Nuclear power in Russia

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In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation. The installed gross capacity of Russian nuclear reactors stood at 25,242 MW.

Russia has made plans to increase the number of reactors in operation from 31 to 59. Old reactors will be maintained and upgraded, including RBMK units similar to the reactors at Chernobyl. The Russian energy strategy of 2003 set a policy priority for reduction in natural gas based power supply, aiming to achieve this through a doubling of nuclear power generation by 2020. In 2006, the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) announced targets for future nuclear power generation; providing 23% of electricity needs by 2020 and 25% by 2030.[1] In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant.[2]

Recent history[edit]

In accord with legislation passed in 2001, all Russian civil reactors are operated by Energoatom. More recently in 2007 Russian Parliament adopted the law "On the peculiarities of the management and disposition of the property and shares of organizations using nuclear energy and on relevant changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", which created Atomenergoprom - a holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.

The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[3] Through membership in the ITER project, Russia is also participating in the design of nuclear fusion reactors.

The overnight cost of construction in the seventies was 800 $/kW in 2016 dollars.[4]

The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people.[5] Russia is recognized for its nuclear disaster expertise and for the safety of its technology.[6][7][8][9] Russia is also pursuing an ambitious plan to increase sales of Russian-built reactors overseas.[10] The VVER-1200 pressurised water reactor is the system currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features.[11] In August 2016 the first VVER-1200, Novovoronezh II-1, was connected to the grid.[12] China and Russia agreed on further cooperation in the construction of nuclear power stations in October 2005.

In 2016 initial plans were announced to build 11 new nuclear power reactors by 2030, including the first VVER-600, a smaller two cooling circuit version of the VVER-1200, designed for smaller regions and markets.[13] Outline plans for near-surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level waste, and deep burial disposal facilities for high-level waste were also approved in the Krasnoyarsk Krai region.[13]

In October 2017 Rosatom was reported to be considering postponing commissioning new nuclear plants in Russia due to excess generation capacity and that new nuclear electricity prices are higher than for existing plant. The Russian government is considering reducing support for new nuclear under its support contracts, called Dogovor Postavki Moshnosti (DPM), which guarantee developers a return on investment through increased payments from consumers for 20 years.[14]

Nuclear power reactors[edit]

Reactors in operation[edit]

Nuclear power plants in Russia (view)
Location dot red.svg Active plants
Location dot purple.svg Closed plants
Location dot black.svg Unfinished plants
Location dot green.svg Under construction plants

Eleven of Russia's reactors are of the RBMK 1000 type, similar to the one at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these RBMK reactors were originally to be shut down but have instead been given life extensions and uprated in output by about 5%. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Russian environmental groups say that the lifetime extensions "violate Russian law, because the projects have not undergone environmental assessments".[15]

Control room of a VVER-1000 in 2009, Kozloduy Unit 5
Name Location Type Capacity, MWe Operational Notes
Obninskaya Obninsk AM-1 5 1954–2002 World's first grid-connected nuclear power plant
Sibirskaya Seversk EI-2 100 1958–1990
ADE-3 1961–1992
ADE-4 1963–2008
ADE-5 1965–2008
Beloyarskaya Zarechny AMB-100 108 1964–1981
AMB-200 260 1967–1989
BN-600 600 1980–
BN-800 864 2014–
Dimitrovgradskaya Dimitrovgrad BOR-60 12 1968–
Novovoronezhskaya Novovoronezh VVER 210 1964–1984
VVER 365 1969–1990
VVER 417 1971–
VVER 417 1972–
VVER 1000 1980–
Leningradskaya Sosnovy Bor RBMK 1000 1973–
RBMK 1000 1975–
RBMK 1000 1979–
RBMK 1000 1981–
Kolskaya Polyarnye Zori VVER 440 1973–
VVER 440 1974–
VVER 440 1981–
VVER 440 1984–
Bilibinskaya Bilibino EGP 12 1974– combined heat and power production
EGP 12 1974–
EGP 12 1975–
EGP 12 1976–
Kurskaya Kurchatov RBMK 1000 1976–
RBMK 1000 1979–
RBMK 1000 1983–
RBMK 1000 1985–
Smolenskaya Desnogorsk RBMK 1000 1982–
RBMK 1000 1985–
RBMK 1000 1990–
Kalininskaya Udomlya VVER 1000 1984–
VVER 1000 1986–
VVER 1000 2004–
VVER 1000 2011–
Balakovskaya Balakovo VVER 1000 1985–
VVER 1000 1987–
VVER 1000 1988–
VVER 1000 1993–
Rostovskaya Volgodonsk VVER 1000 2001–
VVER 1000 2009-

Nuclear power reactors under construction[edit]

