Nutritional immunology

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Nutritional immunology is a field of immunology that focuses on studying the influence of nutrition on the immune system and its protective functions. Part of nutritional immunology involves studying the possible effects of diet on the prevention and management on developing autoimmune diseases, chronic diseases, allergy, cancer (diseases of affluence) and infectious diseases.[1] Other related topics of nutritional immunology are: malnutrition, malabsorption and nutritional metabolic disorders including the determination of their immune products.[2][3][4][5]

Recommended composition of well-balanced diet by Harvard Medical School.

The Role of Nutrition on the Prevention and Management of Diseases[edit]

Autoimmune diseases[edit]

The development and progression of many autoimmune diseases are generally unknown. The "Western pattern diet" consists of high-fat, high-sugar, low-fiber meals with surfeit of salt and highly processed food, which have pro-inflammatory effects. These effects may promote Th1- and Th17 - biased immunity and alter monocyte and neutrophil migration from bone marrow.[6][7] A healthy diet contains a multitude of micronutrients that have anti-inflammatory and immune boosting effects that can help prevent or treat autoimmune diseases.

The impact of diet is studied in relation to these autoimmune diseases:[8][9][10]

Allergies[edit]

Nutrition can help prevent or promote the development of food allergies. The hygiene hypothesis states that a child's early introduction to certain microorganisms can avert the onset of allergies. Breastfeeding is considered to be the main method of preventing food allergies. This is because breast milk contains oligosaccharides, secretory IgA, vitamins, antioxidants and possible transfer of microbiota.[11] Conversely, a child's lack of exposure to specific microorganisms can establish a vulnerability to food allergies

Diabetes[edit]

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which one's blood sugar levels are elevated.[12] There are two forms of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes and Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 is caused by the immune system attacking insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. Type 2 is caused by the underproduction of insulin and the cells in your body becoming resistant to insulin.[12] A low-glycemic diet that is high in fiber is recommended for diabetics because low-glycemic foods digest slower in the body. Slower digestion helps stabilize blood glucose levels and prevents spikes in blood sugar.[13]

Cancer[edit]

Cancer is a disease with multifactorial causes. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, viruses, and diet play a role in the development of cancer.[14] Poor diet has been linked to the development of cancer, while a healthy diet has been shown to have positive effects on preventing and treating cancer. Cruciferous vegetables contain chemicals called Isothiocyanates (ITC's). ITC's have immune-boosting effects, as well as anti-cancer activity such as the prevention of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a process where tumors have their own blood supply in order to feed growing cancer cells. The alliinase containing food group, allium, has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Alliinase is an enzyme, which acts as an angiogenisis-inhibitor and a carcinogen detoxifier. Mushrooms reduce cancer cell and tumor growth and prevent DNA damage. Mushrooms have aromatase inhibitors that decrease the levels of estrogen released in the bloodstream, slowing the production of breast tissue. Fruits and vegetables contain flavonoids, which are anti-carcinogens.[13]

Macronutrients[edit]

Macronutrients are a class of nutrients that the human body needs in larger amounts in order to function properly and the three main classes of macronutrients include: proteins, carbohydrates, and fats (lipids). The main role of macronutrients besides to make sure the body functions properly is to provide the body with energy in the form of calories.

Proteins[edit]

Proteins are large biomolecules made up of chains of amino acids, which are the organic compounds that make most bodily functions possible.[15] Proteins are found naturally within the body and are found in foods such as meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, seeds and nuts, and beans and legumes. Throughout the body, proteins are found in hair, nails, muscles and bones, they also can function as enzymes and/or hormones. The role of proteins as enzymes and/or hormones is imperative for cell function and physiological processes as simple as growth.[16] Proteins aid in muscle growth, speed up metabolism and lower blood pressure. Proteins are imperative for the body's tissues and organs, working in their function, structure and regulation.[15] Protein's protect the immune system in the form of antibodies, y-shaped proteins that bind to viral, bacterial and parasitic infections, signaling to the rest of the body that there is a foreign cell that should be neutralized.[17] Without antibodies, the body would not be able to target and fight infection.

