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Khan Of Great Jin
清 佚名 《清太祖天命皇帝朝服像》.jpg
Khan of the Later Jin dynasty
Reign 17 February 1616 – 30 September 1626
Predecessor None
(dynasty established)
Successor Hong Taiji
1st Emperor of the Qing Dynasty
Predecessor None
(awarded posthumously)
Successor Hong Taiji
Born 21 February 1559
Died 30 September 1626(1626-09-30) (aged 67)
Ningyuan, Manchuria
Spouse Consort Yuan
Consort Ji
Empress Xiaocigao
Empress Xiaoliewu
Grand Consort Shoukang
Lady Irgen-Gioro
Lady Yehenara
Lady Joogiya
Lady Niohuru
Lady Silin-Gioro
Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro
Lady Irgen-Gioro
Issue Cuyen
Hong Taiji
Princess Dongguo
Princess Nunje
four other daughters
Full name
Chinese: 努爾哈赤 Nǔ'ěrhāchì
Manchu: ᠨᡠᡵᡤᠠᠴᡳnurgaci / nurgaqi
Mongolian: ᠨᠤᠷᠠᠭᠴᠢНурхач
Era name and dates
Chinese: Tianming (天命)
Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡶᡠᠯᡳᠩᡤᠠ abkai fulingga
Mongolian: ᠲᠩᠷᠢ ᠶᠢᠨ ᠰᠦᠯᠳᠡᠲᠦ
Тэнгэрийн сүлдэт: 1616–1626
Posthumous name
Chéngtiān Guǎngyùn Shèngdé Shéngōng Zhàojì Lìjí Rénxiào Ruìwǔ Duānyì Qīn'ān Hóngwén Dìngyè Gāo Huángdì
Manchu: Dergi hūwangdi (ᡩᡝᡵᡤᡳ
Temple name
Chinese: Taizu (太祖)
Manchu: taidzu (ᡨᠠᡳᡯᡠ)
House Aisin Gioro
Chinese: Àixīnjuéluó 愛新覺羅
Manchu: ᠠᡳᠰᡳᠨ ᡤᡳᠣᡵᠣ aisin gioro / aisin giuro
Father Taksi
Mother Lady Hitara

Nurhaci (Manchu: ᠨᡠᡵᡤᠠᠴᡳ; Möllendorff: Nurgaci; Abkai: Nurgaqi; simplified Chinese: 努尔哈赤; traditional Chinese: 努爾哈赤; pinyin: Nǔ'ěrhāchì; alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria. Nurhaci was part of the Aisin Gioro clan, and reigned from 1616 to his death in September 1626.

Nurhaci reorganised and united various Jurchen tribes (the later "Manchu"), consolidated the Eight Banners military system, and eventually launched attacks on Ming China and Joseon Korea. His conquest of Ming China's northeastern Liaoning province laid the groundwork for the conquest of the rest of China by his descendants, who founded the Qing dynasty in 1644. He is also generally credited with ordering the creation of a new written script for the Manchu language based on the Mongolian vertical script.

Name and titles[edit]

Nurhaci is written as ᠨᡠᡵᡤᠠᠴᡳ in Manchu language. The meaning of the name in the Manchu language is "the skin of a wild boar"[citation needed]. Regarded as the founding father of the Qing dynasty, he is given the customary temple name of Taizu, which is traditionally assigned to founders of dynasties. His name is also alternatively spelled Nurgaci, Nurhachi, or Nu-er-ha-chi (the last of these simply the transcription of the Chinese characters used to write his name).

Nurhaci was the last chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens and First Khan of the Later Jin dynasty. His title in Manchu as Khan was ᡤᡝᡵᡝᠨ
ᡤᡠᡵᡠᠨ ᠪᡝ
geren gurun-be ujire genggiyen han ("Brilliant Khan Who Benefits All Nations"). His regnal name was Tianming (Chinese: 天命; Wade–Giles: T'ien-ming; Manchu:ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ
Abkai fulingga), in Mongolian Тэнгэрийн сүлдэт Tengri-yin Süldetü. It means "The Emperor of Heaven's Mandate." He was given a posthumous name in 1736 (see infobox), the shortened form of which was "Emperor Gao" (Wade–Giles: Emperor Kao; Chinese: 高皇帝).

