Nuclear transparency

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Nuclear transparency is the ratio of cross-sections for exclusive processes from the nuclei to those of the nucleons.

If the nuclear cross-section is denoted as and free nucleon cross-section as then nuclear transparency can be defined as
, where can be parameterized in terms of as .

Therefore, transparency can be expressed as .
Here nucleon cross-section can be thought of as hydrogen cross-section and nuclei cross-section can be as for other targets.