Carbohydrates[edit]

Carbohydrates are sugars, starches and fibers found in grains, fruits, dairy products and vegetables. Carbohydrates are organic compounds made of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen. They help the body's immunology by maintaining blood sugar, which reduces the body's stress response.[18] It is common for people to consume carbohydrate rich foods before working out in order to maintain energy and avoid crash afterwards, this is a positive result of having maintained blood sugar. Carbohydrates are also an energy source for cells, act as cell receptors for recognition, and function in cell support.[16]

Fats (Lipids)[edit]

Lipids are macromolecules made up of hydrocarbons, there are 3 main types of lipids: triglycerides, phospholipids, and steroids. Lipids are hydrophobic molecules, therefore they are only soluble in non-polar solvents.[19] Because of this, lipids do not break down in the body without the use of lipase enzymes, which break down lipids into glycerol and fatty acids. Lipids can be found in oils, dairy products, and some meats, along with in avocados and nuts. Cholesterol is a type of lipid and is an important feature in plasma membranes, which work in regulating immune cell plasticity.[16] Lipids maintain the structure of cell membranes, act as storehouses of energy, maintain body temperature/ aid in homeostasis, are important signaling molecules.[20] Without lipids, bodily cells would not be able to maintain function or survive. While consuming too many lipids can lead to obesity, high cholesterol, type 2 diabetes and other diseases, they are an important molecule to consume and maintain within the body. There are also vitamins that only dissolve in fats, such as vitamin A, K, D and E; these vitamins are vital in transporting and metabolizing fatty acids, transporting molecules across membranes and activating enzymes necessary for oxidative phosphorylation.[21] Without lipids, cells in the body would not function and the body would simply fail. They are among the most important macromolecules.

Omega-3 fatty acids[edit]

Eicosapentaenioc acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are omega-3 fatty acids, which can be found in marine fish, primarily in salmon, tuna, mackerel, herring and sardines and in fish oil. These two fatty acids are important components of cell membranes. It has been shown that they have anti-inflammatory effects in the body. EPA and DHA inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6; they reduce the expression of adhesion molecules that are involved in inflammation and may modulate and reduce production of prostaglandins and leukotriens from the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid. These changes are most likely due to alterations in the lipid rafts on cell membranes, which then further affect signaling cascades and inhibition of activation of the pro-inflammatory transcriptional factor NF-κB. EPA and DHA can increase the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and promote production of protective mediators such as resolvins, protectins and maresins.[22]

Micronutrients[edit]

Micronutrients are a group of nutrients, usually in smaller amounts, that are vital for the human body to perform various physiological functions properly. This includes vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, and antioxidants.

Vitamins and Minerals[edit]

Vitamins and Minerals are essential substances that the body needs to grow and function. Your body needs thirteen vitamins, but does produce Vitamin K by the gut microflora and Vitamin D from the sunlight.[23] There are two types of vitamins, including fat-soluble vitamins and water-soluble vitamins. Fat-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in organic solvents, which include vitamins A, K, E, and D.[24] Water-soluble vitamins are vitamins that are soluble in water and include vitamin C and B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and folate.[25] Most of the essential vitamins the body needs can be obtained by a balanced diet, with the exception of a portion of the population who don't get enough micronutrients from their diet or have a health condition that affects their nutritional needs. Similarly to vitamins, minerals are also needed for your body to be healthy and to function properly. Minerals function to keep your bones, muscles, heart. and brain working correctly. Minerals include phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfur. There are also trace minerals needed in smaller amounts, which include iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.[26]

Phytochemicals[edit]

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds found in plants. These phytochemcials are present in things like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, seeds, nuts, and legumes. They provide a multitude of health benefits ranging from small improvements such as, lowering blood pressure, reducing inflammation, and lowering LDL cholesterol levels in the blood to the major benefits of fighting against the growth of tumors, cancer, cardiovascular disease, along with being able to boost the immune system.[27]

Free radical production

Antioxidants[edit]

Antioxidants are compounds that block unpaired electrons in a molecule or atom and keep it from becoming a free radical. Free radicals are molecules that are either naturally made in the human body after exercise or can be from exposure to environmental factors such as, cigarette smoke, pollution, and sunlight. These free radicals are destabilized and are highly reactive, which produces oxidative stress. This oxidative stress is what causes reactions that can damage cells in the body and can cause the cells to lose their function and become pathogenic.[28]

Polyphenols[edit]

Polyphenols are organic substances that naturally occur in plants. They are important antioxidants with anti-inflammatory properties. It was demonstrated that curcumin can modulate immunity in many ways, mainly via regulation and inhibition of transcription factors such as nuclear factor NF-kB and activator protein 1 (AP-1).[29] Another polyphenol, resveratrol, also modulates and promotes immune response.[30]

