November 2019 Spanish general election

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November 2019 Spanish general election

← 2019 (Apr) 10 November 2019

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 266) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered37,000,608 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.3%[1]
  Pedro Sánchez 2019g (cropped).jpg Pablo Casado 2019c (cropped).jpg Albert Rivera 2019b (cropped).jpg
Leader Pedro Sánchez Pablo Casado Albert Rivera
Party PSOE PP Cs
Leader since 18 June 2017 21 July 2018 9 July 2006
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Madrid
Last election 123 seats, 28.7% 66 seats, 16.7% 57 seats, 15.9%
Seats needed Green Arrow Up Darker.svg53 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg110 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg119

  Pablo Iglesias 2019 (cropped).jpg Santiago Abascal 2018b (cropped).jpg Gabriel Rufián (election).jpg
Leader Pablo Iglesias Santiago Abascal Gabriel Rufián
Party Unidas Podemos Vox ERC–Sobiranistes
Leader since 15 November 2014 20 September 2014 14 October 2019
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Barcelona
Last election 42 seats, 14.3% 24 seats, 10.3% 15 seats, 3.9%
Seats needed Green Arrow Up Darker.svg134 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg152 N/A

Provinces of Spain - blank map.svg
Constituency results map for the Congress of Deputies

Incumbent Prime Minister

None
(Pedro Sánchez as acting)



The November 2019 Spanish general election will be held on Sunday, 10 November 2019, to elect the 14th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies will be up for election, as well as 208 of 266 seats in the Senate.

The election will be held as provided under article 99.5 of the Spanish Constitution,[2] as a result of the failure in government formation negotiations after Pedro Sánchez's failed investiture voting on 23–25 July 2019. On 17 September 2019, King Felipe VI declined to propose any candidate for investiture ahead of the 23 September deadline as a result of the lack of agreement between parties, with a new general election being scheduled for 10 November.[3][4][5][6] The failure in PSOE–Unidas Podemos negotiations prompted former Podemos founder Íñigo Errejón to turn his regional Más Madrid platform—which had obtained a remarkable result in the 26 May Madrilenian regional election—into a national alliance under the newly-created brand of Más País,[7][8] comprising a number of regional parties and former Podemos and United Left allies, such as Coalició Compromís, Equo or Chunta Aragonesista.[9][10]

Overview[edit]

Electoral system[edit]

The Spanish Cortes Generales are envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies has greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a Prime Minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possesses a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions—such as its role in constitutional amendment—which are not subject to the Congress' override.[2][11] Voting for the Cortes Generales is on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprises all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[12] Additionally, Spaniards abroad are required to apply for voting before being permitted to vote, a system known as "begged" or expat vote (Spanish: Voto rogado).[13]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats are elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with a threshold of 3 percent of valid votes—which includes blank ballots—being applied in each constituency. Parties not reaching the threshold are not taken into consideration for seat distribution. Additionally, the use of the D'Hondt method may result in an effective threshold over three percent, depending on the district magnitude.[14] Seats are allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain. Each constituency is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 allocated among the constituencies in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla are allocated the two remaining seats, which are elected using plurality voting.[2][15][16][17]

For the Senate, 208 seats are elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors can vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces is allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger—Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife—being allocated three seats each, and the smaller—Menorca, IbizaFormentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma—one each. Ceuta and Melilla elect two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities can appoint at least one senator each and are entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[2][15][16][17]

The electoral law provides that parties, federations, coalitions and groupings of electors are allowed to present lists of candidates. However, parties, federations or coalitions that have not obtained a mandate in either House of Parliament at the preceding election are required to secure the signature of at least 0.1 percent of the electors registered in the constituency for which they are seeking election, whereas groupings of electors are required to secure the signature of 1 percent of electors. Electors are barred from signing for more than one list of candidates. Concurrently, parties and federations intending to enter in coalition to take part jointly at an election are required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election being called.[15][17] The electoral law provides for a special, simplified process for election re-runs, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through pre-election procedures again.

