Nuclear power in France
Nuclear energy, in the form of fission, is the primary source of energy in France. In 2004, fission energy made up the largest share of France's energy consumption at 39%.[better source needed][not in citation given] Looking purely at electricity, though, 407 TWh (75%) out of the country's total production of 541 TWh of electricity was from fission-electric power stations, the highest percentage in the world.
Électricité de France (EDF) — the country's main electricity generation and distribution company – manages the country's 59 power reactors. EDF is substantially owned by the French Government, with around 85% shares in government hands. EDF has said its uncompleted third-generation nuclear reactor European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) project, the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant, will be delayed until 2018, due to "both structural and economic reasons," which will bring the project's total cost to €8.5 billion.
As of 2012, France's electricity price to household customers is the seventh-cheapest amongst the 27 members of the European Union, and also the seventh-cheapest to industrial consumers, with a rate of €0.14 per kWh to households and €0.07 per kWh to industrial consumers. France was the biggest electricity exporter in the EU in 2012, exporting 45TWh of electricity to its neighbours. However France needs to import electricity during very cold or hot periods when demand routinely exceeds supply due to the lack of more flexible generating plants.
France's nuclear power industry has been called "a success story" that has put the nation "ahead of the world" in terms of providing cheap energy with low CO2 emissions. However, recent opinion polls show that less than 50% support nuclear power, and following François Hollande's victory in the 2012 Presidential Election, there may be a partial nuclear phaseout in France, with his Socialist party in favour of closing the oldest 24 reactors by 2025.
- 1 History
- 2 Management and economics
- 3 Technical overview
- 4 Operational considerations
- 5 Accidents and incidents
- 6 Seismicity
- 7 Nuclear safety
- 8 Public opinion
- 9 Anti-nuclear movement
- 10 Environmental impact
- 11 Fusion research
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
France has a long relationship with nuclear power, starting with Henri Becquerel's discovery of natural radioactivity in the 1890s and continued by famous nuclear scientists like Pierre and Marie Curie.
Before World War II, France had been mainly involved in nuclear research through the work of the Joliot-Curies. In 1945 the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF) created the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) governmental agency, and Nobel prize winner Frédéric Joliot-Curie, member of the French Communist Party (PCF) since 1942, was appointed high-commissioner. He was relieved of his duties in 1950 for political reasons, and would be one of the 11 signatories to the Russell-Einstein Manifesto in 1955. The CEA was created by Charles de Gaulle on 18 October 1945. Its mandate is to conduct fundamental and applied research into many areas, including the design of nuclear reactors, the manufacturing of integrated circuits, the use of radionuclides for medical treatments, seismology and tsunami propagation, and the safety of computerized systems.
Nuclear research was discontinued for a time after the war because of the instability of the Fourth Republic and the lack of finances available. However, in the 1950s a civil nuclear research program was started, a by-product of which would be plutonium. In 1956 a secret Committee for the Military Applications of Atomic Energy was formed and a development program for delivery vehicles started. In 1957, soon after the Suez Crisis and the diplomatic tension with both the USSR and the United States, French president René Coty decided the creation of the C.S.E.M. in what was then French Sahara, a new nuclear tests facility replacing the C.I.E.E.S. See France and nuclear weapons.
The first nuclear power plant by EDF in France was opened in 1962.
As a direct result of the 1973 oil crisis, on 6 March 1974 Prime Minister Pierre Messmer unexpectedly announced what became known as the 'Messmer Plan', a huge nuclear power program aimed at generating all of France's electricity from nuclear power. At the time of the oil crisis most of France's electricity came from foreign oil. Nuclear power allowed France to compensate for its lack of indigenous energy resources by applying its strengths in heavy engineering. The situation was summarized in a slogan: "In France, we do not have oil, but we have ideas."
The announcement of the Messmer Plan, which was enacted without public or parliamentary debate, also led to the foundation of the Groupement des scientifiques pour l'information sur l'énergie nucléaire (Association of Scientists for Information on Nuclear Energy), formed after around 4,000 scientists signed a petition of concern over the government's action, known as the Appeal of the 400 after the 400 scientists who initially signed it.
The plan envisaged the construction of around 80 nuclear plants by 1985 and a total of 170 plants by 2000. Work on the first three plants, at Tricastin, Gravelines, and Dampierre started the same year and France installed 56 reactors over the next 15 years.
Following the 2011 Fukushima I nuclear accidents, the head of France's nuclear safety agency has said that France needs to upgrade the protection of vital functions in all its nuclear reactors to avoid a disaster in the event of a natural calamity, adding there was no need to close any plants. "There is a need to add a layer to protect safety mechanisms in reactors that are vital for the protection of the reactor such as cooling functions and electric powering," Jacques Repussard, head of the IRSN, said. Opinion polls show support for atomic energy has dropped since Fukushima. Forty-percent of the French "are 'hesitant' about nuclear energy while a third are in favor and 17 percent are against, according to a survey by pollster Ifop published November 13".
