Nuclear power in China
China is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear power. The country ranks third in the world both in total nuclear power capacity installed and electricity generated, accounting for around one tenth of global nuclear power generated. Nuclear power contributed 4.9% of the total Chinese electricity production in 2019, with 348.1 TWh. As of September 2022, China operates a total of 53 nuclear reactors, with a total capacity of 55.6 gigawatt (GW). This was short of the previous target of 58GW of installed capacity by 2020. More than 20 reactors are under construction with a total capacity of 24.2 GW.
Nuclear power has been looked into as an alternative to coal due to increasing concerns about air quality, climate change and fossil fuel shortages. The China General Nuclear Power Group has articulated the goal of 200 GW by 2035, produced by 150 additional reactors.
China has two major nuclear power companies, the China National Nuclear Corporation operating mainly in north-east China, and the China General Nuclear Power Group (formerly known as China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group) operating mainly in south-east China.
China aims to maximize self-reliance on nuclear reactor technology manufacturing and design, although international cooperation and technology transfer are also encouraged. Advanced pressurized water reactors such as the Hualong One are the mainstream technology in the near future, and the Hualong One is also planned to be exported. China plans to build as many as thirty nuclear power reactors in countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative by 2030. By mid-century fast neutron reactors are seen as the main technology, with a planned 1400 GW capacity by 2100. China is also involved in the development of nuclear fusion reactors through its participation in the ITER project, having constructed an experimental nuclear fusion reactor known as EAST located in Hefei, as well as research and development into the thorium fuel cycle as a potential alternative means of nuclear fission.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010)
In the Cold War, the initial motivation of developing nuclear power for Beijing was largely due to security purposes. Between 1950 and 1958, Chinese nuclear power construction heavily relied on cooperation with the USSR. The first initiative was launched with the establishment of the China-Soviet Union Nonferrous Metals and Rare Metals Corporation and the first central atomic research facility, the Institute of Atomic Energy of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. In February 1955, a chemical separation plant for the production of weapons-grade U-235 and plutonium was created with Soviet aid in Xinjiang and in April the Changchun Institute of Atomic Energy was established. Several months later, on April 29, 1955, the Sino-Soviet Atomic Cooperation Treaty was signed. The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) was also established in 1955. In addition to the cooperation with the USSR, China has started to learn nuclear technology by sending students to the USSR. In December 1958, nuclear power development had become the top priority project in the Draft Twelve Year Plan for Development of Science and Technology.
The second phase is characterized by the aim of having completely self-sufficient in nuclear power development. In June 1959, the USSR officially ended any forms of nuclear aid to China, withdrawing Soviet technicians. China suffered but continued nuclear power development by massive research and input. In order to rapidly strengthen its atomic energy industry, the Central Committee decided that China must dedicate further resources exclusively to nuclear-related activities. Consequently, the Institute of Atomic Energy created branch institutes of research organizations in every province, major city, and autonomous region. By the end of 1963, China has built more than forty chemical separation plants for the extraction of uranium and thorium. In the year between 1961 and 1962, China accomplished significant achievements in nuclear development which consolidates future applications. From 1959 to 1963, a gaseous diffusion plant utilizing a large 300 MW reactor was under construction at Lanzhou. It was estimated that the Chinese invested over $1.5 billion in the construction of this plant.
After the explosive progress in the 1950s, Chinese nuclear development slowed down possibly because of Cultural Revolution so only one nuclear test took place in 1970. On 8 February 1970, China issued its first nuclear power plan, and the 728 Institute (now called Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute) was founded.
The first independently designed and built nuclear power plant, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, was constructed in 1984 and successfully connected to the grid on December 15, 1991. The reactor is of type CNP-300.
Along with Chinese economic reform, China continued to demand expansion of its electricity sectors. As part of China's tenth Five-Year Plan (2001–2005), a key part of energy policy is to "guarantee energy security, optimize energy mix, improve energy efficiency, protect the ecological environment.” The nuclear safety plan of 2013 stated that beyond 2016 only Generation III plants would be started, and until then only a very few Generation II+ plants would be started.
In 2014, China still planned to have 58 GW of capacity by 2020. However, due to reevaluation following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan, few plants commenced construction from 2015, and this target was not met.
In 2019, China had a new target of 200 GWe of nuclear generating capacity by 2035, which is 7.7% out of predicted total electricity generating capacity of 2600 GWe.
By the end of December 2020, the total number of nuclear power units in operation on the Chinese mainland reached 49, with a total installed capacity of 51 GWe, ranking third in the world in terms of installed capacity and second in the world in terms of power generation in 2020; with 16 nuclear power units under construction, the number of units under construction and installed capacity have ranked first in the world for many years.
Safety and regulation
The National Nuclear Safety Administration (NNSA), under the China Atomic Energy Authority, is the licensing and regulatory body which also maintains international agreements regarding safety. It was set up in 1984 and reports to the State Council directly. In relation to the AP1000, NNSA works closely with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
China has requested and hosted 12 Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) missions from IAEA teams to October 2011, and each plant generally has one external safety review each year, either OSART, WANO peer review, or CNEA peer review (with the Research Institute for Nuclear Power Operations).
Following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in Japan, China announced on 16 March 2011, that all nuclear plant approvals were being frozen, and that 'full safety checks' of existing reactors would be made. Although Zhang Lijun, Vice Minister of Environmental Protection, has indicated that China's overall nuclear energy strategy would continue, some commentators have suggested that additional safety-related costs and public opinion could cause a rethink in favor of an expanded renewable energy program.
In 2017, new laws strengthened the powers of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, creating new "institutional mechanisms", a clearer "division of labour" and more disclosure of information.
CNP / ACP series
The CNP Generation II nuclear reactors (and Generation III successor ACP) were a series of nuclear reactors developed by China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), and are predecessors of the more current Hualong One design.
The CNP series of Generation II reactors started with the CNP-300 pressurized water reactor, was the first reactor design developed domestically in China. The first unit began operation at Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant in 1991.
A larger version of the reactor, the CNP-600 was developed based on both the CNP-300 and the M310 reactor design used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant. It was installed at Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant, with two units operational from 2015 and 2016, respectively. A Generation III ACP-600 successor was also developed but none were built.
A three loop, 1000-MW version of the CNP reactor, the CNP-1000, was under development since the 1990s with the help of vendors Westinghouse and Framatome (now AREVA). 4 units of the CNP-1000 were later built at Fuqing NPP. Further work on the CNP-1000 was stopped in favour of the ACP-1000.
In 2013, China announced that it had independently developed the Generation III ACP-1000, with Chinese authorities claiming full intellectual property rights over the design. As a result of the success of the Hualong One project, no ACP-1000 reactors have been built to date. CNNC had originally planned to use the ACP-1000 in Fuqing reactor 5 and 6 but switched over to the Hualong One.
CPR-1000 / ACPR-1000
The CPR-1000 was a generation Generation II reactor developed by China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN). It is the most numerous reactor type in China, with 22 units operational. This reactor type is a Chinese development of the French 900 MWe three cooling loop design imported in the 1990s, with most of the components now built in China. Intellectual property rights are retained by Areva, which affects CPR-1000 overseas sales potential.
China's first CPR-1000 nuclear power plant, Ling Ao-3, was connected to the grid on 15 July 2010. The design has been progressively built with increasing levels of Chinese components. Shu Guogang, GM of China Guangdong Nuclear Power Project said, "We built 55 percent of Ling Ao Phase 2, 70 percent of Hongyanhe, 80 percent of Ningde and 90 percent of Yangjiang Station."
In 2010, the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation announced the ACPR1000 design, a further design evolution of the CPR-1000 to a Generation III level, which would also replace intellectual property right limited components. CGNPC aimed to be able to independently market the ACPR1000 for export by 2013. A number of ACPR1000 are under construction in China, but for export this design was superseded by the Hualong One.
Hualong One is jointly developed by the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) and China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN), based on the three-loop ACP1000 of CNNC and ACPR1000 of CGN, which in turn are based on the French M310.
Since 2011, CNNC has been progressively merging its ACP-1000 nuclear power station design with the CGN ACPR-1000 design, while allowing some differences, under direction of the Chinese nuclear regulator. Both are three-loop designs originally based on the same French M310 design used in Daya Bay with 157 fuel assemblies, but went through different development processes (CNNC's ACP-1000 has a more domestic design with 177 fuel assemblies while CGN's ACPR-1000 is a closer copy with 157 fuel assemblies). In early 2014, it was announced that the merged design was moving from preliminary design to detailed design. Power output will be 1150 MWe, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. CNNC's 177 fuel assembly design was retained.
After the merger, both companies retain their own supply chain and their versions of the Hualong One will differ slightly (units built by CGN will retain some features from the ACPR1000) but the design is considered to be standardised. Some 85% of its components will be made domestically.
