Nur Hassan Hussein

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Nur Hassan Hussein Adde
نور حسن حسين
Nurhassanhusein.jpg
Prime Minister of Somalia
In office
24 November 2007 – 14 February 2009
President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
Adan Mohamed Nuur Madobe (Acting)
Sharif Sheikh Ahmed
Deputy Ahmed Abdisalam
Preceded by Salim Aliyow Ibrow (Acting)
Succeeded by Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke*
Personal details
Born (1937-02-16) 16 February 1937 (age 79)
Near Juba River,Somalia
Political party TFG
Religion Sunni Islam

Nur Hassan Hussein Adde (Somali: Nuur Xasan Xuseen Cadde, Arabic: نور حسن حسين‎‎),[1] was the Prime Minister of Somalia from November 2007 to February 2009. He is from Mogadishu and is part of the Abgaal sub-clan of the Hawiye.

Early career[edit]

Hussein began his professional career in 1958 as a customs officer, two years before Somalia gained its independence. He rose through the ranks, becoming an Interpol liaison officer and eventually the country's chief police officer in charge of planning and training under the former regime of longtime President Siad Barre.

After completing studies in Law at the Somalia National University and the Fiscal Law School in Rome, Hussein became attorney general, a post he held until 1991 when the Somali Civil War broke out. He subsequently served as the Secretary General of the Somali Red Crescent Society (SRCS).

Prime minister[edit]

On November 22, 2007, then President of Somalia, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, nominated Hussein as Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government following the earlier resignation of Ali Mohammed Ghedi on October 29. Salim Aliyow Ibrow served as Interim Prime Minister between the tenure of Gedi and Hussein. Hussein was approved by Transitional Federal Parliament in Baidoa on November 24, receiving 211 out of 212 votes, and he was sworn in immediately afterwards.[2] Hussein's government, which he described as "all-inclusive",[3] was appointed on December 2,[3][4] with 73 members; included in the government were 31 ministers, 11 state ministers and 31 assistant ministers.[4] Hussein received some criticism for the exceptionally large size of the Somali government; according to Hussein, in naming the government he followed the "4.5" formula or quota[5] required by the 2004 Transitional Federal Charter, which provides for the division of posts between four main clans and a grouping of smaller clans.[6] Four of the ministers—Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud (who had been appointed Minister of Home Security), Abdikafi Hassan, Sheikh Aden Maden, and Ibrahim Mohamed Isaq[4]—promptly resigned on December 3,[3][4] complaining that their clan, the Rahanwein (one of the four major clans), was inadequately represented in the government[3][6] and that they had not been consulted on their appointments beforehand.[4] On December 4, Deputy Minister for Religious Affairs Sheikh Jama Haji Hussein also resigned, complaining of unfair allocation of posts in the government for his clan, the Jarerweyne, which is one of the smaller clans.[3]

On December 17, Hussein said that he was replacing his previously appointed government with a "smaller, more effective administration".[7] This new government was planned to include only 17 ministers and five deputy ministers, and was also to include people from outside of Parliament.[7][8]

Hussein appointed 15 ministers[9][10] and five assistant ministers[10][11] on January 4, 2008,[9][10] and they were sworn in on January 5.[11] Three additional ministers remained to be named.[10][11] Parliament approved the new Cabinet on January 10, with 223 votes in favor, five opposing and two abstaining.[12]

Peacekeeping and difficulties in office[edit]

Since the Prime Minister came to office, he has pushed for continued peace and unity amongst the Somali nation. The peacekeeping truce which was signed in Djibouti in June 2008 was one of the outcomes of the work of Nur Adde and his government.

Hussein dismissed the Mayor of Mogadishu, Mohamed Omar Habeb Dhere, on July 30, 2008; he accused Habeeb of incompetence, embezzlement, insubordination, and abuse of power. Habeeb, however, resisted this and said that his dismissal had to be approved by President Yusuf; he claimed to have Yusuf's support to remain in office. According to Hussein, his decision was supported by the people of Mogadishu and by the city's traditional elders. The issue of Habeeb's dismissal was believed to indicate deepening disagreement between Hussein and Yusuf.[13]

Ten ministers (including two deputy prime ministers) and one assistant minister resigned from Hussein's Cabinet on August 2, 2008. The resigning ministers, most of whom were considered supporters of Yusuf, said that Hussein had not consulted them about Habeeb's dismissal; they also criticized Hussein for failing to present a budget to parliament. Hussein reacted by accusing the resigning ministers of trying "to create political instability in the country and disrupt the implementation of the Djibouti agreement between the Somali Transitional Government and the opposition",[13] but he asserted that the government was still functioning properly.[14] At the same time, referring to moves in parliament to impeach him, Hussein said that he was willing to resign if parliament dissolved the government or if doing so would benefit the peace process.[13]