Early life[edit]

Nurhaci was born in 1559. Being a member of the Gioro clan of the Suksuhu River tribe, Nurhaci also claimed descent from Mentemu, a Jurchen headman who lived some two centuries earlier. According to Chinese sources[citation needed], the young man grew up as a soldier in the household of the Ming dynasty general Li Chengliang in Fushun, where he learned Chinese. He named his clan Aisin Gioro around 1612, when he formally ascended the throne as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty.

In 1582, Nurhaci's father Taksi and grandfather Giocangga were killed in an attack on Gure (now a village in Xinbin Manchu Autonomous County) by a rival Jurchen chieftain, Nikan Wailan ("Nikan Wailan" means "secretary of Han Chinese" in the Jurchen language, thus his existence is suspected by some historians.) while being led by Li Chengliang. The following year, Nurhaci began to unify the Jurchen bands around his area.

In 1584, when Nurhaci was 25, he attacked Nikan Wailan at Tulun (today a village in Xinbin too) to avenge the deaths of his father and grandfather, who are said to have left him nothing but thirteen suits of armor. Nikan Wailan fled away to Erhun, which Nurhaci attacked again in 1587. Nikan Wailan this time fled to Li Chengliang's territory. Later, as a way to build relationship, Li gave Nikan Wailan to Nurhaci, who beheaded Nikan Wailan immediately. With Li's support, Nurhaci gradually grew his strength in the following years.

Unifying the Jurchen tribes[edit]

In 1593, the Yehe called upon a coalition of nine tribes: the Hada, Ula, Hoifa, Khorchin Mongols, Sibe, Guwalca, Jušeri, Neyen , and the Yehe themselves to attack the Jianzhou Jurchens. They were defeated at the Battle of Gure and Nurhaci emerged victorious.[1]

From 1599 to 1618, Nurhaci set out on a campaign against the four Hulun tribes. He began by attacking the Hada in 1599 and conquering them in 1603. Then in 1607, Hoifa was also conquered with the death of its beile Baindari, followed by an expedition against Ula and its beile Bujantai in 1613, and finally the Yehe and its beile Gintaisi at the Battle of Sarhu in 1619.

In 1599, Nurhaci gave two of his translators, Erdeni Bagshi and Dahai Jarguchi, the task of creating a Manchu alphabet by adapting the Mongolian script.

In 1606, he was granted the title of Kundulun Khan by the Mongols.

At the Battle of Sarhu Nurhaci defeated a four-pronged Chinese offensive intended to capture his capital of Hetu Ala by concentrating his forces in one column at a time.

In 1616, Nurhaci declared himself Khan and founded the Jin dynasty (aisin gurun), often called the Later Jin in reference to the legacy of the earlier Jurchen Jin dynasty of the 12th century. He constructed a palace at Mukden (present-day Shenyang, Liaoning). The "Later Jin" was renamed to "Qing" by his son Hong Taiji after his death in 1626, however Nurhaci is usually referred to as the founder of the Qing dynasty.

In order to help with the newly organized administration, five of his trusted companions were appointed as his chief councilors, Anfiyanggū, Eidu, Hūrhan, Fiongdon, and Hohori.

Nurhaci captured Liaoyang in 1621 and made it the capital of his empire until 1625.

Only after he became Khan did he finally unify the Ula (clan of his consort Lady Abahai, mentioned below) and the Yehe, the clan of his consort Monggo.

Nurhaci chose to variously emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with other peoples like the Mongols for political reasons.[2] Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same. It is the same with us Manchus (Jušen) and Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same." Later Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture, rather it was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", when he said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people till the fields and live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages."[3]

Challenging Ming China[edit]

In 1618, Nurhaci commissioned a document entitled the Seven Grievances in which he enumerated seven problems with Ming rule and began to rebel against the domination of the Ming dynasty. A majority of the grievances dealt with conflicts against Yehe, and Ming favouritism of Yehe.

In 1621, Nurhaci started the construction of a new palace, the Mukden Palace, for his Later Jin dynasty's capital of Mukden (now Shenyang).

Nurhaci led many successful engagements against the Ming Chinese, the Koreans, the Mongols, and other Jurchen clans, greatly enlarging the territory under his control.

