Nuclear Terrorism Convention

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Nuclear Terrorism Convention
International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism
Type anti-terrorism, international criminal law
Drafted 13 April 2005
Signed 14 September 2005
Location New York City, United States
Effective 7 July 2007
Condition 22 ratifications
Signatories 115
Parties 107
Depositary United Nations Secretary-General
Languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish

The Nuclear Terrorism Convention (formally, the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism) is a 2005 United Nations treaty designed to criminalize acts of nuclear terrorism and to promote police and judicial cooperation to prevent, investigate and punish those acts. As of September 2016, the convention has 115 signatories and 106 state parties, including the nuclear powers China, France, India, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[1]

The Convention covers a broad range of acts and possible targets, including nuclear power plants and nuclear reactors; covers threats and attempts to commit such crimes or to participate in them, as an accomplice; stipulates that offenders shall be either extradited or prosecuted; encourages States to cooperate in preventing terrorist attacks by sharing information and assisting each other in connection with criminal investigations and extradition proceedings; and, deals with both crisis situations, assisting States to solve the situations and post-crisis situations by rendering nuclear material safe through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

Definition of the crime of nuclear terrorism[edit]

Article 2 of the convention defines the offence of Nuclear terrorism as follows:

1. Any person commits an offence within the meaning of this Convention if that person unlawfully and intentionally:

(a) Possesses radioactive material or makes or possesses a device:

(i) With the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury; or
(ii) With the intent to cause substantial damage to property or to the environment;

(b)Uses in any way radioactive material or a device, or uses or damages a nuclear facility in a manner which releases or risks the release of radioactive material:

(i) With the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury; or
(ii) With the intent to cause substantial damage to property or to the environment; or
(iii)With the intent to compel a natural or legal person, an international organization or a State to do or refrain from doing an act.[2]

At the same time, article 4 expressly excludes the application of the convention to the use of nuclear devices during armed conflicts, without recognizing though the legality of the use of nuclear weapons:

1. Nothing in this Convention shall affect other rights, obligations and responsibilities of States and individuals under international law, in particular the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international humanitarian law.

2. The activities of armed forces during an armed conflict, as those terms are understood under international humanitarian law, which are governed by that law are not governed by this Convention, and the activities undertaken by military forces of a State in the exercise of their official duties, inasmuch as they are governed by other rules of international law, are not governed by this Convention.

3. The provisions of paragraph 2 of the present article shall not be interpreted as condoning or making lawful otherwise unlawful acts, or precluding prosecution under other laws.

4. This Convention does not address, nor can it be interpreted as addressing, in any way, the issue of the legality of the use or threat of use of nuclear weapons by States.[3]

States parties[edit]

As of September 2016, there are 106 states parties to the Convention.[4]

