Nuclear facilities in Iran
|Part of a series on the|
|Nuclear program of Iran|
The Arak area has several industrial complexes, some with ties to the nuclear program, in particular the IR-40 reactor under construction and a heavy water production plant, both near Arak. In the late 1990s, one of these complexes may have manufactured a high-explosive test chamber transferred to Parchin, which the IAEA has asked to visit. The Arak area is also thought to hold factories capable of producing high-strength aluminum for IR-1 rotors.
Arak was one of the two sites exposed by a spokesman for the People's Mujahedin of Iran in 2002. In August 2006, Iran announced the inauguration of the Arak plant for the production of heavy water. Under the terms of Iran's safeguards agreement, Iran was under no obligation to report the existence of the site while it was still under construction since it was not within the 180-day time limit specified by the safeguards agreement. This reactor is intended to replace the life-expired 1967 Tehran Nuclear Research Center research reactor, mainly involved in the production of radioisotopes for medical and agricultural purposes.
The possible existence of a nuclear-related facility near Ardakan (also spelled Ardekan or Erdekan) was first reported on 8 July 2003, by the National Council of Resistance of Iran. Mohammad Ghannadi-Maragheh, Vice President for Nuclear Fuel Production of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), said in September 2003 that the facility was a uranium mill with an annual capacity of 120,000 metric tonnes of ore and an annual output of 50 metric tons of uranium. Iran told the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) that the facility would be hot tested July 2004, producing 40 to 50 kg of yellow cake, but as of 2008 Iran had provided no further information to the IAEA on its operation.
The Atomic Energy Research Center at Bonab is investigating the applications of nuclear technology in agriculture. It is run by the AEOI.
The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (Persian: نیروگاه اتمی بوشهر) is located 17 kilometres (11 mi) south-east of the city of Bushehr, between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf. Construction started in 1975 by Kraftwerk Union AG, but was halted in July 1979 following the 1979 Iranian Revolution. The reactor was damaged by Iraqi air strikes during the Iran-Iraq war in the mid-1980s.[clarification needed] Construction resumed in 1995, when Iran signed a contract with Russian company Atomstroyexport to install into the existing Bushehr I building a 915 MWe VVER-1000 pressurized water reactor. In December 2007 Russia started delivering nuclear fuel to the Bushehr nuclear power plant. The construction was completed in March 2009.
On 13 August 2010, Russia announced that fuel would be loaded into the plant beginning on 21 August, which would mark the beginning of the plant being considered a nuclear facility. Within six months after the fuel loading, the plant is planned to be fully operational. Tehran and Moscow have established a joint venture to operate Bushehr because Iran has not yet had enough experience in maintaining such installations. However, Iran may begin almost all operational control of the reactor within two or three years.
In 1995, Iranian exiles living in Europe claimed Iran was building a secret facility for building nuclear weapons in a mountain 20 kilometres from the town of Chalus. In October 2003 Mohamed ElBaradei announced that "In terms of inspections, so far, we have been allowed to visit those sites to which we have requested access". It therefore appears the allegations about the Chalus site were unfounded.
Fordow, near the city of Qom, is the site of an underground uranium enrichment facility at a former Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps base. Existence of the then-unfinished Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant (FFEP) was disclosed to the IAEA by Iran on 21 September 2009, but only after the site became known to Western intelligence services. Western officials strongly condemned Iran for not disclosing the site earlier; U.S. President Barack Obama said that Fordow had been under U.S. surveillance. In its initial declaration, Iran stated that the purpose of the facility was the production of UF6 enriched up to 5% U-235, and that the facility was being built to contain 16 cascades, with a total of approximately 3000 centrifuges. Iran argues that this disclosure was consistent with its legal obligations under its Safeguards Agreement with the IAEA, which Iran claims requires Iran to declare new facilities 180 days before they receive nuclear material. However, the IAEA stated that Iran was bound by its agreement in 2003 to declare the facility as soon as Iran decided to construct it. Later, in September 2011, Iran said it would move its production of 20% LEU to Fordow from Natanz, and enrichment started in December 2011. According to the Institute for Science and International Security, possible coordinates of the facility's location are: 
The Nuclear Technology Center of Isfahan is a nuclear research facility that currently operates four small nuclear research reactors, all supplied by China. It is run by the AEOI.