The Hualong One power output will be 1170 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net, with a 60-year design life, and would use a combination of passive and active safety systems with a double containment. It has a 177 assembly core design with an 18-month refuelling cycle. The power plant's utilisation rate is as high as 90%. CNNC has said its active and passive safety systems, double-layer containment and other technologies meet the highest international safety standards.
The Hualong One is now largely seen as the replacement for all previous Chinese nuclear reactor designs, and has been exported overseas.
CNNC plans to start building a follow-on version, named Hualong Two, by 2024. It will be a more economical version using similar technology, reducing build time from 5 years to 4, and reducing costs by around a fourth from 17,000 yuan per kW to 13,000 yuan per kW.
As of 2022, there are no further AP1000 units planned or under construction.
CAP1400 (Guohe One)
In 2007, negotiations started with the French company Areva concerning the EPR third generation reactors. Two Areva EPR reactors were built at Taishan, and at least two more are planned. The reactors are 4590 MWt, with net power 1660 MWe.
Two AECL 728 MW CANDU-6 reactors are located at the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, the first went online in 2002, the second in 2003. CANDU reactors can use low grade reprocessed uranium from conventional reactors as fuel, thereby reducing China's stock of spent nuclear fuel.
Russia's Atomstroyexport was general contractor and equipment provider for the Tianwan AES-91 power plants using the V-428 version of the well-proven VVER-1000 reactor of 1060 MWe capacity. Russia's Energoatom is responsible for maintenance from 2009. Two further Tianwan units will use the same version of the VVER-1000 reactor.
On 7 March 2019, China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) and Atomstroyexport signed the detailed contract for the construction of four VVER-1200s, two each at the Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant and the Xudabao Nuclear Power Plant. Construction will start in May 2021, and commercial operation of all the units is expected between 2026 and 2028.
Generation IV reactors
China is developing several generation IV reactor designs. The HTR-PM, a HTGR, is under construction. The HTR-PM is a descendant of the AVR reactor, and it is partly based on the earlier Chinese HTR-10 reactor. A sodium-cooled fast reactor, the CFR-600, is also under construction.
ACP100 small modular reactor
In July 2019, China National Nuclear Corporation announced it would start building a demonstration ACP100 small modular reactor (SMR) on the north-west side of the existing Changjiang Nuclear Power Plant by the end of the year. Design of the ACP100 started in 2010 and it was the first SMR project to pass an independent safety assessment by International Atomic Energy Agency in 2016. It is also referred to as Linglong One and is a fully integrated reactor module with an internal coolant system, with a 2-year refuelling interval, producing 385 MWt and about 125 MWe, and incorporates passive safety features, and can be installed underground.
Nuclear power plants
Most nuclear power plants in China are located on the coast and generally use seawater for cooling a direct once-through cycle. The New York Times has reported that China is placing many of its nuclear plants near large cities, and there is a concern that tens of millions of people could be exposed to radiation in the event of an accident. China's neighboring Daya Bay and Lingao nuclear plants have around 28 million people within a 75-kilometre radius that covers Hong Kong.
Following the Fukushima accident and consequent pause in approvals for new plants, the target adopted by the State Council in October 2012 became 60 GWe by 2020, with 30 GWe under construction. In 2015, the target for nuclear capacity on line in 2030 was 150 GWe, providing almost 10% of electricity, and 240 GWe in 2050 providing 15%.
However, from 2016 to 2018, there was a further hiatus in the new build programme, with no new approvals for at least two years, causing the programme to slow sharply. Delays in the Chinese builds of AP1000 and EPR reactors, together with the bankruptcy in the U.S. of Westinghouse, the designer of the AP1000, have created uncertainties about the future direction. Also, some regions of China now have excess generation capacity, and it has become less certain to what extent electricity prices can economically sustain nuclear new build while the Chinese government is gradually liberalising the generation sector.
In 2018, a Nuclear Engineering International journal analysis suggests a below-plan capacity of 90 GWe is plausible for 2030. As of 2020[update], China had 45GW of operational nuclear power, with 11GW under construction (see Table below)
Bloomberg News reported that the 2020 National People's Congress supported future building of 6 to 8 reactors a year, which Bloomberg considered likely to be dominated by the domestic Hualong One design. In 2019, China had a new target of 200 GWe of nuclear generating capacity by 2035, which is 7.7% out of predicted total electricity generating capacity of 2600 GWe.
The role of the IPPs
The first major successful profitable commercial project was the Daya Bay Nuclear Plant, which is 25% owned by CLP Group of Hong Kong and exports 70% of its electricity to Hong Kong. Such imports supply 20% of Hong Kong's electricity.