Hussein appointed six new ministers[14][15] on August 3, saying that the remaining replacements would be appointed after consultations with the people.[15] A no confidence motion against Hussein and his government was presented in Parliament on August 25. The motion alleged incompetence and embezzlement and criticized the government for failing to present a budget or provide national stability and security. It was submitted by 90 members of Parliament; Parliament had two days to review the motion.[16] Hussein strongly denied the accusations of incompetence and embezzlement.[17]

Hussein and President Yusuf signed a deal on August 26 that was intended to resolve the dispute between them,[18] and they said before Parliament on August 28 that they had agreed on a number of changes, including the addition of five members to the Cabinet and the dissolution of the administrations in Mogadishu and Banadir Region. The vote of confidence against Hussein's government was held on September 1 and was overwhelmingly defeated; there were 191 votes in favor of the government, nine votes against it, and two abstentions.[17]

On October 29, 2008, the leaders of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) asked Hussein to form a new Cabinet in hopes of stabilizing the situation. Hussein said on October 31 that he would do so within 15 days, but that the ministers who had resigned would be excluded from the new Cabinet. He also expressed confidence that a new constitution would be "drafted very soon and subjected to a referendum" and that laws pertaining to political parties and elections would be passed by Parliament during the six months to follow.[19]

President Yusuf announced on December 14 that he had dismissed Hussein and his government. Hussein said that Yusuf did not have the power to fire him without parliamentary approval, while Yusuf said that he believed Parliament would endorse the dismissal.[20] Parliament supported Hussein in a vote on December 15, but Yusuf nevertheless appointed Mohamoud Mohamed Gacmodhere as Prime Minister to replace Hussein on December 16. Mustafa Duhullow, the Minister of Agriculture, described this as a "desperate measure" and a "personal wish that will not have legal effect".[21] Guled announced his resignation on December 24, and Hussein congratulated him on taking "the right step".[22]

Hussein was a candidate for President in the parliamentary vote for that position, held in late January 2009. He placed third in the first round with 59 votes and then withdrew his candidacy; Sharif Ahmed won the election.[23] Ahmed then chose Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke to replace Hussein as Prime Minister on February 13.[24]

Hussein has been appointed as Somalia's ambassador to Italy in June 2009.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rashid Abdi, "Profile: Nur Adde, new Somali PM", BBC News, November 22, 2007.
  2. ^ "Somalia swears in new prime minister", Reuters (IOL), November 24, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c d e Ahmed Mohamed, "Somali president flown to Kenya hospital", Reuters (IOL), December 4, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Four ministers resign from new government", AFP (IOL), December 4, 2007.
  5. ^ Urgent need for effective human rights protection under the new transitional government
  6. ^ a b "Somali President Hospitalized in Kenya", VOA News, December 4, 2007.
  7. ^ a b "Somali PM to appoint smaller Cabinet, fighting kills 8", Garowe Online, December 17, 2007.
  8. ^ "SOMALIA: Prime minister to name new, leaner cabinet", IRIN, December 17, 2007.
  9. ^ a b "Somali interim leader collapses", BBC News, January 4, 2008.
  10. ^ a b c d "Somali PM names new cabinet", Al Jazeera, January 4, 2007.
  11. ^ a b c "Gunmen free Libyan diplomats", Reuters (News24.com), January 5, 2008.
  12. ^ "Somalia: Parliament ratifies Prime Minister’s new Cabinet", Garowe Online, January 10, 2008.
  13. ^ a b c "Resignation of ministers shows growingrift in transitional gov't", Xinhua, August 3, 2008.
  14. ^ a b "SOMALIA: Prime Minister moves to stem political crisis", IRIN, August 4, 2008.
  15. ^ a b "Somali PM names new ministers", Xinhua, August 4, 2008.
  16. ^ "Somali lawmakers table motion of ousting prime minister", Xinhua (People's Daily Online), August 26, 2008.
  17. ^ a b "Somali government wins confidence vote", Xinhua, September 1, 2008.
  18. ^ "Yusuf, Hussein bury their differences", Reuters (IOL), August 26, 2008.
  19. ^ "Somali PM pledges to form new cabinet", Middle East Online, October 31, 2008.
  20. ^ "Somali president sacks PM, PM stands firm", AFP, December 14, 2008.
  21. ^ "Somali president names new prime minister", AFP, December 16, 2008.
  22. ^ "More turmoil in Somalia as new PM quits", AFP, December 24, 2008.
  23. ^ Mohammed Ibrahim, "Moderate Elected President in Somalia", The New York Times, January 31, 2009, page A6.
  24. ^ "Son of slain leader chosen as Somali PM", Reuters (IOL), February 13, 2009.

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Salim Aliyow Ibrow
Acting
Prime Minister of Somalia
2007–2009
Succeeded by
Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke