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Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Rhabdoviridae
Genus: Novirhabdovirus

Hirame rhabdovirus
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus
Snakehead rhabdovirus

Novirhabdovirus is one of the genera of Rhabdoviridae, along with Vesiculovirus, known to infect aquatic hosts. They can be transmitted from fish to fish or by waterborne virus, as well as through contaminated eggs. Replication and thermal inactivation temperatures are generally lower than for other rhabdoviruses, given the cold-blooded nature of their hosts. Hosts include a large and growing range of marine and freshwater fish.[1][2]

A common characteristic among novirhabdoviruses is the NV gene, an approximately 500-nucleotide-long gene located between the glycoprotein (G) and polymerase (L) genes. The expected protein encoded by the NV gene is not found in the virions, leading to its being named a "nonvirion" (NV) protein. This is the origin of the genus name Novirhabdovirus.[3]

The four recognized species of the genus are Hirame rhabdovirus, currently isolated to Japan, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), enozootic to North America but now present in Europe and Asia, as well, Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), enzootic to Europe, but now present in North America and Asia, as well, and snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV).[4] Two tentative species of the genus, identified the Seventh Report of the ICTV, are eel virus B12 (EEV-B12), and eel virus C26 (EEV-C26).


  • M.H.V. van Regenmortel, C.M. Fauquet, D.H.L. Bishop, E.B. Carstens, M.K. Estes, S.M. Lemon, J. Maniloff, M.A. Mayo, D.J. McGeoch, C.R. Pringle, R.B. Genus Novirhabdovirus. Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Academic Press. 2000. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  • ICTVdB Virus Description: Novirhabdovirus. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database, version 3. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  1. ^ Mortensen HF, Heuer OE, Lorenzen N, Otte L, Olesen NJ (September 1999). "Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) from wild marine fish species in the Baltic Sea, Kattegat, Skagerrak and the North Sea". Virus Res. 63 (1–2): 95–106. doi:10.1016/S0168-1702(99)00062-3. PMID 10509720. 
  2. ^ Whelan, Gary E. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) Briefing Paper Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.
  3. ^ Johnson, Marc C.; Benjamin E. Simon; Carol H. Kim & Jo-Ann C. Leong (March 2000). "Production of Recombinant Snakehead Rhabdovirus: the NV Protein Is Not Required for Viral Replication". Journal of Virology 74 (5): 2343–50. doi:10.1128/JVI.74.5.2343-2350.2000. PMC 111716. PMID 10666265. 
  4. ^ Rhabdoviridae ICTVdB Index of Viruses, Version 28, June, 2002. Retrieved on 2007-07-15.

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