In February 2012 President Sarkozy decided to extend the life of existing nuclear reactors beyond 40 years, following the Court of Audit decision that this is the best option as new nuclear capacity or other forms of energy would be more costly and available too late. Within ten years 22 out of the 58 reactors will have been operating for over 40 years. The court expects EDF's projected investment programme in existing plant, including post Fukushima safety improvements, will add between 9.5% and 14.5% to generation costs, taking costs to between 37.9 and 54.2 EUR/MWh. Generation costs from the new Flamanville EPR reactor are estimated to be at least in the 70 to 90 EUR/MWh range, depending on construction outcome. Academics at Paris Dauphine University forecast that domestic electricity prices will rise by about 30% by 2020.
Following François Hollande's victory in the 2012 presidential election, it is thought that there may be a partial nuclear phaseout in France. This follows a national debate in the run-up to the election, with President Nicolas Sarkozy backing nuclear power and François Hollande proposing a cut in nuclear power's electricity contribution by more than a third by 2025. It seems certain that Hollande will at least order the closure of the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant, probably by 2017, where there has been an ongoing closure campaign due to concerns about seismic activity and flooding.
Active efforts by the French government to market the advanced European Pressurized Reactor have been hampered by cost overruns, delays, and competition from other nations, such as South Korea, which offer simpler, cheaper reactors.
Management and economics
Électricité de France (EDF) — the country's main electricity generation and distribution company — manages the country's 59 nuclear power plants. EDF is substantially owned by the French government, with around 85% of EdF shares in government hands . 78.9% of Areva shares are owned by the French public sector company CEA and are therefore in public ownership EdF remains heavily in debt. Its profitability suffered during the recession which began in 2008. It made €3.9 billion in 2009, which fell to €1.02 billion in 2010, with provisions set aside amounting to €2.9 billion. The Nuclear industry has been accused of significant cost overruns and failing to cover the total costs of operation, including waste management and decommissioning.[not in citation given]
In 2001, nuclear construction and services company Areva was created by the merger of CEA Industrie, Framatome and Cogema (now Areva NC). Its main shareholder is the French owned company CEA, but the German federal government also holds, through Siemens, 34% of the shares of Areva's subsidiary, Areva NP, in charge of building the EPR (third-generation nuclear reactor).
As of 2015 France's electricity price, excluding taxation, to household customers is the 12th cheapest amongst the 27 member European Union and the second-cheapest to industrial consumers.
EdF said its third-generation nuclear reactor EPR project at its Flamanville, northern France, plant will be delayed until 2016, due to "both structural and economic reasons," which will bring the project's total cost to EUR8.5 billion. Similarly, the cost of the EPR to be built at Olkiluoto, Finland has escalated. Areva and the utility involved "are in bitter dispute over who will bear the cost overruns and there is a real risk now that the utility will default. EdF has suggested that if the political environment causes the EPR costs to overrun, the design would be replaced with a cheaper and simpler Franco-Japanese design, the Atmea for which the design will be completed by 2013, or the already operating Franco-Chinese design, the CPR-1000.
In 2016 the European Commission assessed that France's nuclear decommissioning liabilities were seriously underfunded, with only 23 billion euros of earmarked assets to cover 74.1 billion euros of expected decommissioning costs.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
Drawing such a large percentage of overall electrical production from nuclear power is unique to France. This reliance has resulted in certain necessary deviations from the standard design and function of other nuclear power programs. For instance, in order to meet changing demand throughout the day, some plants must work as peaking power plant, whereas most nuclear plants in the world operate as base-load plants, and allow other fossil or hydro units to adjust to demand. Nuclear power in France has a total capacity factor of around 77%, which is low due to load following. However availability is around 84%, indicating excellent overall performance of the plants.
The first 8 power reactors in the nation were gas cooled reactor types (UNGG reactor), whose development was pioneered by CEA. Coinciding with a uranium enrichment program, EdF developed pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology which eventually became the dominant type. The gas-cooled reactors located at Brennilis, Bugey, Chinon, and Marcoule have all been shut down.
The PWR plants were all developed by Framatome (which is now Areva) from the initial Westinghouse design. All currently operating PWR plants are of three design variations, having output powers of 900 MWe, 1300 MWe, and 1450 MWe. The repeated use of these standard variants of a design has afforded France the greatest degree of nuclear plant standardization in the world.
900 MWe class (CP0, CP1 and CP2 designs)
There are a total of 34 of these reactors in operation; most were constructed in the 1970s and the early 1980s. In 2002 they had a uniform review and all were granted a 10-year life extension.
With the CP0 and CP1 designs, two reactors share the same machine and command room. With the CP2 design, each reactor has its own machine and command room. Apart from this difference, CP1 and CP2 use the same technologies, and the two types are frequently referred to as CPY. Compared to CP0 they have an additional cooling circuit between the emergency system that in case of an accident allows to spray water into the containment and the circuit which contains river water, a more flexible control system and some minor difference in the layout of the building.