In order to access the capital needed to meet the 2020 target of 80GW, China has begun to grant equity in nuclear projects to China's Big Five power corporations:
- Huaneng Group,
- Huadian Group – Fujian Fuqing nuclear power project II and III
- Datang Group,
- China Power Investment Group – Jiangxi Pengze Nuclear
- Guodian Group
Like the two nuclear companies China National Nuclear Corporation and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group (CGNPG) the Big Five are State-owned "Central Enterprises" (中央企业) administered by SASAC. However, unlike the two nuclear companies, they have listed subsidiaries in Hong Kong and a broad portfolio of thermal, hydro and wind.
Summary of nuclear power plants
|Nuclear power plant||operational reactors||reactors under construction||reactors planned||total|
|Daya Bay (Dayawan)||2||1,888||—||—||2||1,888|
|Shidao Bay (Shidaowan)||1||200||2||2,800||—||3||3,000|
Where multiple reactors are operational/under construction/planned at a given site, the capacity given is to be understood for all reactors at this site applicable to the given column, not a per reactor figure.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2018)
Starting in about the 2010s, China has been making serious efforts towards nuclear reprocessing. While those plants are ostensibly civilian in nature, there is concern as to the Dual Use applicability of the technology with several Western media outlets writing articles with the verbatim same headline "China nuclear reprocessing to create stockpiles of weapons-level materials: Experts" China has also pioneered the use of a reprocessed uranium / depleted uranium mixture "natural uranium equivalent" in its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors at Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant. Unlike the similar "DUPIC" process ("direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU") pioneered in South Korea, this process separately recovers the reactor grade plutonium for other uses, fueling the heavy water reactor with the uranium content of the spent fuel alone.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2018)
- China National Nuclear Corporation
- China General Nuclear Power Group
- State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation
- China Nuclear International Uranium Corporation
In January 2011, the Chinese Academy of Sciences began the TMSR research and development project to create reactors which, among other advances, will be air-cooled. A small prototype reactor of this type, the TMSR-LF1, is planned. The LF1 will be sited in Gansu province, in an industrial park in Minqin County.
In February 2019, China's State Power Investment Corporation (SPIC) signed a cooperation agreement with the Baishan municipal government in Jilin province for the Baishan Nuclear Energy Heating Demonstration Project, which would use a China National Nuclear Corporation DHR-400 (District Heating Reactor 400 MWt).
China is experiencing civil protest over its ambitious plans to build more nuclear power plants following the Fukushima nuclear disaster. There has been "inter-provincial squabble" over a nuclear power plant being built near the southern bank of the Yangtze River. The plant in the centre of the controversy is located in Pengze county in Jiangxi and across the river the government of Wangjiang county in Anhui wants the project shelved.
More than 1,000 people protested in Jiangmen City Hall in July 2013 to demand authorities abandon a planned uranium-processing facility that was designed as a major supplier to nuclear power stations. The Heshan Nuclear Power Industry Park was to be equipped with facilities for uranium conversion and enrichment as well as the manufacturing of fuel pellets, rods and finished assemblies. Protesters feared the plant would adversely affect their health, and the health of future generations. As the weekend protest continued, Chinese officials announced the state-run project's cancellation.
By 2014, concerns about public opposition caused Chinese regulators to develop public and media support programmes, and developers to begin outreach programmes including site tours and visitor centres.
- Electricity sector in China
- Energy policy of China
- List of nuclear reactors#China
- Nuclear power by country
- Nuclear energy policy
- Strategic uranium reserves
- "China's nuclear power generation rises in 2018 – Xinhua | English.news.cn". xinhuanet.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2019. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
- "China's nuclear power output jumps 18% year on year". World Nuclear News. 24 February 2020.
- International Atomic Energy Agency (2022). "Power Reactor Information System (PRIS): China, People's Republic of". IAEA. Retrieved 15 November 2022.
- "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. 2 July 2010. Archived from the original on 12 February 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
- "[宁德] 宁德核电站在福鼎开工-图 - 福建之窗 66163.com". Fjnews.66163.com. 7 March 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
- Murtaugh, Dan; Krystal, Chia (2 November 2021). "China's Climate Goals Hinge on a $440 Billion Nuclear Buildout". Bloomberg. Retrieved 31 July 2022.
- "China's Climate Goals Hinge on a $440 Billion Nuclear Buildout". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 5 November 2021.
