Nudity and sexuality
Nudity is one of the physiological characteristics of humans, who alone among primates evolved to be effectively hairless. Human sexuality includes the physiological, psychological, and social aspects of sexual feelings and behaviors. In many societies, a strong link between nudity and sexuality is taken for granted. Other societies maintain their traditional practices of being completely or partially naked in social as well as private situations, such as going to a beach or spa. The meaning of nudity and sexuality remains ambivalent, often leading to cultural misunderstandings and psychological problems.
The link between the nude body and a sexual response is reflected in the legal prohibition of indecent exposure in many countries. The parts of the body that cannot be exposed include not only the genitals but the female breasts.
Worldwide, there are some societies which recognize some places and activities that, although public, are appropriate for partial or complete nudity. These include societies that maintain traditional norms regarding nudity which reflect the origins of humanity; and modern societies that have large numbers of people who have adopted naturism in recreational activities. Naturists typically adopt a number of behaviors, such as refraining to touch, in order to avoid sexual responses while participating in nude activities, such as nude beaches.
Naturism and sex
Some naturists do not maintain this non-sexual atmosphere. In a 1991 article in "Off Our Backs", Nina Silver presents an account of mainstream sexual culture's intrusion into some American naturist groups. Nudist resorts may attract misogynists or pedophiles who are not always dealt with properly, and some resorts may cater to "swingers" or have sexually provocative events to generate revenue or attract members.
Breasts and sexuality
In many societies, the breast continues to be associated with nurturing babies as well as sexuality. The "topfreedom" movement promotes equal rights for women to be naked above the waist in public on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances. Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions, not regulated in others, and protected as a legal right in still others. Where public breastfeeding is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed, and some people may object to the practice.
The American Psychological Association (APA) defines sexualization as limiting a person's value to sexual appeal to the exclusion of other characteristics, and equating physical attractiveness with being sexy. A person may also be sexually objectified, made into a thing for others' sexual use, rather than seen as a person with the capacity for independent action and decision making; or sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person. Being sexualized is particularly damaging to young people who are in the process of developing their own self-image. Girls may have sexualized expectations imposed upon them, or internalize norms that lead to self-sexualization. Sexualization of girls includes both age-inappropriate "sexy" attire for girls, and adult models dressing as girls. In movies and television, women are shown nude much for frequently than men, and generally in the context of sexual behavior.
Some see the APA position as viewing sexual images as uniformly negative, and overestimating the influence of these images on young people by assuming that exposure leads directly negative effects, as if it were a disease. Studies also fail to address the effect of sexual images on boys which influences how they view their own masculinity and appropriate sexual relationships.
While there has been considerable media and political discussion of sexualization, there has been little psychological research on what effect media images actually have on the well-being of young people, for example how and to what degree sexual objectification is internalized, becoming self-evaluation. In interviews with Dutch pre-teens, the effects are complicated given the general liberal attitudes toward sexuality, including the legalization of prostitution, which is highly visible.
Researchers see the cultural force of commodification (or "pornification") as resulting in the sexualization of athletic bodies, negating the naturalness and beauty of nudity. This is in contrast to the sacredness of the nude athlete in the ancient world, particularly Greece; and the aesthetic appreciation of the nude in art.
Psychological disorders of bodily display
Exhibitionistic disorder is a condition marked by the urge, fantasy, or act of exposing one’s genitals to non-consenting people, particularly strangers; and voyeuristic disorder is a sexual interest in, or practice of, spying on people engaged in intimate behaviors like undressing or sexual activity. While similar terms may be used loosely to refer to everyday activity, these feelings and behaviors are a indicative of a mental disorder only if they interfere with normal functioning or well-being, or involve causing discomfort or alarm to others. Much rarer is gymnophobia, an abnormal and persistent fear of nudity.
- Barcan 2004a.
- Smith 1980.
- Silver 1991.
- Jensen 2004.
- Wolf 2008, p. 11.
- Vance 2005, pp. 51–54.
- Jordan & Pile 2003, p. 233.
- Zurbriggen et al. 2007.
- Lerum & Dworkin 2009.
- Allen 2006.
- Duits & van Zoonen 2011.
- Jirasek, Kohe & Hurych 2013.
- "Exhibitionism". Psychology Today. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
- "Voyeuristic Disorder". Psychology Today. Retrieved March 19, 2020.
