glen Bledsoe and Karen Bledsoe, Ballooning Adventures p31; "Balloonists safe after Pacific crossing", Miami News, November 13, 1981 p1
  41. ^ "Canadarm", in The Canadian Encyclopedia online
  42. ^ "Allen Defended In Taking $1,000", Pittsburgh Press, November 13, 1981, p1
  43. ^ "Allen out, Reagan names pal national security aide", The Tuscaloosa (AL) News, January 5, 1982, p1
  44. ^ "Ulster Gunmen Kill Parliament Member", Toledo Blade, November 15, 1981, p1
  45. ^ "Sattar wins in Bangladesh", New London (CT) Day, November 17, 1981, p13
  46. ^ Terry M. Mays, Historical Dictionary of Multinational Peacekeeping (Scarecrow Press, 2004) p115
  47. ^ "Luke and Laura Finally Tie the Knot as 14 Million Watch 'General Hospital'", Schenectady (NY) Gazette, November 17, 1981, p6
  48. ^ "Luke and Laura: Still the Ultimate TV Wedding", ABCNews.com, November 14, 2006
  49. ^ Roger Chapman, Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Viewpoints, and Voices (M.E. Sharpe, 2010) p304
  50. ^ John Louis DiGaetani, Stages of Struggle: Modern Playwrights and Their Psychological Inspirations (McFarland, 2008) p164
  51. ^ Michelangelo Capua, William Holden: A Biography (McFarland, 2009) pp3-5
  52. ^ John D. Martz, United States Policy in Latin America: A Decade of Crisis and Challenge (University of Nebraska Press, 1995); Lori Lyn Bogle, The Cold War: National Security Policy Planning from Truman to Reagan and from Stalin to Gorbachev (Taylor & Francis, 2001) p317
  53. ^ Patrick Moore, The Data Book of Astronomy (CRC Press, 2000) p89
  54. ^ Nuclear Arms Control: Background and Issues (National Academies Press, 1985) p113 (November 18); Ronald Reagan, An American Life (Simon & Schuster, 1990) p49; Remarks; "'Zero option' pleases leaders of Europe; experts doubtful", Modesto (CA) Bee', November 19, 1981, p1
  55. ^ Kris Hollington, Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes: The Assassins that Changed History (Macmillan, 2008) pp 257-261
  56. ^ "18th Chess Game Adjourned; Karpov Near Victory", New York Times, November 21, 1981; "Karpov Winner in Chess Title Match", by Robert Byrne, New York Times, November 21, 1981
  57. ^ United States Treaties and Other International Agreements (Volume 33, Part 3) (U.S. Department of State, 1983) p2801
  58. ^ "350,000 Protest Arms Race In March Through Amsterdam", Sarasota (FL) Herald-Tribune, November 22, 1981, p2
  59. ^ Susan D. Halsey, Coastal Ocean Space Utilization (Taylor & Francis, 1990) p148
  60. ^ "Baseball's other 'great experiment': Eddie Klep and the integration of the Negro leagues", by Larry R. Gerlach, Journal of Sport History (Fall 1998) p465
  61. ^ J. Michael Miller, The post-synodal apostolic exhortations of John Paul II (Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 1998) p119
  62. ^ Ameeta Gupta and Ashish Kumar, Handbook of Universities (Atlantic Publishers, 2006) p798; University website
  63. ^ John Kador, Charles Schwab: How One Company Beat Wall Street and Reinvented the Brokerage Industry (John Wiley and Sons, 2002) p123
  64. ^ "Catch a falling frog", by Derek Elsom, New Scientist, June 2, 1988 p38; Dennis Wheeler and Julian Mayes, Regional Climates of the British Isles (CRC Press, 1997)p239
  65. ^ Richard A. Melanson, American Foreign Policy since the Vietnam War: The Search for Consensus from Richard Nixon to George W. Bush (M.E. Sharpe, 2005) p171
  66. ^ "Lindbergh baby case files opened at last", Milwaukee Journal, November 24, 1981, p3; Jim Fisher, The Ghosts of Hopewell: Setting the Record Straight in the Lindbergh Case (SIU Press, 2006) p46
  67. ^ "Nurse charged in hospital deaths", The Milwaukee Journal, November 24, 1981", p1
  68. ^ "DIAZ, Robert Rubane", CrimeZZZ.net
  69. ^ Wolfgang Hoppenstedt and Oliver Rathkolb, Global Management (LIT Verlag Münster, 2005) p66
  70. ^ "Typhoon toll reaches 595", Meriden (CT) Record-Journal, December 2, 1981, p22; Michael Allaby, Encyclopedia of Weather and Climate: A-L (Infobase Publishing, 2002) p307
  71. ^ David Hebditch and Ken Connor, How to Stage a Military Coup: From Planning to Execution (Skyhorse Publishing, 2009) p153; Mercenaries: No Grounding the Geese, TIME Magazine, December 14, 1981 "South Africa: Cooked Goose", TIME Magazine, August 9, 1982
  72. ^ Michael J. Perry, Religion in politics: constitutional and moral perspectives (Oxford University Press US, 1999) p39
  73. ^ Brendan Leahy, Believe in Love: The Life, Ministry and Teachings of John Paul II (New City Press, 2011) p154
  74. ^ Sebastian Balfour and Paul Preston, Spain and the Great Powers in the Twentieth Century (Routledge, 1999) p256
  75. ^ "Yunju Temple Stone-Carved Scriptures Exhibition Hall", People's Daily (Beijing), April 25, 2001
  76. ^ " Buddha body relics returned to Beijing temple", Beijing Today, June 26, 2009
  77. ^ "Bear Wins 315th", Charleston (SC) Post & Courier, November 29, 1981, pB-1
  78. ^ College Football Data Warehouse
  79. ^ "Robinson Gets No. 324 to Pass Bear Bryant", Orlando Sentinel, October 6, 1985, pC-1
  80. ^ http://www.cfbdatawarehouse.com/data/coaching/alltime_coach_year_by_year.php?coachid=3118
  81. ^ "Bomb Kills 64 in Syria", Youngstown Vindicator, November 30, 1981, p1; "Wire Fences Hung in Damascus as Security Measure", Los Angeles Times, December 28, 1981
  82. ^ "Democracy returns to Honduras", St. Petersburg (FL) Times, December 1, 1981, p2
  83. ^ Marti Rulli and Dennis Davern, Goodbye Natalie, Goodbye Splendour (Gardners Books 2010)
  84. ^ "INF Treaty (1987)", in The Oxford Companion to American Military History, John Whiteclay Chambers II, (Oxford University Press US, 1999) p333
  85. ^ Robert G. Rabil, Syria, the United States, and the War on Terror in the Middle East (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006) p69