The Noveschi or the IX were a mercantile-banking oligarchy that ruled the Italian city-state of Siena from 1287 to 1355 A.D. They oversaw the period of Siena's greatest stability and prosperity in the Medieval era. A significant contributor to the instability that felled their regime was the 1349 outbreak of the Black Death.
- Bowsky, William M. (January 1964). "The Impact of the Black Death upon Sienese Government and Society". Speculum: A Journal of Mediaeval Studies 39 (1): 1–34.
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