Nuclear power by country

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Nuclear power plants operate in 32 countries and generate about a tenth of the world's electricity.[1] Most are in Europe, North America, East Asia and South Asia. The United States is the largest producer of nuclear power, while France has the largest share of electricity generated by nuclear power, at about 75%.[2] China has the fastest growing nuclear power programme with 16 new reactors under construction, followed by India, which has 8 under construction.[3]

Some countries operated nuclear reactors in the past but have no operating nuclear plants. Among them, Italy closed all of its nuclear stations by 1990 and nuclear power has since been discontinued because of the 1987 referendums. Kazakhstan is planning to reintroduce nuclear power in the future.[citation needed] Belarus began operating one unit of its first nuclear power plant in June 2021 and expects to bring the second unit into operation in 2022.[4]

Spain and Switzerland are currently operating nuclear power plants while planning nuclear power phase-outs.[citation needed] Germany will complete the shut down of its nuclear fleet in 2022 and any restart has been ruled out on technical grounds.[5] Taiwan is considering a phase-out.[citation needed] Austria (Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the Philippines (Bataan Nuclear Power Plant) never started to use their first nuclear plants that were completely built.

Sweden and Belgium originally had phase-out policies however they have now moved away from their original plans. The Philippines relaunched their nuclear programme on February 28, 2022 and may soon operate the mothballed Bataan Plant.[6][7]

Due to financial, political and technical reasons, Cuba, Libya and Poland never completed the construction of their first nuclear plants, and Australia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ghana, Ireland, Kuwait, Oman, Peru and Singapore never built their planned first nuclear plants.[8][9] Some of these countries are still planning to introduce nuclear power. As of 2020, Poland is in advanced planning phase for 1.5 GW and plans to have up to 9 GW by 2040.[10] Hong Kong has no nuclear power plants within its boundary, but imports 80% of the electricity generated from Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station located across the border, in which the power company of the territory holds stake.[11][12] The government had also proposed to increase the share of nuclear energy to 50%.[13] In 2021, Iraq declared it plans to build 8 nuclear reactors by 2030 to supply up to 25% electric power in the grid that suffers from shortages.[14]

Overview

Nations based on nuclear output as a percentage of national power output.
Timeline of commissioned and decommissioned nuclear capacity since the 1950s.[15] Positive numbers show the commissioned capacity for each year; negative numbers show the decommissioned capacity for each year.
Global status of nuclear deployment as of January 2022 (source: see file description)
  Operating reactors, building new reactors
  Operating reactors, planning new build
  No reactors, building new reactors
  No reactors, planning new build
  Operating reactors, stable
  Operating reactors, considering phase-out
  Civil nuclear power is illegal
  No reactors

Of the 32 countries in which nuclear power plants operate, only France, Slovakia, Ukraine and Belgium use them as the source for a majority of the country's electricity supply as of 2021. Other countries have significant amounts of nuclear power generation capacity. By far the largest nuclear electricity producers are the United States with 771,638 GWh of nuclear electricity in 2021, followed by China with 383,205 GWh.[1] As of August 2022, 438 reactors with a net capacity of 393,333 MWe are operational, and 56 reactors with net capacity of 57,848 MWe are under construction. Of the reactors under construction, 17 reactors with 17,365 MWe are in China and 8 reactors with a capacity of 6,028 MWe are in India.[16]