The first capitals of the state established by Nurhaci were Fe Ala and Hetu Ala.[4][5][6][7][8] Han Chinese participated in the construction of Hetu Ala, the capital of Nurhaci's state.[9]

Defectors from the Ming side played a massive role in the Qing conquest of the Ming. Ming generals who defected to the Manchus were often married to women from the Aisin Gioro clan while lower-ranked defectors were given non-imperial Manchu women as wives. Nurhaci arranged for a marriage between one of his granddaughters and the Ming general Li Yongfang (李永芳) after Li surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchus in 1618 as the result of the Battle of Fushun.[10][11][12][13][14] His son Abatai's daughter was married to Li Yongfang.[15][16][17][18] The offspring of Li received the "Third Class Viscount" (三等子爵; sān děng zǐjué) title.[19] Li Yongfang was the great great great grandfather of Li Shiyao 李侍堯.[20][21]

The Han prisoner of war Gong Zhenglu (Onoi) was appointed to instruct Nurhaci's sons and received gifts of slaves, wives, and a domicile from Nurhaci after Nurhaci rejected offers of payment to release him back to his relatives.[22]

Nurhaci had treated Han in Liaodong differently according to how much grain they had, those with less than 5 to 7 sin were treated like chattel while those with more than that amount were rewarded with property. Due to a revolt by Han in Liaodong in 1623, Nurhachi, who previously gave concessions to conquered Han subjects in Liaodong, turned against them and ordered that they no longer be trusted and enacted discriminatory policies and killings against them, while ordering that Han who assimilated to the Jurchen (in Jilin) before 1619 be treated equally as Jurchens were and not like the conquered Han in Liaodong.

By May 1621, Nurhaci had conquered the cities of Liaoyang and Shenyang. In April 1625, he designated Shenyang the new capital city, which would hold that status until the Qing conquest of the Ming in 1644.[23]

Battle of Ningyuan in which Nurhaci was wounded and died

Finally in 1626, Nurhaci suffered the first serious military defeat of his life at the hands of the Ming general Yuan Chonghuan. Nurhaci was wounded by the Portuguese-made cannons in Yuan's army at the Battle of Ningyuan. Unable to recover either physically or mentally, he died two days later in Aiji Fort (靉雞堡; in present-day Da'aijinbao Village, Dijia Township, Yuhong District, Shenyang) on 30 September at the age of 68. His tomb, Fuling Mausoleum (Chinese: ; pinyin: líng), is located east of Shenyang.

The first Manchu translations of Chinese works were the Six Secret Teachings (六韜), Sushu 素書, and Three Strategies of Huang Shigong (三略), all Chinese military texts dedicated to the arts of war due to the Manchu interests in the topic, like Sun-Tzu's work The Art of War.[24][25] The military related texts which were translated into Manchu from Chinese were translated by Dahai.[26]

Manchu translations of Chinese texts included the Ming penal code and military texts were performed by Dahai.[27] These translations were requested of Dahai by Nurhaci.[28] The military text Wuzi was translated into Manchu along with The Art of War.[29]

Chinese history, Chinese law, and Chinese military theory classical texts were translated into Manchu during the rule of Hong Taiji in Mukden (now Shenyang), with the Manchus placing significance upon military and governance related Chinese texts.[30] A Manchu translation was made of the military-themed novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms.[31][32] Chinese literature, military theory and legal texts were translated into Manchu by Dahai and Erdeni.[33] The translations were ordered in 1629.[34]

The translation of the military texts Sushu and Three Strategies of Huang Shigong, and the Da Ming Huidian (the Ming law) done by Dahai was ordered by Nurhaci.[35] While it was mainly administrative and ethical guidance which made up most of the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong and the Sushu, military science was indeed found in the Six Secret Teachings and Chinese military manuals were eagerly translated by the Manchus. They were also attracted to the military content in Romance of the Three Kingdoms, which is why it was translated.[36] The Art of War was translated into Manchu as ᠴᠣᠣᡥᠠᡳ
Wylie: Tchauhai paita be gisurengge,[37][38] Möllendorff: Coohai baita de gisurengge, Discourse on the art of War.[39] Another later Manchu translation was made by Aisin Gioro Qiying.[40]


Among the most lasting contributions Nurhaci left his descendants was the establishment of the Eight Banners, which would eventually form the backbone of the military that dominated the Qing Empire. The status of Banners did not change much over the course of Nurhaci's lifetime, nor in subsequent reigns, remaining mostly under the control of the royal family. The two elite Yellow Banners were consistently under Nurhaci's control. The two Blue Banners were controlled by Nurhaci's brother Šurhaci until he died, at which point the Blue Banners were given to Šurhaci's two sons, Chiurhala and Amin. Nurhaci's eldest son, Cuyen, controlled the White Banner for most of his father's reign until he rebelled. Then the Bordered White Banner was given to Nurhaci's grandson and the Plain White was given to his eighth son and heir, Hong Taiji. However, by the end of Nurhaci's reign, Hong Taiji controlled both White Banners. Finally, the Red Banner was run by Nurhaci's second son Daišan. Later in Nurhaci's reign, the Bordered Red Banner was handed down to his son. Daišan and his son would continue holding the two Red Banners well into the end of Hong Taiji's reign.