This three loop design (three steam generators and three primary circulation pumps) was also exported to a number of other countries, including:
- South Africa – 2 units at the Koeberg nuclear power station
- South Korea – 2 units at the Ulchin Nuclear Power Plant
- Peoples' Republic of China, where it was later developed into the 1000 MWe CPR-1000 design:
1300 MWe class (P4 and P'4 designs)
There are 20 reactors of this design (four steam generators and four primary circulation pumps) operating in France. The P4 and P'4 type have some minor difference in the layout of the building, especially for the structure which contain the fuel rods and the circuitry.
1450 MWe class (N4 design)
There are only 4 of these reactors, housed at two separate sites: Civaux and Chooz. Construction of these reactors started between 1984 and 1991, but full commercial operation did not begin until between 2000 and 2002 because of thermal fatigue flaws in the heat removal system requiring the redesign and replacement of parts in each N4 power station. In 2003 the stations were all uprated to 1500 MWe.
1650MWe class (EPR design)
The next generation design for French reactors is the EPR, which will have a broader scope than France alone, with a plant in Finland and two in China undergoing construction, and two more proposed for the United Kingdom. The first French EPR is under construction at the Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant. As a result of delays and cost overruns, completion is now scheduled for 2017. An additional EPR reactor was planned for the Penly Nuclear Power Plant, but this project has now been abandoned.
The reactor design was developed by Areva contributing its N4 reactor technology and the German company Siemens contributing its Konvoi reactor technology. In keeping with the French approach of highly standardized plants and proven technology, it uses more traditional active safety systems and is more similar to current plant designs than international competitors such as the AP1000 or the ESBWR.
In 2013 EDF acknowledged the difficulties it was having building the EPR design. In September 2015 EDF's chief executive, Jean-Bernard Lévy, stated that the design of a "New Model" EPR was being worked on, which will be easier and cheaper to build, which would be ready for orders from about 2020.
The majority of nuclear plants in France are located away from the coasts and obtain their cooling water from rivers. These plants employ cooling towers to reduce their impact on the environment. The temperature of emitted water carrying the waste heat is strictly limited by the French government, and this has proved to be problematic during recent heat waves.
Five plants, equalling 18 reactors are located on the coast:
- Gravelines Nuclear Power Station
- Penly Nuclear Power Plant
- Paluel Nuclear Power Plant
- Flamanville Nuclear Power Plant
- Blayais Nuclear Power Plant
These 5 get their cooling water directly from the ocean and can thus dump their waste heat directly back into the sea, which is slightly more economical.
France is one of the few countries in the world with an active nuclear reprocessing program, with the COGEMA La Hague site. Enrichment work, some MOX fuel fabrication, and other activities take place at the Tricastin Nuclear Power Centre. Enrichment is completely domestic and is powered by 2/3 of the output of the nuclear plant at Tricastin. Reprocessing of fuel from other countries has been done for the United States and Japan, who have expressed the desire to develop a more closed fuel cycle similar to what France has achieved. MOX fuel fabrication services have also been sold to other countries, notably to the USA for the Megatons to Megawatts Program, using plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons.
While France does not mine uranium for the front end of the fuel cycle domestically, French companies have various holdings in the uranium market. Uranium for the French program totals 10,500 tonnes per year coming from various locations such as:
France's nuclear reactors comprise 90 per cent of EDFs capacity and so they are used in load-following mode and some reactors close at weekends because there is no market for the electricity. This means that the capacity factor is low by world standards, usually in the high seventies as a percentage, which is not an ideal economic situation for nuclear plants.
During periods of high demand EDF has been routinely "forced into the relatively expensive spot and short-term power markets because it lacks adequate peak load generating capacity". France heavily relies on electric heating, with about one third of existing and three-quarters of new houses using electric space heating due to the low off-peak tariffs offered. Due to this residential heating demand, about 2.3 GW of extra power is needed for every degree Celsius of temperature drop. This means that during cold snaps, French electricity demand increases dramatically, forcing the country to import at full capacity from its neighbours during peak demand. For example, in February 2012, Germany "came to the rescue of France during last week's cold snap by massively exporting electricity to its neighbour".
France does not solely rely on fossil fuels and biomass for heating and therefore has superior air quality, and lower pollution related deaths.[dubious ] For example, outdoor fossil fuel and biomass pollution, from particulate matter alone, kill approximately 1 million people every year according to the World Health Organization. The level of atmospheric particulate matter, small enough to enter and cause damage to the lungs –is 13 micrograms per cubic metre in France, cleaner than the air in Germany, where the particulate air pollution is higher at 16 micrograms per cubic metre.
All but five of EDFs plants are inland and require fresh water for cooling. Eleven of these 15 inland plants have cooling towers, using evaporative cooling, while the others use lake or river water directly. In very hot summers, generation output may be restricted.