- Keith Bradsher (15 December 2009). "Nuclear Power Expansion in China Stirs Concerns". New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 July 2016. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- "Chinese firms join forces to market Hualong One abroad". World Nuclear News. 31 December 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2016. Retrieved 6 February 2016.
- "Hualong One joint venture officially launched". World Nuclear News. 17 March 2016. Archived from the original on 18 March 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
- "The trade war we want China to win: China's nuclear exports can challenge Russian dominance". Atlantic Council. 26 February 2020. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
- "China could build 30 'Belt and Road' nuclear reactors by 2030: official". Reuters. 20 June 2019. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
- Turner, Ben (23 July 2021). "China to activate world's first 'clean' nuclear reactor in September". livescience.com. Retrieved 30 September 2021.
- Brook, Barry (27 November 2011). "Summary of China's fast reactor programme". Brave New Climate. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016.
- "Fast Reactor Technology Development for Sustainable Supply of Nuclear Energy in China – China International Nuclear Symposium November 23–25, 2010, Beijing" (PDF). XU MI – China Institute of Atomic Energy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 September 2016.
- "PACIFIC NUCLEAR COUNCIL (PNC) – 2nd QUARTER 2015 MEETING – Thursday, April 23, 2015 – Beijing, CHINA- Meeting Minutes (Final)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 April 2016.
- "China to build world's first "artificial sun" experimental device". People's Daily Online. 21 January 2006. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, 20 March 2011, Safe nuclear does exist, and China is leading the way with thorium Archived 25 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Telegraph UK
- Chari, P. R. (1978). "China's Nuclear Posture: An Evaluation". Asian Survey. 18 (8): 817–828. doi:10.2307/2643560. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2643560.
- Minor, Michael S. (1976). "China's Nuclear Development Program". Asian Survey. 16 (6): 571–579. doi:10.2307/2643520. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2643520.
- "Milstone". China Instiute of Atomic Energy. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- "Russian-Chinese Science and Technology Diplomacy and Practice". China Institute of International Studies. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
- "Letter to the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party on Not Giving China Samples of Nuclear Weapons and Technical Information". Wilson Center.
- "Chinese Communist Party Central Committee Decision With Respect To Several Issues Concerning Strengthening Atomic Energy Industrial Infrastructure". Wilson Center.
- Albright, David. "Chinese Military Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium Inventories" (PDF). Institute for Science and International Security.
- "Institute Profile". Archived from the original on 16 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015.
- "China Nuclear Power". Shanghai Nuclear Office.
- Daogang Lu (North China Electric Power University) (May 2010). "The Current Status of Chinese Nuclear Power Industry and Its Future". e-Journal of Advanced Maintenance. Japan Society of Maintenology. 2 (1). Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
- Kadak, Andrew C. (2006). "Nuclear Power: "Made in China"". The Brown Journal of World Affairs. 13 (1): 77–90. ISSN 1080-0786. JSTOR 24590645.
- Yun Zhou (31 July 2013). "China: The next few years are crucial for nuclear industry growth". Ux Consulting. Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- "Start-up nearing for Chinese units". World Nuclear News. 25 March 2014. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014.
- "Can China Meet Its Nuclear Power Goals?". Archived from the original on 22 May 2018. Retrieved 21 May 2018.
- "Nuclear Power in China". World Nuclear Association. October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- the CNN Wire Staff (16 March 2011). "China freezes nuclear plant approvals - CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. Archived from the original on 28 June 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Will China's nuclear nerves fuel a boom in green energy? Archived 21 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine Channel 4, published 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011
- China’s Nuclear Energy Program Post-Fukushima Archived 18 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine China Bystander, published 16 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011
- Rob Forrest (2 June 2014). "China's Nuclear Program and Spent Fuel Storage" (PDF). CISAC, Stanford University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- Stanway, David (1 September 2017). "China's legislature passes nuclear safety law". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- Biello, David (29 March 2011). "China forges ahead with nuclear energy". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.194. Retrieved 28 May 2018.
- "China's commercial reactors" (PDF). Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- (IAEA), International Atomic Energy Agency. "- Nuclear Power – IAEA". www.iaea.org. Retrieved 29 May 2018.
- "Chinese reactor design evolution - Nuclear Engineering International".
- "First power at China's Ling Ao". Nuclear Engineering International. 16 July 2010. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2010.
- "China prepares to export reactors". World Nuclear News. 25 November 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- Ji Xing; Daiyong Song; Yuxiang Wu (March 2016). "HPR1000: Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor with Active and Passive Safety". Engineering. 2 (1): 79–87. doi:10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.017.
