|Region||Western Nukuoro Island|
|860 in Micronesia (1993)
140 in the U.S. (no date)
Nukuoro is a coral atoll and Polynesian outlier found within the Pohnpei District within the Federated States of Micronesia. Despite the fact that Nukuoro is a Micronesian atoll, from a typological perspective, Nukuoro is a Polynesian language that descends from the Austronesian node. Its most immediate node is the Elliciean node. This language is most closely related to Kapingamarangi, Rennellese, and Vaeakau-Taumako sporting lexical similarity (Carroll 1965). These languages are not mutually intelligible, but they can make themselves understand each other with a little bit of difficulty. Bilingualism is not a common feature among the Nukuoro people, although the majority of the older Nukuoro population have a considerable amount of knowledge in Ponapean, sometimes know some German, Japanese, English, or another Micronesian language. This second language is usually reserved for the classroom, Bible reading, conversation with visitors, etc.
Nukuoro was colonized multiple times, by Germany, Japan, and then also some by the United States of America in its lifetime. The history that local legend has it says that immigrants from another island first populated Nukuoro. Two canoes from Samoa under the leadership of Chief Ko Wave and his priestly father Teakhu lead this movement (Newton).
The primary language spoken on the Nukuoro atoll is Nukuoro. In 1965 there were approximately 400 speakers. 260 of these speakers resided on the atoll, 125 lived on Ponape, the District Center, and a few others were spread out on the other islands in the District (Carroll 1965). The current population is estimated to be at about 1000 speakers. The Nukuoro people are very dependent on the sea. They have a strong respect for the marine culture, and are very well known for their skillfully created wooden sculptures. These often are carved to represent marine animals.
There are 10 consonants in Nukuoro /b/ /v/ /m/ /d/ /s/ /n/ /l/ /g/ /h/ /ng/. There are also lengthened consonants, for example a word is ‘’hhano’’. Geminated /b/, /d/, /g/ are written with p, t, k, double /m/, /n/, /s/, /h/, /l/ are represented with double letters (mm, nn, ss, hh, ll), and double /ng/ is written with nng. it should be noted, that /d/ that replaces a /t/ often turns a word into its plural version. For example ‘’taumaha’’ means church service, and ‘’daumaha’’ means church services.
There are 5 vowels in Nukuoro /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/. There are also lengthened vowels, for example ‘’taane’’. Double vowels are also represented by writing the symbol twice.
Syllables take the shapes V, VV, VVV, CV, CVV and CVVV. All possible V and VV combinations occur. All possible CV combinations occur except /vu/. The first member of a diphthong is always the syllabic peak when the syllable is stressed; elsewhere there is little difference between members, the peak of sonority tending to occur on the most naturally sonorous vowel (Carroll 1956).
In the Nukuoro language, each phoneme is distinct: “/b/ is an aspirated bilabial stop, /d/ is a lax aspirated dental stop, /g/ is a slightly aspirated of implosive velar stop, /v/ is a very lax labio-dental fricative, /s/ is a tense voiceless alveo-palatal fricative, /h/ is a voiceless velar fricative, /m/ is a voiced bilabial nasal, /n/ is a voiced dental nasal, /ng/ is a voiced velar nasal, /l/ is a voiced dental flap, /i/ is a high front unrounded vowel, /e/ is a mid front unrounded vowel, /a/ us a low or mid central unrounded vowel, /o/ is a mid back rounded vowel, and /u/ is a high back rounded vowel” (Carroll 1965). For double phonemes “stops have increased aspiration especially after pause, and articulation is tense and phones are normally voiceless; nasals and fricatives have tense articulation; flaps are tense, long, with pre-voiced dental stop; and vowels are about twice as long as single vowels and not rearticulated” (Carroll 1965).
Basic Word Order
The basic word order in Nukuoro is Subject-Object-Verb. But there are also cases of Verb-Subject-Object. An example sentence: De nei dono moni-gulu. ‘this is his canoe full of bread-fruit’
There are four types of reduplication that exist in reduplication R1 appears in nouns, adjectives, and verbs. R2, R3, R4 appear only in adjectives and verbs. R1 is reduplication of the entire base. So an example is gohu, which means dark, and gohugohu, which means getting dark R2 is reduplication of the first syllable of a base. An example is gai which means eat, and gagai which means the fish are biting R3 is reduplication of the initial consonant of a base. For example, seni means sleep, and sseni means to sleep R4 is reduplication of the initial vowel of a base. An example is malemo, which is a singular subject, and maalemo, which is plural subject
There are a few solid resources for the Nukuoro language. The primary and probably most informative one is a book written by Vern Carroll called An Outline of the Structure of the Language of Nukuoro. There is also a Nukuoro Lexicon that has English to Nukuoro and Nukuoro to English, as well as grammar notes. And I made use of online sources such as wals.info, and Ethnologue.
Nukuoro is listed as a developing language. Ethnologue states that this means it is in vigorous use but isn’t yet widespread. It is being transmitted to children, and is used in schools, government, and daily life. After World War 2 ended there were already efforts to help preserve the language as the United States set up an elementary school taught completely in Nukuoro. The population of speakers also increased from 400 to 1000 since 1965, which shows positive growth.
- Carroll, V. (1965) An Outline Of The Structure Of The Language Of Nukuoro. Wellington, New Zealand: The Polynesian Society.
- Dryer, M., Haspelmath, M. Language Nukuoro. Retrieved from http://wals.info/languoid/lect/wals_code_nkr
- Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (2013). Nukuoro. Retrieved from https://www.ethnologue.com/language/nkr/***EDITION***
- Newton, D. Figure of a divinity. Retrieved from http://www.famsf.org/files/jolika/douglasnewton.pdf
- Nukuoro. Received from http://www.endangeredlanguages.com/lang/nkr
- Sato, H., Terrell, J. (2012). Language in Hawai’I and the Pacific. Honolulu: Curriculum Research & Developmental Group.