In 2008, nuclear power accounted for 16% of final energy consumption in France. As is common in all industrialized nations, Fossil fuels still dominate World energy consumption, particularly in the transportation and heating sectors. Nuclear constitutes a higher level of total energy consumption in France than in any other country. In 2001, nuclear power accounted for 37% of the total energy consumption in France. In 2011 France consumed ~ 11 Quadrillion BTUs of energy according to the Energy Information Administration. ~ 11 Quadrillion BTUs is equivalent to 3224 TWh.
Another criticism of the French energy policy is that France may have over-invested in nuclear power plants, requiring electricity export when French electricity demand is low or "dumping" in the French market, encouraging the use of electricity for space heating and water heating. This can be regarded as an economically wasteful practice. However, as the adoption of Electric Cars, such as the French Renault Fluence Z.E., over combustion engined vehicles increases, reducing France's Fossil fuel dependence, France's comparatively cheap peak and off peak electricity prices, could act as a strong customer incentive that may spur the speed of the adoption of electric vehicles; essentially turning the current perceived glut of relatively cheap fission-electricity into an asset, as demand for electric vehicle recharging stations becomes more and more commonplace.
Due to France's relatively low emission producing electricity grid, the total life cycle carbon dioxide emissions from an electric car, charged by the French electricity grid are 12 g per kilometre travelled. This compares favourably to the direct emissions of one of the most successful Hybrid electric vehicles, the Toyota Prius, which produces carbon dioxide emissions at the higher rate of 105 g per kilometre travelled. When one includes the emissions from the intensive electric car manufacturing process, in the UK, Germany, Japan and Italy electric cars charged by these mixed electric grids, pollute the same quantity of total-life-cycle carbon dioxide as some popular Hybrid electric vehicles, that is equivalent to petrol fuel efficiencies in the 45-50 MPG/Miles per gallon(c. 5 L/100 km) range.
However, in European countries with grids dominated by low carbon electricity such as France and Switzerland, electric cars are far lower polluting than even the best petrol hybrids, "hydrid multiples" and are approximately equivalent to driving a petrol car with efficiencies of 123 MPG(1.9 L/100 km) in equivalent emissions.
Accidents and incidents
|17 October 1969||Saint-Laurent, France||50 kg of Uranium in one of the reactors at the Saint-Laurent Nuclear Power Plant began to melt, an event classified at 'level 4' on the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). As of March 2011, this remains the most serious civil nuclear power accident in France.||?|
|25 July 1979||Saclay, France||Radioactive fluids escape into drains designed for ordinary wastes, seeping into the local watershed at the Saclay BL3 Reactor||5|
|13 March 1980||Loir-et-Cher, France||A malfunctioning cooling system fuses fuel elements together at the Saint Laurent A2 reactor, ruining the fuel assembly and forcing an extended shutdown||22|
|14 April 1984||Bugey, France||Electrical cables fail at the command centre of the Bugey Nuclear Power Plant and force a complete shutdown of one reactor||2|
|22 May 1986||Normandy, France||A reprocessing plant at La Hague malfunctions and exposes workers to unsafe levels of radiation and forces five to be hospitalised||5|
|12 April 1987||Tricastin, France||Tricastin fast breeder reactor leaks coolant, sodium and uranium hexachloride, injuring seven workers and contaminating water supplies||50|
|27 December 1999||Blayais, France||An unexpectedly strong storm floods the Blayais Nuclear Power Plant, forcing an emergency shutdown after injection pumps and containment safety systems fail from water damage||55|
|21 January 2002||Manche, France||Control systems and safety valves fail after improper installation of condensers, forcing a two-month shutdown||102|
|16 May 2005||Lorraine, France||Sub-standard electrical cables at the Cattenom-2 nuclear reactor cause a fire in an electricity tunnel, damaging safety systems||12|
|13 July 2008||Tricastin, France||75 kg of natural uranium, in thousands of litres of solution, accidentally spilled on the ground and run off into a nearby river||7|
|12 August 2009||Gravelines, France||Assembly system fails to properly eject spent fuel rods from the Gravelines Nuclear Power Plant, causing the fuel rods to jam and the reactor to shut down||2|
|12 September 2011||Marcoule, France||One person was killed and four injured, one seriously, in a blast at the Marcoule Nuclear Site. The explosion took place in a furnace used to melt metallic waste and did not represent a nuclear accident.||?|
In July 2008, 18,000 litres (4,755 gallons) of uranium solution containing natural uranium were accidentally released from Tricastin Nuclear Power Centre. Due to cleaning and repair work the containment system for a uranium solution holding tank was not functional when the tank filled. The inflow exceeded the tank's capacity and 30 cubic metres of uranium solution leaked, with 18 cubic metres spilled on the ground. Testing found elevated uranium levels in the nearby Gaffière and Lauzon rivers. The liquid that escaped to the ground contained about 75 kg of natural uranium, which is toxic as a heavy metal, but only slightly radioactive. Estimates for the releases were initially higher, up to 360 kg of natural uranium, but revised downward later. French authorities banned the use of water from the Gaffière and Lauzon for drinking and watering of crops for 2 weeks. Swimming, water sports and fishing were also banned. This incident has been classified as Level 1 (anomaly) on the International Nuclear Event Scale. Shortly after the first incident, approximately 100 employees were exposed to minor doses of radiation (1/40 of the annual limit) due to a piping failure.