The Uranium Conversion Facility at Isfahan converts yellowcake into uranium hexafluoride. As of late October 2004, the site is 70% operational with 21 of 24 workshops completed. There is also a Zirconium Production Plant (ZPP) located nearby that produces the necessary ingredients and alloys for nuclear reactors.
The Center for Agricultural Research and Nuclear Medicine at Hashtgerd was established in 1991 and is run by the AEOI.
Lashkar Abad is a pilot plant for isotope separation. Established in 2002, the site was first exposed by Alireza Jafarzadeh in May 2003, which led to the inspection of the site by the IAEA. Laser enrichment experiments were carried out there, however, the plant has been shut down since Iran declared it has no intentions of enriching uranium using the laser isotope separation technique. In September 2006, Alireza Jafarzadeh claimed that the site has been revived by Iran and that laser enrichment has been taking place at this site.
(Lavizan-Shian Technical Research Center site were demolished between August 2003 and March 2004. Environmental samples taken by IAEA inspectors showed no trace of radiation. The site is to be returned to the City of Teheran.) All buildings at the former
According to Reuters, claims by the US that topsoil has been removed and the site had been sanitized could not be verified by IAEA investigators who visited Lavizan:
Washington accused Iran of removing a substantial amount of topsoil and rubble from the site and replacing it with a new layer of soil, in what U.S. officials said might have been an attempt to cover clandestine nuclear activity at Lavizan.
Former U.S. ambassador to the IAEA, Kenneth Brill, accused Iran in June of using "the wrecking ball and bulldozer" to sanitize Lavizan prior to the arrival of U.N. inspectors.
But another diplomat close to the IAEA told Reuters that on-site inspections of Lavizan produced no proof that any soil had been removed at all.
Natanz is a hardened Fuel Enrichment Plant (FEP) covering 100,000 square meters that is built 8 meters underground and protected by a concrete wall 2.5 meters thick, itself protected by another concrete wall. It is located at Natanz, the capital city of Natanz County, Isfahan Province, Iran. In 2004, the roof was hardened with reinforced concrete and covered with 22 meters of earth. The complex consists of two 25,000 square meter halls and a number of administrative buildings. This once secret site was one of the two exposed by Alireza Jafarzadeh in August, 2002. IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei visited the site on 21 February 2003 and reported that 160 centrifuges were complete and ready for operation, with 1,000 more under construction at the site. In accordance with Code 3.1 of the Subsidiary Arrangements to Iran's safeguards agreement that were in force up to that time, Iran was not obligated to declare the Natanz enrichment facility until six months before nuclear material was introduced into the facility. According to the IAEA, in 2009 there were approximately 7,000 centrifuges installed at Natanz, of which 5,000 were producing low enriched uranium.
In July 2020, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran released photos of a building, presumed to be a centrifuge assembly facility, after a recent explosion. An unnamed Middle Eastern intelligence official later claimed that damage to the facility was caused by an explosive device.
Parchin Military Complex ( ) is located approximately 20 kilometers southeast of downtown Tehran. The IAEA was given access to Parchin on 1 November 2005, and took environmental samples: inspectors did not observe any unusual activities in the buildings visited, and the results of the analysis of environmental samples did not indicate the presence of nuclear material. Parchin is a facility for the testing and manufacturing of conventional explosives; IAEA safeguards inspectors were looking not for evidence of nuclear material, but of the kind of explosives testing consistent with nuclear weapons research and development. In November 2011, the IAEA reported that it had "credible" information that Parchin was used for implosion testing. The IAEA sought additional access to Parchin, which Iran did not grant.
() Location of Iran's first uranium ore mines, which became operational in March 2005. The deposit is estimated to contain 3,000 to 5,000 tons of uranium oxide at a density of about 500 ppm over an area of 100 to 150 square kilometers.