- Bancroft, John (2003). Sexual Development in Childhood. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34243-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Barcan, Ruth (2004a). Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy. Berg Publishers. ISBN 1859738729.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bonner, Barbara L. (1999). "When does sexual play suggest a problem?". In Dubowitz, Howard; Depanfilis, Diane (eds.). Handbook for Child Protection Practice. Sage Publications. ISBN 978-0-7619-1371-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Bullough, Vern L.; Bullough, Bonnie (2014). Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 449. ISBN 9781135825096.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Carr-Gomm, Philip (2010). A Brief History of Nakedness. London, UK: Reaktion Books, Limited. ISBN 978-1-86189-729-9. Retrieved 2019-08-01.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Goldman, Leslie (2007). Locker Room Diaries : The Naked Truth about Women, Body Image, and Re-imagining the "Perfect" Body. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 9786612788604.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Gordon, Betty N.; Schroeder, Carolyn S. (1995). Sexuality: A Developmental Approach to Problems. Springer. ISBN 978-0-306-45040-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Górnicka, Barbara (2016). "From Lewd to Nude: Becoming a Naturist". Nakedness, Shame, and Embarrassment. Figurationen. Schriften zur Zivilisations und Prozesstheorie. 12. Wiesbaden: Springer VS.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Higonnet, Anne (1998). Pictures of Innocence – The History and Crisis of Ideal Childhood. New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-28048-5. OL 705008M.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jordan, Tim; Pile, Steve, eds. (2003). Social Change. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-631-23312-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Miles, Margaret R.; Lyon, Vanessa (2008). A Complex Delight: The Secularization of the Breast, 1350-1750. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520253483.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Toepfer, Karl Eric (1997). Empire of Ecstasy: Nudity and Movement in German Body Culture, 1910-1935. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520918276.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Thomason, Krista K. (2018). Naked: The Dark Side of Shame and Moral Life. New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190843274.003.0007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Lamb, Sharon; Roberts, Tomi-Ann; Tolman, Deborah L.; Ward, L. Monique; Blake, Jeanne (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls (PDF). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. OCLC 123130352.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Allen, Katherine R.; Gary, Emily A.; Lavender-Stott, Erin S.; Kaestle, Christine E. (2018). "'I Walked in on Them': Young Adults' Childhood Perceptions of Sex and Nudity in Family and Public Contexts". Journal of Family Issues. 39 (15): 3804–3831. doi:10.1177/0192513X18793923.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Allen, Louisa (2006). "'Looking at the Real Thing': Young Men, Pornography, and Sexuality Education". Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education. 27 (1): 69–83. doi:10.1080/01596300500510302.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Barcan, Ruth (2001). "The Moral Bath of Bodily Unconsciousness: Female Nudism, Bodily Exposure and the Gaze". Continuum. 15 (3): 303–317. doi:10.1080/10304310120086795.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Barcan, Ruth (2004b). "Regaining what Mankind has Lost through Civilisation: Early Nudism and Ambivalent Moderns". Fashion Theory. 8 (1): 63–82. doi:10.2752/136270404778051870.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Duits, Linda; van Zoonen, Liesbet (2011). "Coming to Terms with Sexualization". European Journal of Cultural Studies. 14 (5): 491–506. doi:10.1177/1367549411412201.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Eck, Beth A. (December 2001). "Nudity and Framing: Classifying Art, Pornography, Information, and Ambiguity". Sociological Forum. Springer. 16 (4): 603–632. doi:10.1023/A:1012862311849. JSTOR 684826.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Emmerink, Peggy M. J.; van den Eijnden1, Regina J. J. M.; Vanwesenbeeck, Ine; ter Bogt, Tom F. M. (2016). "The Relationship Between Endorsement of the Sexual Double Standard and Sexual Cognitions and Emotions". Sex Roles. New York. 75 (7–8): 363–76. doi:10.1007/s11199-016-0616-z. PMC 5023751. PMID 27688527.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Frydendal, Stine; Thing, Lone Friis (2020). "A Shameful Affair? A Figurational Study of the Change Room and Showering Culture Connected to Physical Education in Danish Upper Secondary Schools". Sport, Education and Society. 25 (2): 161–72. doi:10.1080/13573322.2018.1564654.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Harper, Kyle (2012). "Porneia: The Making of a Christian Sexual Norm". Journal of Biblical Literature. 131 (2): 363–83. doi:10.2307/23488230. JSTOR 23488230.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jensen, Robin (2004). "Topfreedom: A rhetorical analysis of the debate with a bust". Women and Language. Urbana. 27 (1): 68–69.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Jirasek, Ivo; Kohe, Geoffery Zain; Hurych, Emanuel (2013). "Reimagining Athletic Nudity: The Sexualization of Sport as a Sign of a 'Porno-Ization' of Culture". Sport in Society. 16 (6): 721–734. doi:10.1080/17430437.2012.753525.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lerum, Kari; Dworkin, Shari L. (2009). "'Bad Girls Rule': An Interdisciplinary Feminist Commentary on the Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls". The Journal of Sex Research. 46 (4): 250–263. doi:10.1080/00224490903079542. PMID 19657944.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Miller, Barry (2016). "On the Loss of Nudity in the Men's Locker Room". Psychological Perspectives. 59 (1): 93–108. doi:10.1080/00332925.2016.1134213.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Okami, Paul (1995). "Childhood exposure to parental nudity, parent‐child co‐sleeping, and "primal scenes": A review of clinical opinion and empirical evidence". Journal of Sex Research. 32 (1): 51–63. doi:10.1080/00224499509551774. ISSN 0022-4499.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Okami, Paul; Olmstead, Richard; Abramson, Paul R.; Pendleton, Laura (1998). "Early Childhood Exposure to Parental Nudity and Scenes of Parental Sexuality ('Primal Scenes'): An 18-Year Longitudinal Study of Outcome". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 27 (4): 361–384. doi:10.1023/A:1018736109563. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 9681119.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey (2015). "Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0133079. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133079. PMC 4558040. PMID 26332467.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)}}
