November 2014 Bering Sea cyclone

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November 2014 Bering Sea cyclone
Post-Tropical Cyclone Nuri
Nov. 2014 bomb cyclone 2014-09-09 0210Z.jpg
The bomb cyclone at its peak intensity over the Bering Sea, on November 9, 2014
TypeExtratropical cyclone
Bomb cyclone
Blizzard
FormedNovember 7, 2014
DissipatedNovember 13, 2014
Lowest pressure920 hPa (mbar; 27.31 inHg)[1]
(North Pacific extratropical record low)
Highest winds
  • 10-minute sustained:
    130 km/h (80 mph)
  • 1-minute sustained:
    130 km/h (80 mph)
Highest gust97 miles per hour (156 km/h) at Shemya, Alaska
DamageUnknown
CasualtiesNone reported
Areas affectedBering Sea, Aleutian Islands, Russian Far East, Alaska, Contiguous United States[2]

Part of the 2014–15 North American winter

The November 2014 Bering Sea cyclone (also referred to as Post-Tropical Cyclone Nuri by the U.S. government) was the most intense extratropical cyclone (also a bomb cyclone) ever recorded in the Bering Sea, which formed from a new storm developing out of the low-level circulation that separated from Typhoon Nuri, which soon absorbed the latter.[3][4][5][6] The cyclone brought gale-force winds to the western Aleutian Islands and produced even higher gusts in other locations, including a 97 miles per hour (156 km/h) gust in Shemya, Alaska. The storm coincidentally occurred three years after another historic extratropical cyclone impacted an area slightly further to the east.[4]

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

Right after the JMA downgraded Nuri to a severe tropical storm at 00:00 UTC on November 6, the JTWC downgraded it to a tropical storm and issued its final warning for the system, due to Nuri's extratropical transition and diminishing deep convection.[7][8] In the afternoon, Nuri accelerated northeastward and became completely extratropical east of Japan.[9] Due to an unusually powerful North Pacific jet stream, the extratropical cyclone underwent extremely explosive cyclogenesis on November 7, owing to the energy from differences in air masses.[10] The system split into two centers early on the same day, but the former center on the southwest was absorbed into the new center on the northeast, within half of a day.[5][6]

Satellite loop of the extratropical cyclone nearing its peak intensity over the Bering Sea, on November 8
Full view of the extratropical cyclone at its peak intensity, on November 8

After attaining typhoon-force winds at 70 knots (130 km/h; 80 mph), the new storm's central pressure decreased to 920 hPa (mbar; 27.17 inHg) early on November 8, becoming the most intense extratropical cyclone of the North Pacific Ocean since reliable records began.[1] The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration provided a slightly higher estimate of 924 mbar (hPa; 27.29 inHg), a pressure which still holds the record for most intense cyclone in the Bering Sea.[4] The extratropical cyclone crossed the International Date Line on November 9, at which time it started to weaken. However, the system's intensity shifted the jet stream far to the north of Alaska, resulting in a large mass of Arctic air invading the United States along and east of the Rocky Mountains, which caused the worst cold wave the United States had experienced since the Early 2014 North American cold wave.[2][11] Early on the next day, the storm weakened further into a gale-force system and turned northward.[12][13] On November 11, it turned northwestward, crossed the International Date Line for the second time, and weakened even further.[14] Afterwards, the system made a counter-closewise loop and crossed the International Date Line for the third time, late on November 12.[15] The system eventually dissipated near the Aleutian Islands on November 13.[16][17]

Impact[edit]

North America[edit]

A map of the extremely frigid temperatures in North America on November 17, 2014, caused by the cold wave brought about by Nuri's remnant

Sustained winds of 110 km/h (70 mph) with gusts to 156 km/h (97 mph) were recorded on the island of Shemya.[18] Only minor damage was reported on the island which houses a United States Air Force installation.[19]

The northward movement of the cyclone altered the jet stream, which allowed a fragment of the polar vortex to descend from Arctic region into lower Canada and the Eastern United States, affecting up to 200 million people with colder-than-normal temperatures and early snowstorms.[20][21] Some U.S. locations had temperatures 45 °F (25 °C) below normal. On November 10, St. Cloud, Minnesota had the biggest snowfall ever in November with 13.2 inches (34 cm). By the next day, Ishpeming, Michigan had 24.5 inches (62 cm), the most of any location.[22] On November 13, Casper, Wyoming had its lowest temperature ever recorded in November, with a record low of −27 °F (−33 °C), and Denver, Colorado had a low of −14 °F (−26 °C), the second coldest temperature ever recorded for that month.[23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-11-08T06:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved November 8, 2014.
  2. ^ a b http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/09/us/cold-snap/index.html?hpt=hp_t1
  3. ^ Lada, Brian (November 9, 2014). "Monster Storm Becomes Strongest on Record for Alaska". AccuWeather, Inc. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Wiltgen, Nick; Erdman, Jonathan (November 9, 2014). "Bering Sea Superstorm Among the Strongest Extratropical Cyclones on Record". The Weather Channel, LLC. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
  5. ^ a b "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory 070000". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ a b "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-11-07T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved November 26, 2014.
  7. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory 060000". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ "Tropical Storm 20W (Nuri) Warning Nr 025". Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ "RSMC Tropical Cyclone Advisory 061500". Japan Meteorological Agency. Archived from the original on November 7, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ Freedman, Andrew (November 7, 2014). "Unusually powerful storm explodes over Bering Sea". Mashable. Retrieved November 11, 2014.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-09. Retrieved 2014-11-10. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-11-09T12:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  13. ^ "High Seas Forecast for METAREA XII 0545 UTC Mon Nov 10 2014". Ocean Prediction Center. Archived from the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved November 13, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. ^ "Marine Weather Warning for GMDSS Metarea XI 2014-11-11T06:00:00Z". WIS Portal – GISC Tokyo. Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
  15. ^ "High Seas Forecast for METAREA XII 2345 UTC Wed Nov 12 2014". Ocean Prediction Center. Archived from the original on November 13, 2014. Retrieved November 13, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  16. ^ "High Seas Forecast for METAREA XII 1745 UTC Thu Nov 13 2014". Ocean Prediction Center. Archived from the original on November 14, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ "Pacific Surface Analysis 18:00 UTC 13 Nov 2014". Ocean Prediction Center. Archived from the original (PNG) on November 14, 2014. Retrieved November 14, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  18. ^ "Local Storm Reports". National Weather Service Office in Anchorage, Alaska. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. November 8, 2014. Archived from the original on November 9, 2014. Retrieved November 9, 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  19. ^ Devin Kelly (November 8, 2014). "Weather service: No damage reported in Bering Sea storm". Alaska Dispatch News. Retrieved November 9, 2014.
  20. ^ "Polar Vortex to Blast 200 Million People With Arctic Air". November 8, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014.
  21. ^ Diep, Francie (2014-11-20). "Blame this Arctic Superstorm for Brutal US Winter Weather". Popular Science. Popular Science. Retrieved 2014-11-20.
  22. ^ Rice, Doyle (November 11, 2014). "South and East: Get ready for the icebox". USA Today. Retrieved November 15, 2014.
  23. ^ Fritz, Angela (November 13, 2014). "Arctic blast grips Central U.S. with record cold temperatures". Washington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2014.