Nuclear power in Russia

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Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation. The installed gross capacity of Russian nuclear reactors stood at 25,242 MW.

Russia has made plans to increase the number of reactors in operation from 31 to 59. Old reactors will be maintained and upgraded, including RBMK units similar to the reactors at Chernobyl. The Russian energy strategy of 2003 set a policy priority for reduction in natural gas based power supply, aiming to achieve this through a doubling of nuclear power generation by 2020. In 2006, the Federal Atomic Energy Agency (Rosatom) announced targets for future nuclear power generation; providing 23% of electricity needs by 2020 and 25% by 2030.[1] In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant.[2]

Recent history[edit]

In accord with legislation passed in 2001, all Russian civil reactors are operated by Energoatom. More recently in 2007 Russian Parliament adopted the law "On the peculiarities of the management and disposition of the property and shares of organizations using nuclear energy and on relevant changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", which created Atomenergoprom - a holding company for all Russian civil nuclear industry, including Energoatom, nuclear fuel producer and supplier TVEL, uranium trader Tekhsnabexport (Tenex) and nuclear facilities constructor Atomstroyexport.

The Russian government plans to allocate 127 billion rubles ($5.42 billion) to a federal program dedicated to the next generation of nuclear energy technology. About 1 trillion rubles ($42.7 billion) is to be allocated from the federal budget to nuclear power and industry development before 2015.[3] Through membership in the ITER project, Russia is also participating in the design of nuclear fusion reactors.

The overnight cost of construction in the seventies was 800 $/kW in 2016 dollars.[4]

The Russian nuclear industry employs around 200,000 people.[5] Russia is recognized for its nuclear disaster expertise and for the safety of its technology.[6][7][8][9] Russia is also pursuing an ambitious plan to increase sales of Russian-built reactors overseas,[10] and had 39 reactors under construction or planned overseas as of 2018.[11]

The VVER-1200 pressurised water reactor is the system currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features.[12] In August 2016 the first VVER-1200, Novovoronezh II-1, was connected to the grid.[13]

In 2016 initial plans were announced to build 11 new nuclear power reactors by 2030, including the first VVER-600, a smaller two cooling circuit version of the VVER-1200, designed for smaller regions and markets.[14] Outline plans for near-surface disposal facilities for low and intermediate-level waste, and deep burial disposal facilities for high-level waste were also approved in the Krasnoyarsk Krai region.[14]

In October 2017 Rosatom was reported to be considering postponing commissioning new nuclear plants in Russia due to excess generation capacity and that new nuclear electricity prices are higher than for existing plant. The Russian government is considering reducing support for new nuclear under its support contracts, called Dogovor Postavki Moshnosti (DPM), which guarantee developers a return on investment through increased payments from consumers for 20 years.[15]

Nuclear power reactors[edit]

Reactors in operation[edit]

Eleven of Russia's reactors are of the RBMK 1000 type, similar to the one at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Some of these RBMK reactors were originally to be shut down but have instead been given life extensions and uprated in output by about 5%. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Russian environmental groups say that the lifetime extensions "violate Russian law, because the projects have not undergone environmental assessments".[16]