Nurhaci watching his army storm the walls of Ningyuan, 1626.

The details of Hong Taiji's succession as the Khan of the Later Jin dynasty are unclear.[41] When he died in late 1626, Nurhaci did not designate an heir; instead he encouraged his sons to rule collegially.[42] Three of his sons and a nephew were the "four senior beiles": Daišan (43 years old), Amin (son of Nurhaci's brother Šurhaci; 40 or 41), Manggūltai (38 or 39), and Hong Taiji himself (33).[43] On the day after Nurhaci's death, they coerced his primary consort Lady Abahai (1590–1626)––who had borne him three sons: Ajige, Dorgon, and Dodo––to commit suicide to accompany him in death.[44] This gesture has made some historians suspect that Nurhaci had in fact named the fifteen-year-old Dorgon as a successor, with Daišan as regent.[45] By forcing Dorgon's mother to kill herself, the princes removed a strong base of support for Dorgon. The reason such intrigue was necessary is that Nurhaci had left the two elite Yellow Banners to Dorgun and Dodo, who were the sons of Lady Abahai. Hong Taiji exchanged control of his two White Banners for that of the two Yellow Banners, shifting their influence and power from his young brothers onto himself.[citation needed]

According to Hong Taiji's later recollections, Amin and the other beile were willing to accept Hong Taiji as Khan, but Amin then would have wanted to leave with his Bordered Blue Banner, threatening to dissolve Nurhaci's unification of the Jurchens.[46] Eventually the older Daišan worked out a compromise that allowed Hong Taiji as the Khan, but almost equal to the other three senior beiles.[47] Hong Taiji would eventually find ways to become the undisputed leader.

Primary sources[edit]

Information concerning Nurhaci can be found in later, propagandistic works such as the Manchu Veritable Records (Chinese: 滿洲實錄; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu Shílù; in Manchu, Yargiyan kooli). Good contemporary sources are also available. For instance, much material concerning Nurhaci's rise is preserved within Korean sources such as the Veritable Records of the Joseon Dynasty (Chinese: 朝鮮王朝實錄), especially the Seonjo Sillok and the Gwanghaegun Ilgi. Indeed, the record of Sin Chung-il's trip to Jianzhou is preserved in the Seonjo Sillok.

The Jiu Manzhou Dang from Nurhaci's reign also survives. A revised transcription of these records (with the dots and circles added to the script) was commissioned by the Qianlong Emperor. This has been translated into Japanese under the title Manbun roto, and Chinese, under the title Manwen Laodang (Chinese: 满文老檔). A project is currently under way at Harvard University to translate them into English, as The Old Manchu Chronicles.[48]



  • Great-Great-Grandfather
    • Mentemu (1370–1433), personal name Mengtemu (孟特穆), posthumously honored as Emperor Yuan (原皇帝, Da Hūwangdi) with the temple name of Zhaozu (肇祖, Deribuhe Mafa)
  • Great-Great-Grandmother or step-great-great-grandmother
    • Mentemu's wife, posthumously honored as Empress Yuan (原皇后 Da Hūwanghu)
  • Great-Grandfather
    • Fuman, posthumously honored as Emperor Zhi (直皇帝, Tondo Hūwangdi) with the temple name of Xingzu (興祖, Yendibuhe Mafa)
  • Great-grandmother or step-great-grandmother
    • Lady Hitara (喜塔拉氏), Fuman's wife, daughter of Captain Doulijin (都督 都理金), posthumously honored as Empress Zhi (直皇后)
  • Grandfather
    • Giocangga (died 1583), posthumously honored as Emperor Yi (翼皇帝, Gosingga Hūwangdi) with the temple name of Jingzu (景祖, Mukdembuhe Mafa)
  • Grandmother or step-grandmother
    • Giocangga's wife, posthumously honored as Empress Yi (翼皇后, Gosingga Hūwanghu)
  • Father
    • Taksi (died 1583), posthumously honored as Emperor Xuan (宣皇帝, Hafumbuha Hūwangdi) with the temple name of Xianzu (顯祖, Iletuleha Mafa)
  • Mother
    • Lady Hitara (喜塔拉氏) (died 1569), Taksi's wife, daughter of Captain Agu (都督 阿古), granddaughter of Captain Cancha (都督 參察), great-granddaughter of Captain Doulijin (都督 都里吉), posthumously honored as Empress Xuan (宣皇后, Hafumbuha Hūwanghu)