Nuclear power by country in 2021[1]
Country Reactors Capacity
Net-total (MWe)
Generated
electricity (GWh)
Share of total
electricity use
Notes
Operational U/C
Argentina Argentina 3 1 1,641 10,170 7.2%
Armenia Armenia 1 0 448 1,850 25.3%
Bangladesh Bangladesh 0 2
Belarus Belarus 1 1 1,110 5422 14.1%
Belgium Belgium 7 0 5,942 47,962 50.8% Phase-out postponed
Brazil Brazil 2 1 1,884 13,858 2.4%
Bulgaria Bulgaria 2 0 2,006 15,799 34.6%
Canada Canada 19 0 13,624 86,780 14.3%
China China 55 17 52,170 383,205 5.0%
Croatia Croatia 0[α] 0 ?
Czech Republic Czech Republic 6 0 3,934 29,044 36.6%
Egypt Egypt 0 1
Finland Finland 5 0 4,394 22,646 32.8%
France France 56 1 61,370 363,394 69.0%
Germany Germany 3 0 4,055 65,444 11.9% 2022 phase-out[5]
Hungary Hungary 4 0 1,916 15,121 46.8%
India India 22 8 6,795 39,758 3.2%
Iran Iran 1 1 915 3,236 1.0%
Japan Japan 33 2 31,679 61,304 7.2% Many reactors stopped
Mexico Mexico 2 0 1,552 11,606 5.3%
Netherlands Netherlands 1 0 482 3,614 3.1%
Pakistan Pakistan 6 0 3,256 15,832 10.6%
Romania Romania 2 0 1,300 10,401 18.5%
Russia Russia 37 4 27,727 208,443 20.0%
Slovakia Slovakia 4 2 1,868 14,646 52.3%
Slovenia Slovenia 1[α] 0 688[clarification needed] 5,419[clarification needed] 36.9%[clarification needed]
South Africa South Africa 2 0 1,854 12,199 6.0%
South Korea South Korea 25 3 24,431 150,456 28.0%
Spain Spain 7 0 7,121 54,218 20.8% Phase-out planned
Sweden Sweden 6 0 6,882 51,426 30.8%
Switzerland Switzerland 4 0 2,960 18,593 28.8% Gradual phase-out planned
Taiwan Taiwan 3 0 2,859 26,818 10.8%
Turkey Turkey 0 4
Ukraine Ukraine 15 2 13,107 81,126 55.0%
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates 2 2 2,762 10,126 1.3%
United Kingdom United Kingdom 9 2 5,883 41,789 14.8%
United States United States 92 2 94,718 771,638 19.6%
World total 438 56 393,333 2,653,344

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b One reactor located within Slovenia, co-owned by and shared between Croatia and Slovenia.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Nuclear Share of Electricity Generation in 2021". IAEA. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  2. ^ "Nuclear Power in France | French Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  3. ^ "China Nuclear Power | Chinese Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org.
  4. ^ International Atomic Energy Agency. Country Nuclear Power Profiles: Belarus (updated 2021).
  5. ^ a b Wehrmann, Benjamin (7 July 2022). "Scholz rejects nuclear runtime extension as parliament holds key energy policy votes". Clean Energy Wire. Berlin, Germany. Retrieved 7 July 2022. open access
  6. ^ "Philippines relaunches nuclear energy programme : Nuclear Policies - World Nuclear News".
  7. ^ "Sweden Reverses Nuclear Phase-out Policy".
  8. ^ Duroyan Fertl (5 June 2011). "Germany: Nuclear power to be phased out by 2022". Green Left.
  9. ^ James Kanter (25 May 2011). "Switzerland Decides on Nuclear Phase-Out". New York Times.
  10. ^ Wilczek, Maria (16 June 2020). "Construction of Poland's first nuclear power plant to begin in 2026". Notes From Poland. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  11. ^ "Hong Kong fallout from China's reckless nuclear ambitions".
  12. ^ "CLP to increase nuclear power imports 10pc".
  13. ^ Mar, Daphne; Hills, Peter; and Tao, Julia (November 2014). "AESC Working Paper 11: Risk perception, trust and public engagement in nuclear decision-making in Hong Kong - 1.3 Nuclear energy: the Hong Kong context" (PDF).{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ "Iraq hopes to build 8 nuclear power reactors by 2030". Brecorder. 15 June 2021. Retrieved 18 June 2021.
  15. ^ "Operational & Long-Term Shutdown Reactors". IAEA. 13 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
  16. ^ Nuclear Power Reactors in the World (PDF). Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency. 2020. ISBN 978-92-0-114820-9.

External links