Nu'ulua has a land area of 25 hectares and is a habitat for locally and regionally endemic birds including the endangered tooth-billed pigeon, (Didunculus strigirostris), also known as Samoan pigeon, and an endemic bat (Pteropus samoensis).
Together with Nu'utele, another small island in the Aleipata Islands, the two isles hold the largest seabird colonies in Samoa and identified as highly significant sites for conservation. The conservation project has included efforts to eradicate the presence of Pacific rats (Rattus exulans) which prey on native insects, birds and lizards on the islands.
Ownership of both islands rests with customary chiefly titles in the villages of Aleipata on Upolu.
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