Following the 2011 Fukushima I nuclear accidents there has been an increased focus on the risks associated with seismic activity in France, with particular attention focused on the Fessenheim Nuclear Power Plant.
General seismic risk in France is categorised on a five-point scale, with zone 1 being very low risk, through to zone 5 in areas with a 'very strong' risk. In Metropolitan France the areas of highest risk are rated at 4, 'strong', and are located in the Pyrenees, Alps, the south of the Haut-Rhin département, the Territoire de Belfort and a few communes in Doubs. A new zoning map comes into force on 1 May 2011, which significantly increases the rating for many areas. The major nuclear research facilities at Cadarache are located in a zone 4 area near the fault that caused the 1909 Lambesc earthquake, while the Marcoule research centre and the nuclear power plants at Tricastin, Cruas, Saint-Alban, Bugey and Fessenheim (near the fault that caused the 1356 Basel earthquake) are all within zone 3. A further 6 plants lie within zone 2.
The current process for evaluating the seismic hazard for a nuclear plant is set out in Règle Fondamentale de Sûreté (Fundamental Safety Rule) RFS 2001-01, published by the Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, which uses more detailed seismotectonic zones. RFS 2001-01 replaced RFS I.2.c, published in 1981, however it has been criticised for continuing to require a deterministic assessment (rather than a probabilistic approach) that relies primarily on the strongest 'historically known' earthquake near a site. This leads to a number of problems including the short period (in geological timescales) for which there are records, the difficulty of assessing the characteristics of earthquakes that occurred prior to the use of seismometers, the difficulty of identifying the existence of all earthquakes that pre-date the historic record, and ultimately the reliance on one single earthquake scenario. Other criticisms include the use of intensity in the evaluation method, rather than spectral acceleration, which is commonly used elsewhere.
Monique Sené is a nuclear physicist and one of the co-founders of the Groupement des scientifiques pour l'information sur l'énergie nucléaire (GSIEN) (Association of Scientists for Information on Nuclear Energy) and its first president. As of March 2011 she was Honorary Research Director at the National Centre for Scientific Research and president of GSIEN. Although she is not an opponent of nuclear power per se, Sené is a high-profile critic of the French nuclear power programme due to concerns about its safety, the handling of nuclear waste and its imposition without public debate.
In 2012, France's Nuclear Safety Authority (the ASN) released a report announcing a sweeping safety upgrade to all the country's reactors. The ASN's report states plainly that a loss of coolant or electricity could, in the worst cases, see meltdowns at nuclear reactors in hours. It also lists many shortcomings found during 'stress tests', in which some safety aspects of plants were found not to meet existing standards. It will now require all power plants to build a set of safety systems of last resort, contained in bunkers that will be hardened to withstand more extreme earthquakes, floods and other threats than plants themselves are designed to cope with. It will also adopt a proposal by EDF to create an elite force that is specifically trained to tackle nuclear accidents and could be deployed to any site within hours. Both moves are a response to the Fukushima nuclear disaster.
Following the 2011 Fukushima I nuclear accidents an OpinionWay poll at the end of March found that 57% of the French population were opposed to nuclear energy in France. A TNS-Sofres poll in the days following the accident found 55% in favour of nuclear power. In 2006 BBC / GlobeScan poll found 57% of the French opposed to nuclear energy.
In May 2001, an Ipsos poll found that nearly 70% of the population had a 'good opinion' of nuclear power, however 56% also preferred not to live near a nuclear plant and the same proportion thought that a 'Chernobyl-like accident' could occur in France. The same Ipsos poll revealed that 50% thought that nuclear power was the best way of solving the problem of the greenhouse effect, while 88% thought this was a major reason for continuing to use nuclear power.
Historically the position has generally been favourable, with around two-thirds of the population strongly supporting nuclear power, while the Gaullists, the Socialist Party and the Communist Party were also all in favour.
When the Civaux Nuclear Power Plant was being constructed in 1997, it was claimed to be welcomed by the local community:
In France, unlike in America, nuclear energy is accepted, even popular. Everybody I spoke to in Civaux loves the fact their region was chosen. The nuclear plant has brought jobs and prosperity to the area. Nobody I spoke to, nobody, expressed any fear.
A variety of reasons were cited for the popular support; a sense of national independence and reduced reliance on foreign oil, reduction of greenhouse gases, and a cultural interest in large technological projects (like the TGV, [whose high-speed lines are powered by these plants] and Concorde).
In the 1970s, an anti-nuclear movement in France, consisting of citizens' groups and political action committees, emerged. Between 1975 and 1977, some 175,000 people protested against nuclear power in ten demonstrations.