- Shantz, Mary-Ann (2017). "'Nudists at Heart': Children's Nature and Child Psychology in the Postwar Canadian Nudist Movement". Journal of the History of Childhood and Youth. Baltimore: John Hopkin's University Press. 10 (2): 228–247. doi:10.1353/hcy.2017.0026. ProQuest 1901236165.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Shrum, Wesley; Kilburn, John (1996). "Ritual Disrobement at Mardi Gras: Ceremonial Exchange and Moral Order". Social Forces. 75 (2): 423–58. doi:10.2307/2580408. JSTOR 2580408.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Silver, Nina (1991). "The Shame of Being Naked". Off Our Backs. 21 (8): 6–7. JSTOR 20833713.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Smith, H. W. (1980-09-01). "A Modest Test of Cross-Cultural Differences in Sexual Modesty, Embarrassment and Self-Disclosure". Qualitative Sociology. 3 (3): 223–241. doi:10.1007/BF00987137. ISSN 1573-7837.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Smith, Glenn; King, Michael (June 2009). "Naturism and sexuality: Broadening our approach to sexual wellbeing". Health & Place. 15 (2): 439–446. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.08.002. PMID 18926761.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Uebel, Michael (2019). "Dirty Rotten Shame? The Value and Ethical Functions of Shame". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 59 (2): 232–51. doi:10.1177/0022167816631398.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Vance, Melissa R. (2005). "Breastfeeding Legislation in the United States: A General Overview and Implications for Helping Mothers". LEAVEN. 41 (3): 51–54. Archived from the original on 31 March 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Weinberg, Martin S; Williams, Colin J. (2010). "Bare Bodies: Nudity, Gender, and the Looking Glass Body". Sociological Forum. 25 (1): 47–67. doi:10.1111/j.1573-7861.2009.01156.x.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- West, Keon (2018-03-01). "Naked and Unashamed: Investigations and Applications of the Effects of Naturist Activities on Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Life Satisfaction". Journal of Happiness Studies. 19 (3): 677–697. doi:10.1007/s10902-017-9846-1. ISSN 1573-7780.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Wolf, JH (2008). "Got milk? Not in public!". International Breastfeeding Journal. 3 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1746-4358-3-11. PMC 2518137. PMID 18680578.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Grulovic, Tiyana (2014). "Simply the Breast". Flare Toronto. Vol. 36 no. 10 (Oct 2014). pp. 70–71.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Andreatta, David (September 22, 2017). "When boys swam nude in gym class". Democrat and Chronicle.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Lis, Lea (May 5, 2019). "Eight Things to Know About Nudity and Your Family". Psychology Today. Retrieved July 31, 2019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Barber, Nigel (May 7, 2013). "Sexual Wiring of Women's Breasts". Psychology Today.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Senelick, Richard (3 February 2014). "Men, Manliness, and Being Naked Around Other Men". The Atlantic.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Sicha, Choire (December 3, 2015). "Men's Locker Room Designers Take Pity on Naked Millennials". The New York Times.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Smithers, Rebecca (21 December 1999). "Curtains for schools' communal showers". The Guardian.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Taylor, Zanthe (February 28, 2012). "The (Un-Erotic) Glories of Nudity". Psychology Today.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Zadrozny, Brandy (May 14, 2015). "Are These the World's Most Graphic Sex-Ed Videos?". The Daily Beast.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Eng, Monica (September 10, 2017). "Baring It All: Why Boys Swam Naked In Chicago Schools". WBEZ.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Hadfield, James (December 10, 2016). "Last splash: Immodest Japanese tradition of mixed bathing may be on the verge of extinction". Japan Times. Retrieved November 19, 2019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Kincaid, James R. (31 January 2000). "Is this child pornography?". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Mapes, Terri (March 6, 2019). "Sex and Sexuality in Scandinavia". TripSavvy. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Mapes, Terri (June 3, 2019). "Nudism in Scandinavia". TripSavvy. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
- Markowitz, Eric (April 29, 2014). "Until Fairly Recently, The YMCA Actually Required Swimmers To Be Nude". Vocativ.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Marosevic, Zeljka (February 14, 2014). "Everybody Get Naked, or Don't: Right Wing French Politicians Attack Immoral Children's Books". Melville House Books. Retrieved October 22, 2019.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Steinbach, Paul (2017). "Designing Public Locker Rooms with an Eye on Privacy". Athletic Business.
- Williams, Pete (August 19, 2019). "Women ask Supreme Court to toss topless ban: Why are rules different for men?". NBC News.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
|This sexuality-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|