Prebiotics and Probiotics[edit]

Dietary prebiotics are a fermented ingredient that affect the composition and/or activity of the gut microbiome in a way that is beneficial to the host.[31] Prebiotics involve mainly oligosaccharides and carbohydrates (fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosacharides, xylooligosaccharides, mannose oligosaccharides). These substances can modulate immune responses in the gut. Prebiotics regulate the growth of beneficial microbial organisms in the intestine (commensal bacteria).[32]

Probiotics are live microorganisms that are beneficial to the host in sufficient amounts.[33] Probiotics and their metabolites balance and modulate anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory immune responses in gut.[34] Probiotics induce antimicrobial peptides such as β-defensin-2, they increase the production of T regulatory cells, and regulate cytokines and chemokines.[35] They can also affect the polarization of the immune response (Th1 instead of Th2) and increase the production of IgA in the gut.[36] The bacterial strains most commonly used as probiotics are Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Bifidobacterium group[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sun, Jia; de Vos, Paul (2019-01-24). "Editorial: Immunomodulatory Functions of Nutritional Ingredients in Health and Disease". Frontiers in Immunology. 10: 50. doi:10.3389/fimmu.2019.00050. ISSN 1664-3224. PMC 6353841. PMID 30733720.
  2. ^ Çehreli, Rüksan (April 2018). "Molecular nutritional immunology and cancer". Journal of Oncological Sciences. 4 (1): 40–46. doi:10.1016/j.jons.2018.02.002. Nutritional Immunology, as a discipline, aims to understand nutritional factors influencing on immune responses. [...] Nutritional immunology was identified for the first time in the early 19th century by the identification of an atrophy of the thymus in a malnourished patient.
  3. ^ Janeway CA Jr, Travers P, Walport M, et al.(2001) Basic Immunobiology: immune system in health and disease New York: Garland Science; .5th ed
  4. ^ Mathew Folaranmi OLANIYAN (2017) Fundamentals of Immunology: Immunology: Volume 1. First edition.I CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. ISBN 978-1548826475
  5. ^ Cunningham-Rundles S, McNeeley DF, Moon A. Mechanisms of nutrient modulation of the immune response. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:1119–28.
  6. ^ Manzel, Arndt; Muller, Dominik N.; Hafler, David A.; Erdman, Susan E.; Linker, Ralf A.; Kleinewietfeld, Markus (January 2014). "Role of "Western Diet" in Inflammatory Autoimmune Diseases". Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. 14 (1): 404. doi:10.1007/s11882-013-0404-6. ISSN 1529-7322. PMC 4034518. PMID 24338487.
  7. ^ Napier, Brooke A.; Andres-Terre, Marta; Massis, Liliana M.; Hryckowian, Andrew J.; Higginbottom, Steven K.; Cumnock, Katherine; Casey, Kerriann M.; Haileselassie, Bereketeab; Lugo, Kyler A.; Schneider, David S.; Sonnenburg, Justin L. (2019-02-11). "Western diet regulates immune status and the response to LPS-driven sepsis independent of diet-associated microbiome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116 (9): 3688–3694. doi:10.1073/pnas.1814273116. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 6397595. PMID 30808756.
  8. ^ Arabi, Shaghayegh; Molazadeh, Morteza; Rezaei, Nima (2019), Mahmoudi, Maryam; Rezaei, Nima (eds.), "Nutrition, Immunity, and Autoimmune Diseases", Nutrition and Immunity, Springer International Publishing, pp. 415–436, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-16073-9_21, ISBN 978-3-030-16073-9
  9. ^ Choi, In Young; Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter D. (2017-11-05). "Nutrition and fasting mimicking diets in the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases and immunosenescence". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Metabolism of Aging. 455: 4–12. doi:10.1016/j.mce.2017.01.042. ISSN 0303-7207. PMC 5862044. PMID 28137612.
  10. ^ Catassi, C.; Lionetti, E. (2017-01-01), Saavedra, Jose M.; Dattilo, Anne M. (eds.), "Chapter 10 - Early Nutrition and its Effect on the Development of Celiac Disease", Early Nutrition and Long-Term Health, Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, Woodhead Publishing, pp. 265–275, doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-100168-4.00010-0, ISBN 978-0-08-100168-4, retrieved 2020-01-28
