Nund Rishi

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Nund Rishi
Sheikh Noor-ud-din Wali.jpg
Charar-e-Sharief shrine
BornNoor Ud-Din
1377 A.D.
Qaimoh, Kashmir
HometownKulgam
Died1438 AD[1]
Rupwan, Charari Sharief, Kashmir
Major shrineCharar-e-Sharief shrine
InfluencesMir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
Tradition or genre
Rishi

Nund Rishi (Urdu: نُندہ ریشی‎ c. 1377 – c. 1438 AD; sometimes spelled Nund Reshi),[2] also known as Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Noorani and by the honorary title Alamdar-e-Kashmir, was a Kashmiri Sufi saint, mystic, poet and Islamic preacher.[a][3][4] Nund Reshi was among the founders of the Rishi order, a Sufi tradition of the region. He influenced many spiritual teachers and saints, including Hamza Makhdoom, Resh Mir Sàeb, and Shamas Faqir.[5][6][7]

Early life[edit]

Noor-ud-Din was born in modern-day village Qaimoh in Kulgam district in 1377 AD to Salar Sanz and Sadra, also called Sadra Moji or Sadra Deddi.[8][b][c] His grandfather Sheikh Salah-Ud-Din hailed from Kishtwar. The legend has it that he refused to be breast-fed by his mother after birth and it was Lalleshwari who breastfed him.[9] In teenage years Noor-ud-Din was apprenticed to a couple of traders. He was probably married to Zai Ded who hailed from the village of Dadasara, Tral and had two sons and a daughter with her. She renounced the world after the death of her children and became a hermit.

Noor-ud-Din renounced the worldly life at the age of 30 and retired to live a life of meditation in a cave which is still shown in Qaimoh and is about 10 feet deep. During his last days, he survived by drinking a cup of milk every day, and later, he used to survive by drinking water.

Literary works[edit]

Noor-ud-Din spread his teachings or message through poems, commonly known as shruks.[d][10] His poems have four to six lines each[11] and evolve around religious themes, highlight moral principles and often call for peace.[12] He strived for Hindu–Muslim unity. One of his prominent poem is Ann poshi teli yeli wan poshi, which translates as "Food will thrive only till the woods survive".[13][14]

A Kashmiri poetess Lal Ded was his contemporary and had a great impact on his spiritual growth.[15] Some scholars argue that he was her disciple, and associate his poetry with the Bhakti movement, although others disagree.[16]

Noor-ud-Din witnessed several transmissions of Hinduism and Islam in the valley throughout his life, although he was actively involved in philosophical work and in writing Kashmiri poems.[17] In his verses, he recalled some events, including arrival of Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani to Kashmir.[18]

Noor-ud-Din is also credited with translating the Quran into Kashmiri language.[19]

In 2015, the university of Kashmir published an Urdu book titled "Kalam-i-Sheikh-ul-Alam", comprising about 300 shruks of Nund Rishi translated into Urdu by Ghulam Muhammad Shad.[20]

Death[edit]

Noor-ud-Din died in 1438 at the approximate age of 63. Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin commissioned a tomb for his body at Charari Sharief. The Charar-e-Sharief shrine is visited by pilgrims to this day, especially on the eve of Noor-ud-Din's urs.[1]

The Afghan governor Atta Muhammad Khan minted coins with Noor-ud-Din's name.[21]

Noor-ud-Din's father Sheikh Salar-Ud-Din and two brothers Kamal-Ud-Din and Jamal-Ud-Din are buried near Dadasara while his wife is buried in Qaimoh.[1]

Legacy[edit]

Noor-ud-Din's sayings and verses are preserved in Kashmir region, including in a museum built at Kashmir university. The shruks also describe the life of the saint. They were translated into the Persian language by Baba Nasib-ud-din Ghazi two centuries after his death.[8][15] In 1998, University of Kashmir established an institute called Markaz-e-Noor Centre for Sheikh-ul-Alam Studies to conduct scientific research on Noor-ud-Din's life.[4][22] In 2015, the university established a research center called Sheikh-ul-Alam Chair in order to honor his reachings. The centre is aimed at exploring the social and cultural background of the Kashmiri Rishis.[23] In 2017, the Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages covered his life in a book titled "Hayat-e-Sheikh-ul-Alam" (life of Nund Rishi).[24] In 2005, the Government of India renamed the Srinagar airport to Sheikh ul-Alam International Airport and granted it international status.[25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Mir, Y.A.; Nasti, S.M. (2019). Glory II: A Reference Book of English Literature for Class XII. RED'SHINE Publication. Pvt. Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 978-93-89039-19-1. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  2. ^ "Department of Tourism, Jammu and Kashmir - Charar e Sarif". www.jktourism.org.
  3. ^ Zutshi, Chitralekha (11 April 2003). Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the Making of Kashmir. Permanent Black. ISBN 9788178240602 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b "Books on life of Sufi saint Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Wali released". Tribuneindia News Service. 16 September 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  5. ^ "Gems of Kashmiri Literature and Kashmiriyat - Nund Reshi". www.koausa.org.
  6. ^ "Urs of Sheikh Noor-ud-Din Wali (RA) observed". Greater Kashmir. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Rishi of the Valley". 5 August 2012 – via www.thehindu.com.
  8. ^ a b Soqte:School Of Orthoepy Quran And Theology::Kashmir Archived 2007-04-19 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ Lovell-Hoare, Max; Lovell-Hoare, Sophie (1 July 2014). Kashmir: Jammu. Kashmir Valley. Ladakh. Zanskar. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 9781841623962 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "HMT organizes seminar on Sheikh-ul-Alam". Kashmir Observer. 11 October 2013. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  11. ^ "J-K to restore sufi saint Noorani's cave to boost tourism". sg.news.yahoo.com.
  12. ^ Rather, Mohd Nageen. "Re-Visiting Literature: Critical Essays". Educreation Publishing – via Google Books.
  13. ^ "Lal Singh invokes Muslim saint Shiekh Noor-u-Din to kick-start plantation drive". Rising Kashmir.
  14. ^ "Gems of Kashmiri Literature and Kashmiriyat by P.N. Razdan (Mahanori)". www.ikashmir.net.
  15. ^ a b Jaishree Odin, Lalla to Nuruddin: Rishi-Sufi Poetry of Kashmir. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass (2013)
  16. ^ "Decolonising Sheikh-ul-Alam". greaterkashmir.com. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  17. ^ "CHARAR-E-SHARIF IN KASHMIR".
  18. ^ "Sheikh-ul-Aalam: A Rediscovery". 20 June 2018.
  19. ^ Geelani, Syed Bismillah (11 April 2006). Manufacturing Terrorism: Kashmiri Encounters with Media and the Law. Bibliophile South Asia. ISBN 9788185002705 – via Google Books.
  20. ^ "Urdu translation of Kalam-i-Sheikh-ul-Alam (RA) released at CUK". Greater Kashmir. 14 March 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Shruks of Shaikhul Alam (RA)". Greater Kashmir. 13 March 2015. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  22. ^ "Centre for Shaikh-ul Aalam Studies, University of Kashmir". Centre for Shaikh-ul Aalam Studies, University of Kashmir. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  23. ^ "KU starts search for chairman Sheikh-ul-Alam Chair". Greater Kashmir. 13 March 2015.
  24. ^ "Scholars recall Sheikh-ul-Alam's contribution". Rising Kashmir.
  25. ^ "International flights from Srinagar Airport: Were Governments really interested?". Greater Kashmir. 3 March 2017.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ also spelled as Nund Reshi. He is known as Sheikh Noor ud-Din Wali or Sheikh Noor ud-Din Noorani (Urdu: شیخ نُورالدین نُورانی‎). And Sheikh ul-Alam (Urdu: شیخُ العالم‎) among the Muslims and as Nund Laal among the Hindus.
  2. ^ old name of Qaimoh was Katimusha
  3. ^ In Kashmir, "Moji" refers to mother and "Deddi" denotes an elderly women, especially a paternal or maternal grandmother. It is widely used by the Kashmiri people to represent an elderly woman.
  4. ^ Nund Rishi's poetry is known as "Shruks" or "Koshur Kuran". Koshur Kuran means a translated version of the original text of Qur'an.

External links[edit]