Election date[edit]

The term of each House of the Cortes Generales—the Congress and the Senate—expires four years from the date of their previous election, unless they are dissolved earlier. The election Decree shall be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the Prime Minister does not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The Decree shall be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 28 April 2019, which means that the legislature's term will expire on 28 April 2023. The election Decree shall be published no later than 4 April 2023, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 28 May 2023.[15][17]

The Prime Minister has the prerogative to dissolve both Houses at any given time—either jointly or separately—and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence is in process, no state of emergency is in force and that dissolution does not occur before one year has elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both Houses are to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process fails to elect a Prime Minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[2][16] Barred this exception, there is no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate, there being no precedent of separate elections and with governments having long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.

Parties and alliances[edit]

Parliamentary status[edit]

The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 24 September 2019, after the publication of the dissolution Decree in the Official State Gazette.[18] The tables below show the status of the parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[19]

Congress of Deputies
Parliamentary group Deputies
Socialist Group 123[a]
People's Group in the Congress 66
Citizens Group 57
UP–ECP–GeC Confederal Group 42[b]
Vox Group 24
Republican Group 14[c]
PNV Basque Group 6
Mixed Group 18[d]
Total 350
 
Senate
Parliamentary group Senators
Socialist Group 139[e]
People's Group in the Senate 69
Republican Left–EH Bildu Group 14[f]
Citizens Group 13
PNV Basque Group in the Senate 9
Nationalist in the Senate Group 6[g]
Confederal Left Group 6[h]
Mixed Group 6[i]
Vacants 3[j]
Total 265

Main electoral lists[edit]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances likely to contest the election:[19]

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Candidate Ideology Previous result Ref.
Votes (%) Seats
PSOE Pedro Sánchez 2019g (cropped).jpg Pedro Sánchez
(Prime Minister)
Social democracy 28.7%
123 / 350
123 / 208
PP Pablo Casado 2019c (cropped).jpg Pablo Casado Conservatism
Christian democracy
16.7%
66 / 350
54 / 208
[20]
Cs Albert Rivera 2019b (cropped).jpg Albert Rivera Liberalism 15.9%
57 / 350
4 / 208
[21]
Unidas
Podemos
Pablo Iglesias 2019 (cropped).jpg Pablo Iglesias Left-wing populism
Democratic socialism
14.3%
42 / 350
0 / 208
[22]
Vox Santiago Abascal 2018b (cropped).jpg Santiago Abascal Right-wing populism
Ultranationalism
Neoliberalism
10.3%
24 / 350
0 / 208
ERC–
Sobiranistes
Gabriel Rufián (election).jpg Gabriel Rufián Catalan independence
Social democracy
Democratic socialism
3.9%
15 / 350
11 / 208
[23]
JxCat–Junts Laura Borràs 2018 (cropped).jpg Laura Borràs Catalan independence
Liberalism
1.9%
7 / 350
2 / 208
[23]
EAJ/PNV Aitor Esteban 2016 (cropped).jpg Aitor Esteban Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Conservative liberalism
1.5%
6 / 350
9 / 208
EH Bildu Oskar Matute 2015 (cropped).jpg Oskar Matute Basque independence
Left-wing nationalism
1.0%
4 / 350
1 / 208
CCa–NCa–
PNC
Ana Oramas 2017 (cropped).jpg Ana Oramas Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
CCa: 0.5%
NCa: 0.1%
2 / 350
0 / 208
[24]
NA+ Portrait placeholder.svg Sergio Sayas Regionalism
Conservatism
0.4%
2 / 350
3 / 208
[25]
PRC José María Mazón (2018) (cropped).jpg José María Mazón Regionalism
Progressivism
Populism
0.2%
1 / 350
0 / 208
ASG Portrait placeholder.svg Yaiza Castilla Social democracy
Insularism
[k] Did not contest
1 / 208
Más País Íñigo Errejón 2018 (cropped).jpg Íñigo Errejón Participatory democracy
Progressivism
Green politics
Did not contest [26]
[27]
[28]
[29]

