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Nuclear blackmail is a form of nuclear strategy in which an aggressor uses the threat of use of nuclear weapons to force an adversary to perform some action or make some concessions. It is a type of extortion, related to brinkmanship.
It is generally regarded[by whom?] as ineffective against a rational opponent who has or is an ally of someone who has assured destruction capability. If both states have nuclear weapons, the form of nuclear blackmail becomes a threat of escalation. In this situation if the opponent refuses to respond, then one's choices are either surrender or suicide. During the Cold War, the explicit threat of nuclear warfare to force an opponent to perform an action was rare in that most nations were allies of either the Soviet Union or the United States.
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The United States issued several nuclear threats against the People's Republic of China in the 1950s to force the evacuation of outlying islands and the cessation of attacks against Quemoy and Matsu, part of Republic of China.
Recently declassified documents from the National Archives (UK) indicate that the United Kingdom considered threatening China with nuclear retaliation in 1961 in the case of a military reclamation of Hong Kong by China.
Ali Magoudi, a psychoanalyst of French president François Mitterrand, claimed that Margaret Thatcher threatened nuclear war against Argentina during the 1982 Falklands War in order to procure codes from France to disable Argentina's French-made missiles. This claim has not been confirmed by either the French or British governments.
Nuclear blackmail, typically by a supervillain rather than a state, has been frequently employed as a plot device in spy fiction and action films. Since such a scheme appeared in the film Thunderball, the trope has been particularly associated with the James Bond series and in 24 (TV series). The notion of a supervillain threatening world leaders with a nuclear device has since become a cliché, and has been parodied in Charles K. Feldman's Casino Royale, Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, The Simpsons episode "You Only Move Twice", and other espionage spoofs.
- Deterrence theory
- Essentials of Post–Cold War Deterrence
- Mutual assured destruction
- Nuclear terrorism
- Samson Option
- Friedman, Edward (January 1975). "Nuclear Blackmail and the end of the Korean War". Modern China. 1 (1): 75–91.
- "UK pondered China nuclear attack". BBC News. 2006-06-30. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- Henley, Jon (2005-11-22). "Thatcher 'threatened to nuke Argentina'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-11-08.
- "75 Nuke Extortion Cases". The Telegraph-Herald. UPI. 1981-06-15. Retrieved 2013-11-08.