Control room of a VVER-1000 in 2009, Kozloduy Unit 5
List of nuclear reactors in Russia [ view/edit ]
Name Unit
No.
Reactor Status Capacity in MW Construction start Commercial operation Closure
Type Model Net Gross
Akademik Lomonosov 1 PWR KLT-40S Under construction 32 35 15 April 2007 (2018)
2 PWR KLT-40S Under construction 32 35 15 April 2007 (2018)
Balakovo 1 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 December 1980 23 May 1986
2 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 August 1981 18 January 1988
3 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 November 1982 8 April 1989
4 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 April 1984 22 December 1993
5 PWR VVER V-320 Unfinished 950 1000 28 December 1992
6 PWR VVER V-320 Unfinished 950 1000 28 December 1992
Bashkir 1 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1000 1980 1991
2 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1000 1980 1991
3 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1000 1980 1991
4 PWR VVER-1000 Unfinished 1000 1980 1991
Beloyarsk 1 LWGR AMB-100 Shut down 102 108 1 June 1958 26 April 1964 1 January 1983
2 LWGR AMB-200 Shut down 146 160 1 January 1962 1 December 1969 1 January 1990
3 SFR BN-600 Operational 560 600 1 January 1969 1 November 1981
4 SFR BN-800 Operational 789 864 18 July 2006 10 December 2015
5 SFR BN-1200 Planned 1100 1220
6 SFR BN-1600 Planned 1500 1600
Bilibino 1 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 12 1 January 1970 1 April 1974
2 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 12 1 January 1970 1 February 1975
3 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 12 1 January 1970 1 February 1976
4 LWGR EGP-6 Operational 11 12 1 January 1970 1 January 1977
Dimitrovgrad 1 FBR SVBR-100 Planned 90 100
Gorky 1 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 500 1982 1993
2 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 500 1982 1993
Kalinin 1 PWR VVER V-338 Operational 950 1000 1 February 1977 12 June 1985
2 PWR VVER V-338 Operational 950 1000 1 February 1982 3 March 1987
3 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 October 1985 8 November 2005
4 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 August 1986 25 December 2012
Kaliningrad 1 PWR VVER V-491 Under construction
(suspended)[17]
1109 1194 22 February 2012
2 PWR VVER V-491 Planned 1109 1194
Kola 1 PWR VVER V-230 Operational 441 440 1 May 1970 28 December 1973
2 PWR VVER V-230 Operational 441 440 1 May 1970 21 February 1975
3 PWR VVER V-213 Operational 441 440 1 April 1977 3 December 1982
4 PWR VVER V-213 Operational 441 440 1 August 1976 6 December 1984
Kola II[17] 1 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
2 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
Kostroma[17] 1 PWR AES-2006 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1350 1979 1990
2 PWR AES-2006 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1350 1979 1990
3 PWR AES-2006 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1350 1979 1990
4 PWR AES-2006 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1350 1979 1990
Kursk 1 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 June 1972 12 October 1977
2 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 January 1973 17 August 1979
3 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 April 1978 30 March 1984
4 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 May 1981 5 February 1986
5 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1000 1 December 1985
6 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1000 1 August 1986
Kursk II 1 PWR VVER V-510 Under Construction 1115 1255 29 April 2018
2 PWR VVER V-510 Planned 1115 1255
3 PWR VVER V-510 Planned 1115 1255
4 PWR VVER V-510 Planned 1115 1255
Leningrad 1 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 March 1970 1 November 1974
2 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 June 1970 11 February 1976
3 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 December 1973 29 June 1980
4 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 February 1975 29 August 1981
Leningrad II 1 PWR VVER V-491 Under construction 1085 1199 25 October 2008
2 PWR VVER V-491 Under construction 1085 1199 15 April 2010 (2019)
3 PWR VVER V-491 Planned 1085 1170
4 PWR VVER V-491 Planned 1085 1170
Nizhny Novgorod 1 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
2 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
3 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
4 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
Novovoronezh 1 PWR VVER V-120 Shut down 197 210 1 July 1957 31 December 1964 16 February 1988
2 PWR VVER V-120 Shut down 336 365 1 June 1964 14 April 1970 29 August 1990
3 PWR VVER V-179 Shut down 385 417 1 July 1967 29 June 1972 25 December 2016
4 PWR VVER V-179 Operational 385 417 1 July 1967 24 March 1973
5 PWR VVER V-187 Operational 950 1000 1 March 1974 20 February 1981
Novovoronezh II 1 PWR VVER V-392M Operational 1114 1180 24 June 2008 27 February 2017
2 PWR VVER V-392M Under construction 1114 1195 12 July 2009 (2019)
3 PWR VVER V-510 Planned 1175 1255
4 PWR VVER V-510 Planned 1175 1255
Obninsk 1 LWGR AM-1 Shut down 5 6 1 January 1951 1 December 1954 29 April 2002
Rostov 1 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 September 1981 25 December 2001
2 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 950 1000 1 May 1983 10 December 2010
3 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 1011 1100 15 September 2009 27 December 2014
4 PWR VVER V-320 Operational 1011 1100 16 June 2010 28 September 2018
Sakha 1 PWR RITM-200M Planned 45 50
2 PWR RITM-200M Planned 45 50
Seversk 1 FBR BREST-300 Planned 280 300
South Urals 1 FBR BN-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1100 1220 1982 1993
2 FBR BN-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1100 1220 1982 1993
3 FBR BN-1200 Unfinished; restart planned 1100 1220 1982 1993
Smolensk 1 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 October 1975 30 September 1983
2 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 June 1976 2 July 1985
3 LWGR RBMK-1000 Operational 925 1000 1 May 1984 12 October 1990
4 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1000
5 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1000
6 LWGR RBMK-1000 Unfinished 925 1000
Smolensk II 1 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
2 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
3 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
4 PWR AES-2006 Planned 1300 1350
Tatar 1 PWR AES-2006 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1350 1980 1990
2 PWR AES-2006 Unfinished; restart planned 1300 1350 1980 1990
3 PWR Unfinished 1980 1990
4 PWR Unfinished 1980 1990
Voronezh 1 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 500 9 January 1983 5 July 1990
2 PWR AST-500 Unfinished 500 9 January 1983 5 July 1990