Timetable[edit]

The November 2019 Spanish general election was the first to apply the new electoral procedures introduced for election re-runs as a result of the experience of the 2015–2016 political deadlock leading to the June 2016 election. This consists of a special, simplified process, including a shortening of deadlines, the lifting of signature requirements if these had been already met for the immediately previous election and the possibility of maintaining lists and coalitions without needing to go through the same pre-election procedures again. The key dates are listed below (all times are CET. Note that the Canary Islands use WET (UTC+0) instead):[15][17][30]

  • 24 September: The election Decree is issued with the countersign of the President of the Congress of Deputies, ratified by the King.[18] Formal dissolution of the Cortes Generales and beginning of a suspension period of events for the inauguration of public works, services or projects.[15]
  • 25 September: Initial constitution of Provincial and Zone Electoral Commissions.
  • 30 September: Deadline for parties and federations intending to maintain or enter into a coalition to inform the relevant Electoral Commission.
  • 7 October: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to maintain or present lists of candidates to the relevant Electoral Commission.
  • 9 October: Submitted lists of candidates are provisionally published in the Official State Gazette.
  • 13 October: Deadline for parties, federations, coalitions, and groupings of electors to rectify irregularities in their lists.
  • 14 October: Official proclamation of valid submitted lists of candidates.
  • 15 October: Proclaimed lists are published in the Official State Gazette.
  • 19 October: Deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad and for citizens temporarily absent from Spain to apply for voting.
  • 31 October: Deadline to apply for postal voting.
  • 1 November: Official start of electoral campaigning.
  • 5 November: Official start of legal ban on electoral opinion polling publication, dissemination or reproduction and deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad to vote by mail.
  • 6 November: Deadline for postal and temporarily absent voters to issue their votes.
  • 8 November: Last day of official electoral campaigning and deadline for citizens entered in the Register of Absent Electors Residing Abroad to vote in a ballot box in the relevant Consular Office or Division.
  • 9 November: Official 24-hour ban on political campaigning prior to the general election (reflection day).
  • 10 November: Polling day (polling stations open at 9 am and close at 8 pm or once voters present in a queue at/outside the polling station at 8 pm have cast their vote). Provisional counting of votes starts immediately.
  • 13 November: General counting of votes, including the counting of votes made overseas.
  • 16 November: Deadline for the general counting of votes to be carried out by the relevant Electoral Commission.
  • 25 November: Deadline for elected members to be proclaimed by the relevant Electoral Commission.
  • 5 December: Deadline for both chambers of the Cortes Generales to be re-assembled (the election Decree determines this date, which for the November 2019 election was set for 3 December).[18]
  • 4 January: Final deadline for definitive results to be published in the Official State Gazette.

Campaign period[edit]

Party slogans[edit]

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Refs
PSOE « Ahora, Gobierno. Ahora, España » "Now, Government. Now, Spain" [31]
PP « Por todo lo que nos une » "For everything that unites us" [32]
Cs « España en marcha » "Spain underway" [33]
Unidas Podemos « El poder de la gente » "The power of people" [34]
Vox « España siempre » "Always Spain" [35]
Más País

Pre-campaign[edit]

The pre-campaign period saw the rise of a new left-wing electoral platform, Más País, founded by former Podemos co-founder Íñigo Errejón around his Más Madrid platform, following the failure of the left to agree on a government following the April election.[36] Más País was joined by several other parties, such as Coalició Compromís, Chunta Aragonesista and Equo, the latter of which voted for breaking up its coalition with Unidas Podemos in order to join Errejón's platform.[10][37][38] The leadership of Podemos in the Region of Murcia also went on to joint Más País.[9] The platform went on to poll at 6 % as soon as it was formed[39].