In January 2004, up to 15,000 anti-nuclear protesters marched in Paris against a new generation of nuclear reactors, the European Pressurised Reactor (EPR). On 17 March 2007, simultaneous protests, organised by Sortir du nucléaire, were staged in 5 French towns to protest against the construction of EPR plants.
After Japan's 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, thousands staged anti-nuclear protests around France, demanding reactors be closed. Protesters' demands were focused on getting France to shut its oldest nuclear power station at Fessenheim. Many people also protested at the Cattenom nuclear plant, France's second most powerful.
In November 2011, thousands of anti-nuclear protesters delayed a train carrying radioactive waste from France to Germany. Many clashes and obstructions made the journey the slowest one since the annual shipments of radioactive waste began in 1995. Also in November 2011, a French court fined nuclear power giant Électricité de France €1.5m and jailed two senior employees for spying on Greenpeace, including hacking into Greenpeace's computer systems. Greenpeace was awarded €500,000 in damages.
On the first anniversary of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, organisers of French anti-nuclear demonstrations claim 60,000 supporters formed a human chain 230 kilometres long, stretching from Lyon to Avignon. Austrian Chancellor Werner Faymann expects anti-nuclear petition drives to start in at least six European Union countries in 2012 with the goal of having the EU abandon nuclear power.
In March 2014, police arrested 57 Greenpeace protesters used a truck to break through security barriers and enter the Fessenheim nuclear in eastern France. The activists hung antinuclear banners, but France’s nuclear safety authority said that the plant’s security had not been compromised. President Hollande has promised to close Fessenheim by 2016, but Greenpeace wants immediate closure.
In 2007 Areva NC claimed that, due to their reliance on nuclear power, France's carbon emissions per kWh are less than 1/10 that of Germany and the UK, and 1/13 that of Denmark, which has no nuclear plants. Its emissions of nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide have been reduced by 70% over 20 years, even though the total power output has tripled in that time.
If done without environmental over-sight, conventional mining for uranium can produce large amounts of mining tailings and contaminated water but about half of the world's uranium supply is increasingly generated from In situ recovery technology, that does not require physical mining in the conventional sense and if responsibly operated is considerably cleaner.
According to the French embassy to the US, fission-electricity "helps to reduce French greenhouse gas emissions by avoiding the release of 31 billions tones of carbon dioxide (contrary to coal or gas generation) and making France the less carbon emitting country within the OECD". It further notes that, due to recycling of spent nuclear fuel, French fission-electric stations, produce 10 g/year/inhabitant of "nuclear waste", which is primarily fission products and other safety concerning solid decaying radioactive isotopes.
French environmentalist Bruno Comby started the group Environmentalists For Nuclear Energy in 1996, and said in 2005, "If well-managed, nuclear energy is very clean, does not create polluting gases in the atmosphere, produces very little waste and does not contribute to the greenhouse effect".
The nuclear fusion project International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is constructing the world's largest and most advanced experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor in the south of France. A collaboration between the European Union (EU), India, Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and the United States, the project aims to make a transition from experimental studies of plasma physics to electricity-producing fusion power plants. In 2005, Greenpeace International issued a press statement criticizing government funding of the ITER, believing the money should have been diverted to renewable energy sources and claiming that fusion energy would result in nuclear waste and nuclear weapons proliferation issues. A French association including about 700 anti-nuclear groups, Sortir du nucléaire (Get Out of Nuclear Energy), claimed that ITER was a hazard because scientists did not yet know how to manipulate the high-energy deuterium and tritium hydrogen isotopes used in the fusion process. According to most anti-nuclear groups, nuclear fusion power "remains a distant dream". The World Nuclear Association says that fusion "presents so far insurmountable scientific and engineering challenges". Construction of the ITER facility began in 2007, but the project has run into many delays and budget overruns. The facility is now not expected to begin operations until the year 2027 – 11 years after initially anticipated.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Nuclear power plants in France.|
- List of nuclear reactors – France
- Politics of France
- Nuclear energy policy
- Anti-nuclear movement in France
- Death of Sebastien Briat
- World Nuclear Industry Status Report
- EnerPub (8 June 2007). "France: Energy profile". Spero News. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- "Nuclear shares of electricity generation". World-nuclear.org. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Steve Kidd.Nuclear in France – what did they get right? Nuclear Engineering International, 22 June 2009.
- [c]. "Shareholding policy". Électricité de France. 31 December 2007
- [g]http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/12/03/us-edf-nuclear-flamanville-idUSBRE8B214620121203 Retrieved 31 March 2013.
- "Europe's Energy Portal » Fuel Prices, Rates for Power & Natural Gas". Energy.eu. 1 April 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "France's power net exports fall in 2012". Uk.reuters.com. 22 January 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "Germany powers France in cold despite nuclear u-turn". Reuters. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Stephanie Cooke (2009). In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age, Black Inc., p. 359.
- http://www.theledger.com/article/20080814/COLUMNISTS/808140356[full citation needed]
- Muriel Boselli (17 November 2011). "France needs to upgrade all nuclear reactors". Reuters.