State party Signed Accessed Entry into force
 Afghanistan 29 December 2005 25 March 2013 24 April 2013
 Algeria 3 March 2011 2 April 2011
 Antigua and Barbuda 1 December 2009 31 December 2009
 Argentina 14 September 2005 8 April 2016 8 May 2016
 Armenia 15 September 2005 22 September 2010 22 October 2010
 Australia 14 September 2005 16 March 2012 15 April 2012
 Austria 15 September 2005 14 September 2006 7 July 2007
 Azerbaijan 15 September 2005 28 January 2009 27 February 2009
 Bahrain 4 May 2010 3 June 2010
 Bangladesh 7 June 2007 7 July 2007
 Belarus 15 September 2005 13 March 2007 7 July 2007
 Belgium 14 September 2005 2 October 2009 1 November 2009
 Brazil 16 September 2005 25 September 2009 25 October 2009
 Burundi 29 March 2006 24 September 2008 24 October 2008
 Canada 14 September 2005 21 November 2013 21 December 2013
 Central African Republic 19 February 2008 20 March 2008
 Chile 22 September 2005 27 September 2010 20 March 2008
 China[A] 14 September 2005 8 November 2010 8 December 2010
 Comoros 12 March 2007 7 July 2007
 Congo, Democratic Republic of the 23 September 2010 23 October 2010
 Costa Rica 15 September 2005 21 February 2013 23 March 2013
 Côte d'Ivoire 12 March 2012 11 April 2012
 Croatia 16 September 2005 30 May 2007 7 July 2007
 Cuba 17 June 2009 17 July 2009
 Cyprus 15 September 2005 28 January 2008 27 February 2008
 Czech Republic 15 September 2005 25 July 2006 7 July 2007
 Denmark[B] 14 September 2005 20 March 2007 7 July 2007
 Djibouti 14 June 2006 25 April 2014 25 May 2014
 Dominican Republic 11 June 2008 11 July 2008
 El Salvador 16 September 2005 27 November 2006 7 July 2007
 Fiji 15 May 2008 14 June 2008
 Finland 14 September 2005 13 January 2009 12 February 2009
 France 14 September 2005 11 September 2013 11 October 2013
 Gabon 15 September 2005 1 October 2007 31 October 2007
 Georgia 23 April 2010 23 May 2010
 Germany 15 September 2005 8 February 2008 9 March 2008
 Guinea-Bissau 6 August 2008 5 September 2008
 Hungary 14 September 2005 12 April 2007 7 July 2007
 India 24 July 2006 1 December 2006 7 July 2007
 Indonesia 30 September 2014 30 October 2014
 Iraq 13 May 2013 12 June 2013
 Italy 14 September 2005 21 October 2016 20 November 2016
 Jamaica 5 December 2006 27 December 2013 26 January 2014
 Japan 15 September 2005 3 August 2007 2 September 2007
 Jordan 16 November 2005 29 January 2016 28 February 2016
 Kazakhstan 16 September 2005 31 July 2008 2 September 2007
 Kenya 15 September 2005 13 April 2006 7 July 2007
 Kiribati 15 September 2005 26 September 2008 26 October 2008
 Korea, South 16 September 2005 29 May 2014 28 June 2014
 Kuwait 16 September 2005 5 September 2013 5 October 2013
 Kyrgyzstan 5 May 2006 2 October 2007 1 November 2007
 Latvia 16 September 2005 25 July 2006 7 July 2007
 Lebanon 23 September 2005 13 November 2006 7 July 2007
 Lesotho 16 September 2005 22 September 2010 22 October 2010
 Libya 16 September 2005 22 December 2008 21 January 2009
 Liechtenstein 16 September 2005 25 September 2009 21 January 2009
 Lithuania 16 September 2005 19 July 2007 18 August 2007
 Luxembourg 15 September 2005 2 October 2008 1 November 2008
 Macedonia, Republic of 16 September 2005 19 March 2007 7 July 2007
 Malawi 7 October 2009 6 November 2009
 Mali 5 November 2009 5 December 2009
 Malta 15 September 2005 26 September 2012 26 October 2012
 Mauritania 28 April 2008 28 May 2008
 Mexico 12 January 2006 27 June 2006 7 July 2007
 Moldova 16 September 2005 18 April 2008 18 May 2008
 Mongolia 3 November 2005 6 October 2006 7 July 2007
 Morocco 19 April 2006 31 March 2010 30 April 2010
 Namibia 2 September 2016 2 October 2016
 Nauru 24 August 2010 23 September 2010
 Netherlands 16 September 2005 30 June 2010 30 July 2010
 New Zealand[C] 14 September 2005 18 March 2016 17 April 2016
 Nicaragua 15 September 2005 25 February 2009 27 March 2009
 Niger 2 July 2008 1 August 2008
 Nigeria 25 September 2012 25 October 2012
 Norway 16 September 2005 20 February 2014 22 March 2014
 Panama 21 February 2006 21 June 2007 21 July 2007
 Paraguay 16 September 2005 29 January 2009 28 February 2009
 Peru 14 September 2005 29 May 2009 28 June 2009
 Poland 14 September 2005 8 April 2010 8 May 2010
 Portugal 21 September 2005 25 September 2014 25 October 2014
 Qatar 16 February 2006 15 January 2014 14 February 2014
 Romania 14 September 2005 24 January 2007 7 July 2007
 Russia 14 September 2005 29 January 2007 7 July 2007
 Saint Lucia 12 November 2012 12 December 2012
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8 July 2010 7 August 2010
 San Marino 16 December 2014 15 January 2015
 Saudi Arabia 26 December 2006 7 December 2007 6 January 2008
 Serbia 15 September 2005 26 September 2006 7 July 2007
 Slovakia 15 September 2005 23 March 2006 7 July 2007
 Slovenia 14 September 2005 17 December 2009 16 January 2010
 Solomon Islands 24 September 2009 24 October 2009
 South Africa 14 September 2005 9 May 2007 7 July 2007
 Spain 14 September 2005 22 February 2007 7 July 2007
 Sri Lanka 14 September 2005 27 September 2007 27 October 2007
 Sweden 14 September 2005 18 August 2014 17 September 2014
  Switzerland 14 September 2005 15 October 2008 14 November 2008
 Tunisia 28 September 2010 28 October 2010
 Turkey 14 September 2005 24 September 2012 24 October 2012
 Turkmenistan 28 March 2008 27 April 2008
 Ukraine 14 September 2005 25 September 2007 25 October 2007
 United Arab Emirates 10 January 2008 9 February 2008
 United Kingdom 14 September 2005 24 September 2009 24 October 2009
 United States 14 September 2005 30 September 2015 30 October 2015
 Uruguay 16 September 2005 4 March 2016 3 April 2016
 Uzbekistan 29 April 2008 29 May 2008
 Vietnam 27 September 2016 27 October 2016
 Yemen 13 October 2014 12 November 2014