Reactor Type MWe net MWe gross Construction start Will be commercially operational
Akademik Lomonosov KLT-40S 64 (2x32) 70 (2x35) 2007-05-15 2017
Baltiiskaya-1 VVER-1200 1109 1194 2012-02-22 2018 (??)
Beloyarsk-4 FBR BN-800 789 864 2006-07-18 2015 Completed
Leningrad 2-1 VVER-1200/V491 1085 1170 2008-10-25 2018
Leningrad 2-2 VVER-1200/V491 1085 1170 2010-04-15 2019
Novovoronezh 2-1 VVER-1200/V392М 1114 1200 2008-06-24 2017 Completed
Novovoronezh 2-2 VVER-1200/V392М 1114 1200 2009-07-12 2019
Rostov-3 VVER-1000 1011 1100 2009-09-15 2015 Completed
Rostov-4 VVER-1000 1011 1100 2010-06-16 2017
Total: 6(9) 8382 9068

International NPP projects in the Russian nuclear industry[edit]

Country NPP Reactor Type MWe net MWe gross Construction start Commercially operational
Turkey Akkuyu-1/2/3/4 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2016 (1st block) 2023 (1st block)
Belarus Belarusian-1 VVER-1200 1115 1200 2013-11-06 2019
Belarusian-2 VVER-1200 1115 1200 2014-06-03 2020
Iran Bushehr-1 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 1975-05-01 (1995) 2013-09-23
Bushehr-2 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 2016-09-10 2025
Bushehr-3 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 2016-09-10 2027
India Kudankulam-1 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 2002-03-31 2013-10-22
Kudankulam-2 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 2002-07-04 2016-07-10
Kudankulam-3/4 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 negotiation
Slovakia Mochovce-3/4 VVER-440 440 471 1987-01-27 (November 2009) 2017
Vietnam Ninh Thuan 1-1/2 VVER-1000/428 950 1000 cancelled cancelled
Ninh Thuan 1-3/4 VVER-1000/428 950 1000 cancelled
China Tianwan-1 VVER-1000/428 990 1060 1999-10-20 2007-05-17
Tianwan-2 VVER-1000/428 990 1060 2000-10-20 2007-08-16
Tianwan-3 VVER-1000/428М 1050 1126 2012-12-27 2018
Tianwan-4 VVER-1000/428М 1050 1126 2013-09-27 2018
Ukraine Khmelnitskiy-3/4 VVER-1000/392B 950 1000 cancelled cancelled

In addition Atomstroyexport challenging NPP projects list contains:[16]

Nuclear Engineering Companies[edit]

  • Atomenergomash - power engineering company; produces steam generators for NPPs
  • Atommash - by far Russia's largest nuclear engineering plant designed to build up to 8 reactors per year, but after the collapse of the USSR reorganized privately by Energomash and today not able to produce reactor vessels
  • Atomstroyexport - nuclear power equipment and service export monopoly
  • OKBM Afrikantov - nuclear reactor design and engineering company.the world leading company in production of fast breeder reactors.
  • OKB Gidropress - nuclear reactor design and engineering company

Safety[edit]

Russia, responding to the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, will perform a 'stress test' on all its reactors "to judge their ability to withstand earthquakes more powerful than the original design anticipated".[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Russia invests in nuclear". World Nuclear News. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013. 
  3. ^ RIA Novosti
  4. ^ USA. (1982). Technology and Soviet energy availability. Boulder (Colo.: Westview press. p. 126. 
  5. ^ "Nuclear rethink urged". The Moscow News. 21 March 2011. 
  6. ^ "Benchmarking the global nuclear industry 2012 Heading for a fast recovery" (PDF). E&Y. 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2014-10-13. 
  7. ^ "Rosatom today and overview of its current and prospective Nuclear Power Plant projects" (PDF). Rosatom. 2013-08-21. Retrieved 2014-10-13. 
  8. ^ "International Standards of Safety and the Modern Projects of Nuclear Power Stations" (PDF). Rosatom. 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  9. ^ "Russia's efforts to improve safety following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents" (PDF). IBRAE. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2014-10-14.  External link in |publisher= (help)
  10. ^ [2] Pulitzer Center On Crisis Reporting
  11. ^ Nikolay Fil (26–28 July 2011). "Status and perspectives of VVER Status and perspectives of VVER nuclear power plants nuclear power plants" (PDF). OKB Gidropress. IAEA. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  12. ^ "Russia connects Novovoronezh 6 reactor to grid". World Nuclear News. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  13. ^ a b "Russia to build 11 new nuclear reactors by 2030". World Nuclear News. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016. 
  14. ^ "Rosatom considers delaying reactor commissioning". Nuclear Engineering International. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017. 
  15. ^ Igor Koudrik and Alexander Nikitin (13 December 2011). "Second life: The questionable safety of life extensions for Russian nuclear power plants". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 
  16. ^ Challenging NPP Projects JSC ASE
  17. ^ NPP JSC ASE (Jordan)
  18. ^ Matthew L. Wald (24 March 2011). "Russia Plans to Test Reactors For Ability to Survive Quakes". New York Times. 

External links[edit]