- Notice on France on Global Security (English)
- Sahara on the website of the French Minister of Defence (French)
- Electricité de France Company History Electricité de France, accessed 2011-04-11
- Marcoule Nuclear Site
- World Nuclear Association (August 2007). "Nuclear Power in France". Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Frontline. 24 April 1997.
Jean-Pierre CHAUSAUDE, Electricité de France: In France we have no oil, no gas, no coal, no choice. And for the French people, it was very positive to develop national energy with nuclear energy.
- Valérie Lehmann; Valérie Colomb; Bernard Motulsky (2013). Communication et grands projets: les nouveaux défis. PUQ. p. 141. ISBN 9782760536777.
En France, on a toutes sortes de choses, on a la meilleure cuisine du monde, une industrie puissante, la pétanque, une histoire glorieuse, on a aussi une situation géographique privilégiée, la Tour Eiffel et la pêche à la ligne, oui en France on a tout ça et bien plus encore, pourtant une chose nous manque, une chose essentielle, le pétrole, le pétrole nous sommes obligés de l’acheter à d’autres, cher, trop cher. En France, on n’a pas de pétrole, mais on a des idées.
- Les physiciens dans le mouvement antinucléaire : entre science, expertise et politique Cahiers d'histoire, published 2007, accessed 2011-04-11
- Nelkin, Dorothy and Michael Pollak, "Ideology as Strategy: The Discourse of the Anti-Nuclear Movement in France and Germany" Science, Technology, & Human Values, Vol. 5, No. 30 (Winter, 1980), p. 3.
- Palfreman, Jon (1997). "Why the French Like Nuclear Energy". Frontline (Public Broadcasting Service). Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Patel, Tara (1 December 2011). "Atomic Spat Rocks French Election as Sarkozy Rival Backs Halts". Bloomberg.
- "France to extend life of nuclear plants – minister". Reuters. 12 February 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- The costs of the nuclear power sector – Summary in English (PDF) (Report). Cour des Comptes. January 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Broomby, Rob (11 January 2014). "France struggles to cut down on nuclear power". BBC. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- Sokolski, Henry (28 November 2011). "Nuclear Power Goes Rogue". Newsweek.
- "Présidentielle : Hollande confirme sa volonté de fermer Fessenheim". France Soir. 2012-05-02. Retrieved 2012-05-08.
- Jolly, David (7 May 2015). "France Went All Out for Nuclear Energy". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
- Jolly, David; Reed, Stanley (7 May 2015). "French Nuclear Dynamo Stalls". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 May 2015.
New plants that were meant to showcase the industry’s most advanced technology are years behind schedule and billions of euros over budget.
- http://library.thinkquest.org/3471/nuclear_waste.html Retrieved 27 December 2011 On 20 July 2011[full citation needed]
- Lomazzi, Marc (13 August 2007). "Nucléaire: les dessous de l'accord entre la France et la Libye". Le Parisien (in French).
- "Energy price statistics". Eurostat. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Ed Crooks (14 November 2011). "EDF searches for reactor suppliers". Financial Times. Retrieved 16 January 2012.
- Marie-Caroline Lopez (13 November 2011). "FEn pleine polémique sur Flamanville, EDF se prépare à abandonner l'EPR". La Tribune.
- "EDF to buy majority of Areva NP". Nuclear Engineering International. 31 July 2015. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- Christoph Steitz, Barbara Lewis (16 February 2016). "EU short of 118 billion euros in nuclear decommissioning funds". Reuters. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
- "Cinquième rapport national" (PDF). French Nuclear Safety Authority. July 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2011.
- "Facts about Olkiluoto 3 financing". olkiluoto.info. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
- Michael Stothard (18 November 2014). "EDF in fresh delay for flagship nuclear plant". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- "EDF eyes development of new, smaller reactors - papers". Reuters. 21 March 2013. Retrieved 18 April 2013.
- Geert De Clercq (23 September 2015). "Only China wants to invest in Britain's new££2bn Hinkley Point nuclear plant because no one else thinks it will work, EDF admits". The Independent. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- Robin Pagnamenta (3 July 2009). "France imports UK electricity as plants shut". London: The Times. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
- Mycle Schneider (11 April 2012). "Nuclear power post-Fukushima: Maybe France no exception after all". Kyodo News. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "WHO | Air quality and health". Who.int. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "OECD Better Life Index". OECD Better Life Index. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "OECD Better Life Index". OECD Better Life Index. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "France Gets X Percent of its Energy from Nuclear Plants (Energy Priorities Archives)". Energypriorities.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "France – U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". Eia.gov. 30 May 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "convert Terawatt hour [TWh] to British thermal unit [Btu]". Convert-measurement-units.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- "PNNL: News – Mileage from megawatts". Pnl.gov. 11 December 2006. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- Holland, Andrew. "The Better Place Model for Electric Vehicles". Consumerenergyreport.com. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
- http://www.honestjohn.co.uk/news/green-motoring/2010-09/renault-ze Renault to sell electric cars for the same price as diesels
- Electric car emissions per country
- The ‘electric cars aren’t green’ myth debunked
- Shades of Green: Electric Cars’ Carbon Emissions Around the Globe
- Benjamin K. Sovacool. A Critical Evaluation of Nuclear Power and Renewable Electricity in Asia, Journal of Contemporary Asia, Vol. 40, No. 3, August 2010, pp. 393–400.
- Benjamin K. Sovacool (2009). The Accidental Century – Prominent Energy Accidents in the Last 100 Years
- "INES – The International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 1 August 2008. p. 2. Retrieved 13 March 2011.
- Les Echos – 18/03/11 – A Saint-Laurent, EDF a renoncé à construire une digue contre les inondations Les Echos, published 2011-03-18, accessed 2011-03-30
- Angelique Chrisafis (10 July 2008). "River use banned after French uranium leak". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
- "France bans water consumption over nuclear leak". 9 July 2008. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
- Samuel, Henry (24 July 2008). "French nuclear leak prompts urgent security review". London: Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Zonage sismique de la France Le Plan Séisme, accessed 2011-04-13
- Quatre centrales sur une zone sismique Les quatre éléments published 2011-03-15, accessed 2011-04-13
- Evaluation de l’aléa sismique – La réglementation applicable aux sites nucléaires français Institut de radioprotection et de sûreté nucléaire, accessed 2011-04-13
- Centrale Nucléaire de Fessenheim : appréciation du risque sismique RÉSONANCE Ingénieurs-Conseils SA, published 2007-09-05, accessed 2011-03-30
- The great lesson France has to learn from Fukushima Deciphering Fukushima, published 2011-03-08, accessed 2012-05-08
- Nuclear Waste – Interview with Raymond et Monique Sené, Académie de Grenoble, published 1997, accessed 2012-05-08
- "Get tough on nuclear safety". Nature. 12 January 2012 (481,113). Check date values in:
- Declan Butler (11 January 2012). "France 'imagines the unimaginable'". Nature.
- Majority of French want to drop nuclear energy-poll Reuters, published 2011-04-13, accessed 2011-04-13
- "BBC World Service Poll". Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Nuclear Notes from France Nº70". Embassy of France. 4 October 2001. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Rene de Preneuf. "Nuclear Power in France – Why does it Work?". Archived from the original on 13 August 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Herbert P. Kitschelt. Political Opportunity and Political Protest: Anti-Nuclear Movements in Four Democracies British Journal of Political Science, Vol. 16, 1984, p. 71.
- Thousands march in Paris anti-nuclear protest ABC News, 18 January 2004.
- "French protests over EPR". Nuclear Engineering International. 3 April 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
- "France hit by anti-nuclear protests". Evening Echo. 3 April 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
- Arnaud Bouvier (25 April 2011). "Thousands in France mark Chernobyl with protests". AFP.
- "Thousands of Protesters Obstruct Nuclear Waste Transport". Spiegel Online. 28 November 2011.
- Richard Black (10 November 2011). "EDF fined for spying on Greenpeace nuclear campaign". BBC. Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Anti-nuclear demos across Europe on Fukushima anniversary". Euronews. 11 March 2011.
- "Austria expects EU anti-nuclear campaign this year". Reuters. 12 March 2012.
- "France: Greenpeace Activists Arrested in Break-In". New York Times. 18 March 2014.
- "Nuclear energy and the green house effect". AREVA NC. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Nuclear Energy in France 2015
- "France's nuclear response to Kyoto". BBC. 18 February 2005. Retrieved 25 August 2007.
- Nuclear fusion reactor project in France: an expensive and senseless nuclear stupidity|Greenpeace International
- France Wins Nuclear Fusion Plant|Germany|Deutsche Welle|28 June 2005
- Jim Green (2012). "New Reactor Types – pebble bed, thorium, plutonium, fusion". Friends of the Earth.
- World Nuclear Association (2005). "Nuclear Fusion Power".
- W Wayt Gibbs (30 December 2013). "Triple-threat method sparks hope for fusion". Nature.
- Gabrielle Hecht, includes afterword by Hecht, forward by Michel Callon, The Radiance of France: Nuclear Power and National Identity after World War II (Inside Technology series), The MIT Press, New Edition (31 July 2009), trade paperback, 496 pages ISBN 978-0262582810
- Hardcover (lacks both the foreword and afterword that are in the trade paperback New Edition), The MIT Press; 1st edition (29 September 1998) ISBN 978-0262082662
|Wikinews has related news: Two nuclear leaks in two weeks trigger security and safety reviews in France|
- French Nuclear Power Program by the World Nuclear Association
- The reality of France's aggressive nuclear power push in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
- Interview with 1984 U.S. Ambassador to France from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives
- The World Nuclear Industry Status Reports website
- Radioactivity.eu.com - Nuclear Energie in France