Signatories which are not parties[edit]

The following states have signed, but not ratified, the Convention.[4]

State Signed
 Albania 23 November 2005
 Andorra 11 May 2006
 Benin 15 September 2005
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 7 December 2005
 Bulgaria 14 September 2005
 Burkina Faso 21 September 2005
 Cambodia 7 December 2006
 Colombia 1 November 2006
 East Timor 16 September 2005
 Ecuador 15 September 2005
 Egypt 20 September 2005
 Estonia 14 September 2005
 Ghana 6 November 2006
 Greece 15 September 2005
 Guatemala 20 September 2005
 Guinea 16 September 2005
 Guyana 15 September 2005
 Iceland 16 September 2005
 Ireland 15 September 2005
 Israel 27 December 2006
 Liberia 16 September 2005
 Madagascar 15 September 2005
 Malaysia 16 September 2005
 Mauritius 14 September 2005
 Monaco 14 September 2005
 Montenegro 23 October 2006
 Mozambique 1 May 2006
 Palau 15 September 2005
 Philippines 15 September 2005
 Rwanda 6 March 2006
 São Tomé and Príncipe 19 December 2005
 Senegal 21 September 2005
 Seychelles 7 October 2005
 Sierra Leone 14 September 2005
 Singapore 1 December 2006
 Swaziland 15 September 2005
 Syria 14 September 2005
 Tajikistan 14 September 2005
 Thailand 14 September 2005
 Togo 15 September 2005

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Convention does not apply to Hong Kong.
  2. ^ The Convention does not apply to the Faroe Islands or Greenland.
  3. ^ The Convention does not apply to Tokelau.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ratifications.
  2. ^ Nuclear Terrorism Convention, art. 1.
  3. ^ Nuclear Terrorism Convention, art. 4.
  4. ^ a b "International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism". United Nations Treaty Collection. 2016-03-19. Retrieved 2016-03-19. 

Additional reading[edit]

External links[edit]