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Nucleoside analogues are nucleosides which contain a nucleic acid analogue and a sugar. Nucleotide analogs are nucleotides which contain a nucleic acid analogue, a sugar and one to three phosphate groups.
Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues can be used in therapeutic drugs, include a range of antiviral products used to prevent viral replication in infected cells. The most commonly used is acyclovir, although its inclusion in this category is uncertain, because it acts as a nucleoside but contains no actual sugar, as the sugar ring is replaced by an open-chain structure.
These agents can be used against hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex, and HIV. Once they are phosphorylated, they work as antimetabolites by being similar enough to nucleotides to be incorporated into growing DNA strands; but they act as chain terminators and stop viral DNA Polymerase. They are not specific to viral DNA and also affect mitochondrial DNA. Because of this they have side effects such as bone marrow suppression.
There is a large family of nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors, because DNA production by reverse transcriptase is very different from normal human DNA replication, so it is possible to design nucleoside analogues that are preferentially incorporated by the former. Some nucleoside analogues, however, can function both as NRTIs and polymerase inhibitors for other viruses (e.g., hepatitis B).
Resistance can develop quickly with as little as one mutation. Mutations occur in the enzymes that phosphorylate the drug to activate it.
Nucleoside analogue drugs include:
- deoxyadenosine analogues:
- adenosine analogues:
- BCX4430 (Ebola)
- deoxycytidine analogues:
- guanosine and deoxyguanosine analogues:
- thymidine and deoxythymidine analogues:
- deoxyuridine analogues:
- For nucleoside analogues in biology, see Nucleic acid analogues
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