- "Chinese reactor design passes safety review - World Nuclear News".
- "China to begin construction of Hualong Two in 2024 - Nuclear Engineering International".
- "China to begin construction of Hualong Two in 2024". Nuclear Engineering International. 15 April 2021. Retrieved 2 February 2022.
- https://www.nasdaq.com/articles/china-to-start-building-hualong-two-nuclear-reactor-in-2024-2021-04-14[bare URL]
- "First AP1000 unit begins generating power". Archived from the original on 10 July 2018. Retrieved 11 July 2018.
- "Permits issued for construction of new Chinese plant". World Nuclear News. 15 October 2019. Archived from the original on 15 October 2019. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
- "China launches CAP1400 reactor design". World Nuclear News. 29 September 2020. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
- "Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Station". Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
- "AtomStroyExport unveils schedule for China projects". World Nuclear News. 3 April 2019. Archived from the original on 3 April 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "CNNC launches demonstration SMR project". World Nuclear News. 22 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "Specific Design Consideration of ACP100 for Application in the Middle East and North Africa Region" (PDF). CNNC. 2 October 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- "China approves construction of demonstration ACP100 – Nuclear Engineering International". www.neimagazine.com. Retrieved 28 October 2021.
- Declan Butler (21 April 2011). "Reactors, residents and risk". Nature. 472 (7344): 400–1. doi:10.1038/472400a. PMID 21525903. S2CID 4371109. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Kidd, Steve (10 August 2017). "Nuclear in China – why the slowdown?". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 30 December 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2017.
- David Stanway, Geert De Clercq (15 January 2018). "So close yet so far: China deal elusive for France's Areva". Times of Oman. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 12 February 2018.
- Kidd, Steve (1 August 2018). "Nuclear in China – where is it heading now?". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 15 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
- "China to Dominate Nuclear as Beijing Bets on Homegrown Reactors". Bloomberg News. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
- "China Nuclear Power | Chinese Nuclear Energy – World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
- "Construction of new Chinese power plant begins : New Nuclear – World Nuclear News". www.world-nuclear-news.org. Retrieved 5 January 2021.
- Tony Vince (8 March 2013). "Rock solid ambitions". Nuclear Engineering International. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- https://www.cbc.ca/news/world/china-able-to-reprocess-nuclear-fuel-1.1096629[bare URL]
- "Pinpointing China's new plutonium reprocessing plant". 5 May 2020.
- "China nuclear reprocessing to create stockpiles of weapons-level materials: Experts". The Economic Times.
- "UPDATE 1-China nuclear reprocessing to create stockpiles of weapons-level materials -experts". Reuters. 25 March 2021.
- "China nuclear reprocessing to create stockpiles of weapons-level materials -experts". www.nasdaq.com.
- "Current Issues: New Uranium Conversion/Enrichment and Nuclear Fuel Plant Projects - Asia".
- "China's Nuclear Fuel Cycle - World Nuclear Association".
- Dai Zhimin; Zou Yang; Chen Kun (4 November 2016). "Thorium Molten Salt Reactors (TMSR) Development in China" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "中科院与甘肃省签署钍基熔盐堆核能系统项目战略合作框架协议----中国科学院". Archived from the original on 8 July 2018. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "甘肃省公示第四代核能钍基熔盐堆实验平台选址：拟落地武威 _ 东方财富网". finance.eastmoney.com. Retrieved 6 November 2022.
- "China signs agreement for nuclear heating demonstration project". Nuclear Engineering International. 14 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "CNNC completes design of district heating reactor". World Nuclear News. 7 September 2018. Archived from the original on 24 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
- "China faces civic protests over new nuclear power plants". msn.com. 17 February 2012. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- Calum MacLeod (16 July 2013). "Protesters win environmental battle in China". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
- Lucy Hornby (26 May 2014). "People power holds key to China's nuclear plans". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 29 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- Nuclear power in China – World Nuclear Association
- Maps of Nuclear Power Reactors: China
- Brief Overview of Chinese NPP Development, Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute, 23 June 2011
- Steve Kidd (1 May 2013). "Nuclear in China – now back on track?". Nuclear Engineering International.
- Caroline Peachey (22 May 2014). "Chinese reactor design evolution". Nuclear Engineering International. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- M.V. Ramana, Eri Saikawa (December 2011). "Choosing a standard reactor: International competition and domestic politics in Chinese nuclear policy" (PDF). Energy. Elsevier. 36 (12): 6779–6789. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2011.10.022. Retrieved 11 October 2013.