  • Brothers (same mother)
    • Šurhaci (舒爾哈齊) (1564–1611)
    • Yarhaci (雅爾哈齊)
  • Sister (same mother)
    • Lady Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅氏), married Gahašan Hasihu (噶哈善哈斯虎)
  • Half-Brothers
    • Bayara (巴雅齊)
    • Murhaci (穆爾哈齊) (1582–1624)


Nurhaci had a total of 14 consorts.

Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Notes
Consort Yuan
("Original Consort")
Tunggiya Hahana-Jacing
1560 1592 Nurhaci's first primary consort
Consort Ji
("Successor Consort")
Fuca Gundei
unknown 1620 Nurhaci's second primary consort
Empress Xiaocigao
Yehenara Monggo-Jerjer
1575 1603 Daughter of Yangginu (楊吉砮);
Married Nurhaci in October 1588;
Nurhaci's secondary consort
Empress Xiaoliewu
Ulanara Abahai
1590 1626 Daughter of Mantai (滿泰);
Married Nurhaci in 1602;
Nurhaci's secondary consort
Grand Consort Shoukang
Lady Borjigit
unknown 1665 Nurhaci's secondary consort
none Lady Irgen-Gioro
unknown unknown Nurhaci's secondary consort
none Lady Yehenara
unknown unknown Nurhaci's secondary consort;
Empress Xiaocigao's younger sister
none Lady Joogiya
unknown unknown Nurhaci's ordinary consort
none Lady Niohuru
unknown unknown Nurhaci's ordinary consort
none Lady Silin-Gioro
unknown unknown Nurhaci's ordinary consort
none Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro
unknown unknown Nurhaci's ordinary consort
none Lady Irgen-Gioro
unknown unknown Nurhaci's ordinary consort
none Ajigen
unknown unknown Nurhaci's ordinary consort
none Deyinze
unknown 1626 Nurhaci's ordinary consort;
Forced to commit suicide to join Nurhaci


# Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Mother Notes
1 Crown Prince Guanglue
1580 1615 Consort Yuan Nurhaci's first heir apparent;
Put to death by Nurhaci
2 Prince Lilie of the First Rank
19 August 1583 25 November 1648 Consort Yuan One of the Four Great Beiles
3 Zhenguo Qinmin Gong
8 September 1585 14 March 1648 Lady Joogiya Had seven sons
4 Zhenguo Kejie Jiangjun
24 December 1585 3 November 1640 Lady Niohuru Had two sons
5 stripped of his title Manggūltai
1587 11 January 1633 Consort Ji One of the Four Great Beiles
6 Fuguo Quehou Gong
2 April 1589 6 September 1639 Lady Niohuru Had eight sons
7 Prince Raoyumin of the Second Rank
27 July 1589 10 May 1646 Lady Irgen-Gioro
8 Emperor Taizongwen
Hong Taiji
28 November 1592 21 September 1643 Empress Xiaocigao Nurhaci's successor; previously one of the Four Great Beiles
9 Zhenguo Kexi Gong
13 December 1592 27 February 1655 Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro
10 stripped of his title Degelei
16 December 1592 11 November 1635 Consort Ji
11 stripped of his title Babuhai
15 January 1597 1643 Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro Had three sons
12 stripped of his title Ajige
28 August 1605 28 November 1651 Empress Xiaoliewu Initially Prince Ying of the First Rank;
Had three sons
13 Fuguo Jiezhi Gong
26 January 1612 23 June 1646 Lady Silin-Gioro
14 Prince Ruizhong of the First Rank
17 November 1612 31 December 1650 Empress Xiaoliewu Served as Prince-Regent during the Shunzhi Emperor's reign
15 Prince Yutong of the First Rank
2 April 1614 29 April 1649 Empress Xiaoliewu
16 none Fiyanggu
November 1620 unknown unknown Had four sons