On 24 September, the Spanish Supreme Court ruled in favor of the PSOE's plan to remove the remnants of Francisco Franco from the Valle de los Caídos, a key policy of Pedro Sánchez during the previous legislature.[40] The prior of the Valle de los Caídos' abbey, Santiago Cantera, initially announced his intention to disregard the Supreme Court's ruling and not authorize Franco's exhumation;[41] however, the Spanish government closed down the monument to the public on 11 October in order to prepare for the exhumation—finally scheduled for 22 October at latest, so for the removal to be over by 25 October—to uphold the Supreme Court's ruling.[42][43]

On 13 October, the leaders of the Catalan independence movement involved in the events of October 2017 were sentenced by the Supreme Court for sedition and embezzlement to convictions ranging from 9 to 13 years in jail.[44] The ruling unleashed a wave of violent protests throughout Catalonia, and particularly in Barcelona, throughout the ensuing days.[45][46][47]

Leaders' debates[edit]

November 2019 Spanish general election debates
Date Organisers Moderator(s)     I  Invitee    S  Surrogate    NI  Non-invitee   A  Absent invitee 
PSOE PP Cs UP Vox ERC JxCat PNV Audience Refs
1 November RTVE Xabier Fortes S
Lastra
S
A. de Toledo
S
Arrimadas
S
I. Montero
S
Espinosa
S
Rufián
NI I
Esteban
[48]
2 November laSexta
(La Sexta Noche)
Iñaki López TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD TBD [49]
4 November TV Academy María Casado I
Sánchez
I
Casado
I
Rivera
I
Iglesias
I
Abascal
NI NI NI [50]
7 November laSexta[l] Ana Pastor I
MJ. Montero
I
Pastor
I
Arrimadas
I
I. Montero
I
Monasterio
NI NI NI [51]

Opinion polls[edit]

10-point average trend line of poll results from 28 April 2019 to the present day, with each line corresponding to a political party.
  PSOE
  PP
  Cs
  Vox
  ERC
  JxCat
  PNV
  CC

Results[edit]

Congress of Deputies[edit]

Summary of the 10 November 2019 Congress of Deputies election results
SpainCongressDiagram2019-11.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)
People's Party (PP)
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs)
United We Can (Unidas Podemos)
United We Can (PodemosIU)
In Common We Can–Let's Win the Change (ECP–Guanyem el Canvi)
In Common–United We Can (PodemosEU)
Vox (Vox)
Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERCSobiranistes)
Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERCSobiranistes)
Republican Left of the Valencian Country (ERPV)
Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts)
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV)
Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu)
Animalist Party Against Mistreatment of Animals (PACMA)
Canarian Coalition–New Canaries–Canarian Nationalist Party (CCaNCaPNC)1
Sum Navarre (NA+)
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG)
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC)
Zero CutsGreen Group (Recortes Cero–GV)
More Left (MésMxMeesquerra)3
Yes to the Future (GBai)
For a Fairer World (PUM+J)
Communists (PCPE–PCPC–PCPA)
Communist Party of the Workers of Spain (PCTE)
Andalusia by Itself (AxSí)
Spanish Communist Workers' Party (PCOE)
Forward–The Greens (Avant/Adelante–LV)
Blank Seats (EB)
Coalition for Melilla (CpM)
We Are Region (Somos Región)
Humanist Party (PH)
We Are Valencian in Movement (UiG–Som–CUIDES)
Left in Positive (IZQP)
Canaries Now (ANCUP)
Sorian People's Platform (PPSO)
Regionalist Party of the Leonese Country (PREPAL)
Libertarian Party (P–LIB)
Andecha Astur (Andecha Astur)
Puyalón (PYLN)
Federation of Independents of Aragon (FIA)
Spanish Phalanx of the CNSO (FE–JONS)
European Solidarity Action Party (Solidaria)
Plural Democracy (DPL)
Regionalist Union of Castile and León (Unión Regionalista)
Centered (centrados)
European Retirees Social Democratic Party (PDSJE)
Revolutionary Anticapitalist Left (IZAR)
Andalusian Solidary Independent Republican Party (RISA)
XXI Convergence (C21)
Union of Everyone (UdT)
More Country (Más País) New
More CountryEquo (Más País–eQuo) New
More Commitment (Més Compromís)3
For Ávila (XAV) New
Teruel Exists (¡Teruel Existe!) New
Leonese People's Union (UPL) New
Popular Unity Candidacy–For Rupture (CUP–PR) New
United–Acting for Democracy (Unidos SI–ACPS–DEf) New
Feminist Initiative (IFem) New
At Once Valencian Community (aUna CV) New
Andalusian Convergence (CAnda) New
With You, We Are Democracy (Contigo) New
The Greens (LV) New
Social Aragonese Movement (MAS) New
Blank ballots
Total 350 ±0
Valid votes
Invalid votes
Votes cast / turnout
Abstentions
Registered voters 37,000,608
Sources

Senate[edit]

Summary of the 10 November 2019 Senate of Spain election results
SpainSenateDiagram2019-11.svg
Parties and coalitions Directly
elected
Reg.
app.
Total
Seats +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 18
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE)1 17
Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC)2 1
People's Party (PP) 14
People's Party (PP) 14
Forum of Citizens (FAC) 0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) 8
Confederal Left (Izquierda Confederal) 6
Forward Andalusia (AA) 1
Commitment Coalition (Compromís) 1
Common Group of the Left (Grupo Común da Esquerda) 1
More for Mallorca (Més) 1
Catalonia in Common (CatComú) 1
More Madrid (Más Madrid) 1
Republican Left of Catalonia–Sovereigntists (ERCSobiranistes) 2
Together for Catalonia–Together (JxCat–Junts) 2
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 1
Basque Country Unite (EH Bildu) 1
Create (Sortu) 1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 0
Vox (Vox) 1
Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (CCaPNC) 1
Canarian Coalition–Canarian Nationalist Party (CCaPNC) 1
Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) 0
Regionalist Party of Cantabria (PRC) 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 1
Yes to the Future (GBai) 1
Sum Navarre (NA+) 0
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 0
People's Party (PP) 0
Citizens–Party of the Citizenry (Cs) 0
Gomera Socialist Group (ASG) 0
Total 208 ±0 57 265
Sources

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 111 PSOE, 12 PSC.
  2. ^ 32 Podemos, 5 IU, 4 CatComú, 1 eQuo.
  3. ^ 13 ERC, 1 Sobiranistes.
  4. ^ 7 JxCat, 4 EH Bildu, 2 CCa, 2 UPN, 1 ERC, 1 Compromís, 1 PRC.
  5. ^ 136 PSOE, 3 PSC.
  6. ^ 12 ERC, 2 EH Bildu.
  7. ^ 4 JxCat, 1 CCa, 1 PNV.
  8. ^ 1 Adelante Andalucía, 1 Compromís, 1 En Marea, 1 Més, 1 CatComú, 1 Más Madrid.
  9. ^ 1 Vox, 1 UPN, 1 PRC, 1 PAR, 1 ASG, 1 ERC.
  10. ^ Pending regional appointments as a result of the 2019 Spanish regional elections.
  11. ^ The party only contested the Senate election.
  12. ^ "Women's debate".