Tehran Research Reactor
The Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) (Atoms for Peace program. The 5-megawatt pool-type nuclear research reactor became operational in 1967 and initially used highly enriched uranium fuel. Light water is used as moderator, coolant and shielding. The TRR core lattice is a 9×6 array containing Standard Fuel Elements (SFEs), Control Fuel Elements (CFEs), irradiation boxes (as vertical tubes provided within the core lattice configuration for long term irradiation of samples and radioisotope production) and graphite boxes (as reflectors).) was supplied by the United States under the
After the Iranian Revolution the United States cut off the supply of highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel for the TRR, which forced the reactor to be shut down for a number of years. Due to the nuclear proliferation concerns caused by the use of HEUs and following Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Programs, Iran signed agreements with Argentina's National Atomic Energy Commission to convert the TRR from highly enriched uranium fuel to low-enriched uranium, and to supply the low-enriched uranium to Iran in 1987–88. TRR core was converted to use Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuels in 1993. Fuel elements of TRR are now plate-type U3O8-Al with approximately 20% enrichment. In February 2012, Iran loaded the first domestically produced fuel element into the Tehran Research Reactor.
Standard fuel elements of TRR have 19 fuel plates, while CFEs have only 14 fuel plates to accommodate the fork-type control rods. Control of the reactor is accomplished by the insertion or removal of safety and regulating absorber plates, which contain Ag–In–Cd alloy and stainless steel, respectively. Additional control is provided by the inherent negative temperature coefficient of reactivity of the system.
The reactor core is immersed in either section of a two-section, concrete pool filled with water. One of the sections of the pool contains an experimental stall into which beam tubes and other experimental facilities converge. The other section is an open area for bulk irradiation studies. The reactor can be operated in either section.
1. Two pneumatic rabbit tubes (for short term irradiation of samples)
2. One graphite thermal column
3. One 12"×12" beam tube
4. Four 6" diameter beam tubes
5. One 8" diameter beam tube
6. One 6" diameter through tube
TRR core cooling is accomplished by gravity flow of pool water at nominal rate of 500 m3/hr through the reactor core, grid plate, plenum and into the hold-up tank from where it is pumped through the shell of the heat exchanger and then back into the pool.
TRR offers a variety of education and exposure services and production of radioisotopes for medical, scientific and industrial centers. One of the primary objectives of the facility is to render services to scientists, engineers and graduate students in nuclear techniques. Tehran research reactor can be utilized for laboratory work involving studies of the reactor core and experiments on neutron diffusion, neutron diffraction, shielding, gamma spectroscopy, boron neutron capture therapy, neutron radiography and Neutron Activation Analysis.
Yazd Radiation Processing Center is equipped with a Rhodotron TT200 accelerator, made by IBA, Belgium, with outputs of 5 and 10MeV beam lines and a maximum power of 100 kW. As of 2006[update] the centre is engaged in geophysical research to analyze the mineral deposits surrounding the city and is expected to play an important role in supporting the medical and polymer industries.
- "Anarak nuclear waste disposal". Institute for Science and International Security. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- "Arak Complex". Institute for Science and International Security. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
- Nuclear Iran A GLOSSARY, March 2015, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy & Harvard University’s Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
- Arak, GlobalSecurity.org
- Kim Howells (16 Jan 2006). "Written Answers to Questions - Iran". Hansard. Column 977W. Retrieved 2007-11-05. Cite journal requires
- "INFCIRC/696" (PDF). IAEA. 6 March 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2007. Retrieved 24 March 2007.
- "Ardekan (Ardakan) Nuclear Fuel Site". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
- Bushehr: Fertigstellung des iranischen Kernkraftwerkes ist für Russland Ehrensache (German)
- "Iran urges Russia to speed up Bushehr nuclear plant work". Forbes. 2006-05-12. Retrieved 2006-06-03.
- "Technical events to be held at Bushehr nuclear plant – Atomstroiexport". ITAR-TASS. 2008-09-08. Retrieved 2008-10-17.[permanent dead link]
- Russia delivers nuclear fuel to Iran. CNN. 17 December 2007
- Iran's Bushehr NPP no threat to its neighbors - experts RIA Novosti 2009-05-13
- "Iran nuclear plant start date set". BBC News Online. 13 August 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
- "Russia, Iran set up joint venture to operate Bushehr power station", RIA Novostni (August 21 2010)
- "Tehran's Magic Mountain". US and World News Report. 1995. Archived from the original on 2011-05-24. Retrieved 2006-05-28.
- "IRAN TO ACCEPT INTERNATIONAL INSPECTIONS EVEN ON MILITARY SITES". Iran Press Service. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
- Iran starts second atomic power plant: report, Reuters, Feb 8, 2008.