# Title / Posthumous title Name Born Died Mother Spouse Notes
1 Gulun Princess
Princess Dongguo
1578 1652 Consort Yuan Hohori (何和禮; 1561–1624), married in 1588
2 Heshuo Princess
Princess Nunje
1587 1646 Lady Irgen-Gioro Darkhan (達爾漢)
3 none Mangguji
1590 1635 Consort Ji Worgudai (吳爾古代), married in 1601;
Suonuomuduling (瑣諾木杜凌), married in 1627
Had two daughters with Worgudai
4 none Mukushen
1595 unknown Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro Bujantai, married in 1608
5 none name unknown 1597 1613 Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro Daki (達啟), married in 1608
6 none name unknown 1600 1646 Lady Giyamuhut-Gioro Suna (蘇納), married in 1613
7 none name unknown April 1604 August 1685 Lady Irgen-Gioro Ezhayi (鄂札伊), married in 1619
8 Heshuo Princess
name unknown 1612 1646 Lady Yehenara Gorbushi (固爾布什), married in 1625

In popular culture[edit]

In the opening scene of the 1984 film Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, Indiana Jones trades the remains of Nurhaci (contained in a small, ornate jade urn) for a diamond owned by Shanghai mobster Lao Che.


The genus Nurhachius, a pterodactyloid pterosaur, is named after Nurhaci.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Narangoa 2014, p. 24.
  2. ^ Perdue, Peter C (2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. p. 127. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5. 
  3. ^ The Cambridge History of China: Pt. 1 ; The Ch'ing Empire to 1800. Cambridge University Press. 2002. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-521-24334-6. 
  4. ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 45–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. 
  5. ^ Gertraude Roth Li (2010). Manchu: A Textbook for Reading Documents. Natl Foreign Lg Resource Ctr. pp. 285–. ISBN 978-0-9800459-5-6. 
  6. ^ Jonathan D. Spence; John E. Wills, Jr. (1 January 1979). From Ming to Ch'ing: Conquest, Region, and Continuity in Seventeenth-century China. Yale University Press. pp. 35–. ISBN 978-0-300-02672-6. 
  7. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. pp. 54–. ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7. 
  8. ^
  9. ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. 
  10. ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History. University of California Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-520-25444-2. 
  11. ^ Frederic Wakeman (1 January 1977). Fall of Imperial China. Simon and Schuster. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-02-933680-9. 
  12. ^ Kenneth M. Swope (23 January 2014). The Military Collapse of China's Ming Dynasty, 1618-44. Routledge. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-134-46209-4. 
  13. ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. 
  14. ^ Mark C. Elliott (2001). The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China. Stanford University Press. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-0-8047-4684-7. 
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Evelyn S. Rawski (15 November 1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-520-92679-0. 
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ Pamela Kyle Crossley (15 February 2000). A Translucent Mirror: History and Identity in Qing Imperial Ideology. University of California Press. pp. 101–. ISBN 978-0-520-92884-8. 
  23. ^ Arthur W. Hummel, Eminent Chinese of the Ch’ing Period, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1943), p. 597
  24. ^ Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1975. p. 53. 
  25. ^ Durrant, Stephen (1977). "Manchu Translations of Chou Dynasty Texts". Early China. 3: 53. doi:10.2307/23351361. 
  26. ^ Chan, Sin-wai (2009). A Chronology of Translation in China and the West: From the Legendary Period to 2004. Chinese University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-962-996-355-2. 
  27. ^ Perdue, Peter C (30 June 2009). China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia. Harvard University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-674-04202-5. 
  28. ^ Wakeman, Frederic (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. 
  29. ^ Early China. Society for the Study of Early China. 1977. p. 53. 
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  31. ^ Chiu, Elena Suet-Ying (2017). Bannermen Tales (Zidishu): Manchu Storytelling and Cultural Hybridity in the Qing Dynasty. Harvard University, Asia Center. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-674-97519-4. 
  32. ^ West, Andrew. "The Textual History of Sanguo Yanyi: The Manchu Translation". Retrieved 11 October 2016. 
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  40. ^ p. 82
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  46. ^ Wakeman 1985, pp. 158–60.
  47. ^ Wakeman 1985, p. 160.
  48. ^ "Manchu Studies at Harvard". 


Born: 1558 Died: 30 September 1626
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens
Succeeded by
Hong Taiji
Preceded by
(Dynasty established)
Khan of Later Jin