Nuclear power in Russia
Russia has made plans to increase the number of reactors in operation from 31 to 59. Old reactors will be maintained and upgraded, including RBMK units similar to the reactors at Chernobyl. The Russian energy strategy of 2003 set a policy priority for reduction in natural gas based power supply, aiming to achieve this through a doubling of nuclear power generation by 2020. In 2006, the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) announced targets for future nuclear power generation; providing 23% of electricity needs by 2020 and 25% by 2030. In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant.
In accord with legislation passed in 2001, all Russian civil reactors are operated by Energoatom. More recently in 2007 Russian Parliament adopted the law "On the peculiarities of the management and disposition of the property and shares of organizations using nuclear energy and on relevant changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", which created Atomenergoprom - a holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.
The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015. Through membership in the ITER project, Russia is also participating in the design of nuclear fusion reactors.
The overnight cost of construction in the seventies was 800 $/kW in 2016 dollars.
The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people. Russia is recognized for its nuclear disaster expertise and for the safety of its technology. Russia is also pursuing an ambitious plan to increase sales of Russian-built reactors overseas. The VVER-1200 pressurised water reactor is the system currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features. In August 2016 the first VVER-1200, Novovoronezh II-1, was connected to the grid. China and Russia agreed on further cooperation in the construction of nuclear power stations in October 2005.
In 2016 initial plans were announced to build 11 new nuclear power reactors by 2030, including the first VVER-600, a smaller two cooling circuit version of the VVER-1200, designed for smaller regions and markets. Outline plans for near-surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level waste, and deep burial disposal facilities for high-level waste were also approved in the Krasnoyarsk Krai region.
In October 2017 Rosatom was reported to be considering postponing commissioning new nuclear plants in Russia due to excess generation capacity and that new nuclear electricity prices are higher than for existing plant. The Russian government is considering reducing support for new nuclear under its support contracts, called Dogovor Postavki Moshnosti (DPM), which guarantee developers a return on investment through increased payments from consumers for 20 years.
Nuclear power reactors
Reactors in operation
Eleven of Russia's reactors are of the RBMK 1000 type, similar to the one at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these RBMK reactors were originally to be shut down but have instead been given life extensions and uprated in output by about 5%. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Russian environmental groups say that the lifetime extensions "violate Russian law, because the projects have not undergone environmental assessments".
|Obninskaya||Obninsk||AM-1||5||1954–2002||World's first grid-connected nuclear power plant|
|Bilibinskaya||Bilibino||EGP||12||1974–||combined heat and power production|
Nuclear power reactors under construction
|Reactor||Type||MWe net||MWe gross||Construction start||Will be commercially operational|
|Akademik Lomonosov||KLT-40S||64 (2x32)||70 (2x35)||2007-05-15||2017|
|Beloyarsk-4||FBR BN-800||789||864||2006-07-18||2015 Completed|
|Novovoronezh 2-1||VVER-1200/V392М||1114||1200||2008-06-24||2017 Completed|
International NPP projects in the Russian nuclear industry
|Country||NPP Reactor||Type||MWe net||MWe gross||Construction start||Commercially operational|
|Turkey||Akkuyu-1/2/3/4||VVER-1200/491||1115||1200||2016 (1st block)||2023 (1st block)|
|Slovakia||Mochovce-3/4||VVER-440||440||471||1987-01-27 (November 2009)||2017|
|Vietnam||Ninh Thuan 1-1/2||VVER-1000/428||950||1000||cancelled||cancelled|
|Ninh Thuan 1-3/4||VVER-1000/428||950||1000||cancelled|
In addition Atomstroyexport challenging NPP projects list contains:
- Temelin NPP Power Units 3/4 (Czech Republic)
- Jordan NPP (single-unit NPP with an option for the second power unit)
- Metsamor NPP Power Units 3/4 (Armenia)
- NPP with the Reactor Plant VBER-300 (Kazakhstan)
- Sanming NPP (China)
Nuclear Engineering Companies
- Atomenergomash - power engineering company; produces steam generators for NPPs
- Atommash - by far Russia's largest nuclear engineering plant designed to build up to 8 reactors per year, but after the collapse of the USSR reorganized privately by Energomash and today not able to produce reactor vessels
- Atomstroyexport - nuclear power equipment and service export monopoly
- OKBM Afrikantov - nuclear reactor design and engineering company.the world leading company in production of fast breeder reactors.
- OKB Gidropress - nuclear reactor design and engineering company
Russia, responding to the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, will perform a 'stress test' on all its reactors "to judge their ability to withstand earthquakes more powerful than the original design anticipated".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Commons:RIA Novosti/Nuclear industry.|
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- NPP JSC ASE (Jordan)
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