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Elecciones a Cortes Generales de 10 de noviembre de 2019" (PDF). www.ine.es (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 26 September 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Spanish Constitution of 1978". Act of 29 December 1978. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  3. ^ "La falta de acuerdo entre los partidos obliga a otras elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  4. ^ "El Rey constata la falta de apoyos a Sánchez que aboca a elecciones el 10 de noviembre". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  5. ^ "El rey constata el desacuerdo político, no propone candidato y España se aboca a elecciones". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  6. ^ "Country to hold 10 November election after talks to break deadlock fail". The Guardian. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  7. ^ "Errejón formaliza su candidatura al 10-N aclamado por la militancia de Más País". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  8. ^ "El plan de Errejón para que Más País consiga grupo propio en el Congreso". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 26 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  9. ^ a b "Los dos diputados autonómicos de Podemos en Murcia se pasan al partido de Errejón". El País (in Spanish). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  10. ^ a b "Primera ruptura en Unidas Podemos: Equo decide aliarse con Más País de Íñigo Errejón". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  11. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". congreso.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 27 October 2015.
  12. ^ Carreras et al. 1989, pp. 1077.
  13. ^ Reig Pellicer, Naiara (16 December 2015). "Spanish elections: Begging for the right to vote". cafebabel.co.uk. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  14. ^ Gallagher, Michael (30 July 2012). "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e f "General Electoral System Organic Law of 1985". Organic Law No. 5 of 19 June 1985. Official State Gazette (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 December 2016.
  16. ^ a b c "Constitution" (PDF). congreso.es. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  17. ^ a b c d e "Representation of the people Institutional Act". juntaelectoralcentral.es. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  18. ^ a b c "Real Decreto 551/2019, de 24 de septiembre, de disolución del Congreso de los Diputados y del Senado y de convocatoria de elecciones" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish) (230): 105300–105302. 24 September 2019. ISSN 0212-033X.
  19. ^ a b "General election 28 April 2019". historiaelectoral.com (in Spanish). Electoral History. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  20. ^ "PP y Foro Asturias concurrirán en coalición a las generales del 10N". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  21. ^ "Ciudadanos y UPyD irán juntos a las elecciones generales". El País (in Spanish). 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  22. ^ "IU ratifica que irá bajo la fórmula de Unidas Podemos al 10N porque defiende "la misma propuesta" que en el 28A". Europa Press (in Spanish). 26 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  23. ^ a b "Junqueras y los otros condenados salen de las listas electorales para el 10-N". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  24. ^ "NC opta por ir con CC el 10N". Diario de Avisos (in Spanish). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  25. ^ "UPN volverá a concurrir con Navarra Suma a las elecciones del 10-N y cierra también sus candidatos en las listas". Navarra.com (in Spanish). 23 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  26. ^ "Errejón ya tiene marca para presentarse a las elecciones: concurrirá el 10 de noviembre con Más País". eldiario.es (in Spanish). 25 September 2019. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
  27. ^ "Compromís elige a Errejón para el 10-N: "La plataforma única no es posible"". El Confidencial (in Spanish). 23 September 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2019.
  28. ^ "CHA negocia una alianza con el partido de Errejón para las elecciones del 10N". Heraldo de Aragón (in Spanish). 24 September 2019. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  29. ^ "Primera ruptura en Unidas Podemos: Equo decide aliarse con Más País de Íñigo Errejón". El Mundo (in Spanish). 27 September 2019. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  30. ^ "Elecciones Generales 10 de noviembre de 2019. Calendario Electoral" (PDF). juntaelectoralcentral.es (in Spanish). Central Electoral Commission. Retrieved 12 October 2019.
  31. ^ "'Ahora Gobierno, ahora España', lema del PSOE para las elecciones del 10-N". El Periódico de Catalunya (in Spanish). 30 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  32. ^ "«Por todo lo que nos une», lema del PP frente al intento de Sánchez de polarizar España". ABC (in Spanish). 7 October 2019. Retrieved 7 October 2019.
  33. ^ "Rivera levanta el veto al PSOE y se abre a pactar con Sánchez". El País (in Spanish). 5 October 2019. Retrieved 5 October 2019.
  34. ^ "Podemos rescata el lema de Izquierda Unida de 2014 para las elecciones europeas: 'El poder de la gente'". Público (in Spanish). 5 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  35. ^ "Vox rivaliza con el PSOE y responde a su lema de campaña con el eslogan "España siempre"". El Mundo (in Spanish). 1 October 2019. Retrieved 2 October 2019.
  36. ^ "Spanish elections: popular leftwing politician forms new party". The Guardian. 25 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
  37. ^ "Un 70% de la militancia de Compromís apoya ir con la formación de Errejón el 10-N". El País (in Spanish). 25 September 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2019.
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  39. ^ New Spanish poll points to election stalemate
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