- Weisman, Jonathan (2009-09-25). "Iran Denounced Over Secret Nuclear Plant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
- "Underground Facilities: Intelligence and Targeting Issues". National Security Archive. March 23, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
- GOV/2009/74 Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran
- Sanger, David E.; Cooper, Helene (2009-09-25). "Iran Confirms Existence of Nuclear Plant". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-25.
- Daniel Joyner (5 March 2010). "The Qom Enrichment Facility: Was Iran Legally Bound to Disclose?". JURIST. University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008) and 1835 (2008) in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). GOV/2009/74. International Atomic Energy Agency. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2012.
- "Iran enriching uranium at Fordo plant near Qom". BBC. 10 January 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
- "Satellite Imagery of Qom Enrichment Facility in Iran" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security. 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2009-09-26.
- Esfahan / Isfahan - Iran Special Weapons Facilities
- http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8e/Jafarzadeh.jpg[permanent dead link]
- http://www.spcwashington.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=32&Itemid=43 SPC
- "Iran tried to acquire nuclear equipment at suspect Lavizan site: UN agency". Iran Focus. Retrieved 2006-04-23.
- "Exile group accuses Iran of secret nuclear weapons research". Washington Post. 2015-01-24. Retrieved 2015-02-25.
- "Iranian Resistance reveals secret nuclear site in Iran used for uranium enrichment with advanced centrifuges". National Council of Resistance of Iran website. 2015-01-24. Retrieved 2015-02-25.
- Pike, John (2006). "Natanz [Kashan]". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2006-05-28.
- Sanger, David E.; Broad, William J.; Bergman, Ronen; Fassihi, Farnaz (2020-07-02). "Mysterious Explosion and Fire Damage Iranian Nuclear Enrichment Facility". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-07-03.
- "Transparency Visits and Discussions" (PDF). Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement in the Islamic Republic of Iran. International Atomic Energy Agency. 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-28.
- "Implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement and relevant provisions of Security Council resolutions in the Islamic Republic of Iran" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 8 November 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- "IAEA Expert Team Returns from Iran". Press Release 2012/05. International Atomic Energy Agency. 22 February 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2012.
- "Contract between the International Atomic Energy Agency, Iran and the United States of America for the transfer of Enriched Uranium and Plutonium for a Research Reactor in Iran" (PDF). IAEA. United Nations. 7 June 1967. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
- "Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance". U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration. Archived from the original on 2006-09-24. Retrieved 2006-09-24.
- Safaei Arshi, S.; et al. (2015). "Preliminary thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of Tehran research reactor during fuel irradiation experiment". Progress in Nuclear Energy. 79: 32–39.
- Agence Global: Making a U.S.-Iranian Nuclear Deal Archived 2012-03-21 at the Wayback Machine
- "Iran Watch: Iran's Nuclear Program". Archived from the original on 2010-04-30. Retrieved 2010-05-21.
- "Amendment to Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of Iran for assistance by the Agency to Iran in establishing a Research Reactor Project" (PDF). IAEA. United Nations. 9 December 1988. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
- Lashkari, A.; et al. (2012). "Neutronic analysis for Tehran Research Reactor mixed-core". Progress in Nuclear Energy. 60: 31–37.
- David Blair (15 February 2012). "Iran claims significant advance in nuclear programme". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Gholamzadeh, Z.; et al. (2017). "Modeling of neutron diffractometry facility of Tehran research reactor using vitess 3.3a and mcnpx codes". Nuclear Engineering and Technology.
- Kasesaz, Y.; et al. (2014). "Design of an epithermal neutron beam for BNCT in thermal column of Tehran research reactor". Annals of Nuclear Energy. 68: 234–238.
- Safaei Arshi, S. (2017). "Experimental validation of a modified RELAP5 model for transient analysis of Tehran research reactor mixed-core during fuel irradiation experiments". Progress in Nuclear Energy. 100: 11–21.
- "Yazd Radiation Processing Center (YRPC)". Nuclear Threat Initiative. 2006. Archived from the original on December 26, 2004. Retrieved 2006-09-25.
- The first-ever English-language website about Iran's nuclear energy program
- Iran's key nuclear sites by BBC news
- Iran nuclear sites ISIS