International NPP projects in the Russian nuclear industry[edit]

Country NPP Reactor Type MWe net MWe gross Construction start Commercially operational
Turkey Akkuyu-1/2/3/4 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2016 (1st block) 2023 (1st block)
Bangladesh Ruppur-1 VVER-1200/523 1080 1200 2017-11-30 2023
Ruppur-2 VVER-1200/523 1080 1200 2018-07-14 2024
Belarus Belarusian-1 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2013-11-06 2019
Belarusian-2 VVER-1200/491 1115 1200 2014-06-03 2020
Iran Bushehr-1 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 1975-05-01 (1995) 2013-09-23
Bushehr-2 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 2016-09-10 2025
Bushehr-3 VVER-1000/446 915 1000 2016-09-10 2027
India Kudankulam-1 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 2002-03-31 2013-10-22
Kudankulam-2 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 2002-07-04 2016-07-10
Kudankulam-3/4 VVER-1000/412 917 1000 negotiation
Slovakia Mochovce-3/4 VVER-440 440 471 1987-01-27 (November 2009) 2019
Vietnam Ninh Thuan 1-1/2 VVER-1000/428 950 1000 cancelled cancelled
Ninh Thuan 1-3/4 VVER-1000/428 950 1000 cancelled
China Tianwan-1 VVER-1000/428 990 1060 1999-10-20 2007-05-17
Tianwan-2 VVER-1000/428 990 1060 2000-10-20 2007-08-16
Tianwan-3 VVER-1000/428М 1050 1126 2012-12-27 2018
Tianwan-4 VVER-1000/428М 1050 1126 2013-09-27 2018
Ukraine Khmelnitskiy-3/4 VVER-1000/392B 950 1000 cancelled cancelled

In addition Atomstroyexport challenging NPP projects list contains:[18]

Nuclear engineering companies[edit]

  • Atomenergomash: power engineering company; produces steam generators for NPPs
  • Atommash: by far Russia's largest nuclear engineering plant designed to build up to 8 reactors per year, but after the collapse of the USSR reorganized privately by Energomash and today not able to produce reactor vessels
  • Atomstroyexport: nuclear power equipment and service export monopoly
  • OKBM Afrikantov: nuclear reactor design and engineering company. The world's leading company in production of fast breeder reactors.
  • OKB Gidropress: nuclear reactor design and engineering company

Safety[edit]

Russia, responding to the 2011 Japanese nuclear accidents, will perform a 'stress test' on all its reactors "to judge their ability to withstand earthquakes more powerful than the original design anticipated".[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Russia invests in nuclear". World Nuclear News. 20 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  3. ^ RIA Novosti
  4. ^ USA. (1982). Technology and Soviet energy availability. Boulder (Colo.: Westview press. p. 126.
  5. ^ "Nuclear rethink urged". The Moscow News. 21 March 2011. Archived from the original on 19 November 2011.
  6. ^ "Benchmarking the global nuclear industry 2012 Heading for a fast recovery" (PDF). E&Y. 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2014-10-13.[permanent dead link]
  7. ^ "Rosatom today and overview of its current and prospective Nuclear Power Plant projects" (PDF). Rosatom. 2013-08-21. Retrieved 2014-10-13.
  8. ^ "International Standards of Safety and the Modern Projects of Nuclear Power Stations" (PDF). Rosatom. 2013-11-04. Retrieved 2014-10-14.
  9. ^ "Russia's efforts to improve safety following the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents" (PDF). IBRAE. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2014-10-14. External link in |publisher= (help)
  10. ^ [2] Pulitzer Center On Crisis Reporting
  11. ^ "Russia leads the world at nuclear-reactor exports". The Economist. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  12. ^ Nikolay Fil (26–28 July 2011). "Status and perspectives of VVER Status and perspectives of VVER nuclear power plants nuclear power plants" (PDF). OKB Gidropress. IAEA. Retrieved 28 September 2011.
  13. ^ "Russia connects Novovoronezh 6 reactor to grid". World Nuclear News. 5 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  14. ^ a b "Russia to build 11 new nuclear reactors by 2030". World Nuclear News. 10 August 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  15. ^ "Rosatom considers delaying reactor commissioning". Nuclear Engineering International. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  16. ^ Igor Koudrik and Alexander Nikitin (13 December 2011). "Second life: The questionable safety of life extensions for Russian nuclear power plants". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists.
  17. ^ a b c "Nuclear Power in Russia | Russian Nuclear Energy - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  18. ^ Challenging NPP Projects JSC ASE
  19. ^ NPP JSC ASE (Jordan)
  20. ^ Matthew L. Wald (24 March 2011). "Russia Plans to Test Reactors For Ability to Survive Quakes". New York Times.

External links[edit]