  11. ^ Heine, Ralf G. (2018). "Food Allergy Prevention and Treatment by Targeted Nutrition". Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism. 72 (3): 33–45. doi:10.1159/000487380. ISSN 0250-6807. PMID 29631274.
  12. ^ a b "Diabetes - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  13. ^ a b Fuhrman, Joel. (2011). Super immunity : the essential nutrition guide for boosting your body's defenses to live longer, stronger, and disease free (1st ed.). New York: HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-208063-9. OCLC 703206381.
  14. ^ "What Causes Cancer? | American Cancer Society". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
  15. ^ a b "What are proteins and what do they do?: MedlinePlus Genetics". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  16. ^ a b c Molnar, Charles; Gair, Jane (2015). Concepts of Biology - 1st Canadian Edition. BCcampus.
  17. ^ July 2020, Tia Ghose-Assistant Managing Editor 17. "What are antibodies?". livescience.com. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  18. ^ "Carbs during workouts help immune system recovery". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  19. ^ B, Rodrigo Valenzuela; B, Alfonso Valenzuela (2013-01-23). "Overview About Lipid Structure". Lipid Metabolism. doi:10.5772/52306. ISBN 978-953-51-0944-0.
  20. ^ Hardie, D. Grahame (2012). "Organismal Carbohydrate and Lipid Homeostasis". Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. 4 (5): a006031. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006031. ISSN 1943-0264. PMC 3331699. PMID 22550228.
  21. ^ says, Ahmed Abdelrahim (2009-12-11). "Lipid Biological Functions". News-Medical.net. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  22. ^ Calder, Philip C. (2017-10-15). "Omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes: from molecules to man". Biochemical Society Transactions. 45 (5): 1105–1115. doi:10.1042/BST20160474. ISSN 0300-5127. PMID 28900017.
  23. ^ "Vitamins". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  24. ^ Health, National Research Council (US) Committee on Diet and (1989). Fat-Soluble Vitamins. National Academies Press (US).
  25. ^ Health, National Research Council (US) Committee on Diet and (1989). Water-Soluble Vitamins. National Academies Press (US).
  26. ^ "Minerals". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  27. ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. "Fill up on phytochemicals". Harvard Health. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  28. ^ "Antioxidants: In Depth". NCCIH. Retrieved 2020-10-18.
  29. ^ Abdollahi, Elham; Momtazi, Amir Abbas; Johnston, Thomas P.; Sahebkar, Amirhossein (February 2018). "Therapeutic effects of curcumin in inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases: A nature-made jack-of-all-trades?: Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 233 (2): 830–848. doi:10.1002/jcp.25778. PMID 28059453. S2CID 1372684.
  30. ^ Leischner, Christian; Burkard, Markus; Pfeiffer, Matthias M.; Lauer, Ulrich M.; Busch, Christian; Venturelli, Sascha (December 2015). "Nutritional immunology: function of natural killer cells and their modulation by resveratrol for cancer prevention and treatment". Nutrition Journal. 15 (1): 47. doi:10.1186/s12937-016-0167-8. ISSN 1475-2891. PMC 4855330. PMID 27142426.
  31. ^ Gibson, Glenn R.; Scott, Karen P.; Rastall, Robert A.; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Hotchkiss, Arland; Dubert-Ferrandon, Alix; Gareau, Melanie; Murphy, Eileen F.; Saulnier, Delphine; Loh, Gunnar; Macfarlane, Sandra (May 2010). "Dietary prebiotics: current status and new definition". Food Science and Technology Bulletin: Functional Foods. 7 (1): 1–19. doi:10.1616/1476-2137.15880. ISSN 1476-2137.
  32. ^ Macfarlane, George T; Cummings, John H (1999-04-10). "Probiotics and prebiotics: can regulating the activities of intestinal bacteria benefit health?". BMJ : British Medical Journal. 318 (7189): 999–1003. doi:10.1136/bmj.318.7189.999. ISSN 0959-8138. PMC 1115424. PMID 10195977.
  33. ^ Reid, Gregor; Gadir, Azza A.; Dhir, Raja (2019-03-12). "Probiotics: Reiterating What They Are and What They Are Not". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 424. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00424. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 6425910. PMID 30930863.
  34. ^ Yan, Fang; Polk, D.B. (October 2011). "Probiotics and immune health". Current Opinion in Gastroenterology. 27 (6): 496–501. doi:10.1097/MOG.0b013e32834baa4d. ISSN 0267-1379. PMC 4006993. PMID 21897224.
  35. ^ Fusco, Alessandra; Savio, Vittoria; Cammarota, Marcella; Alfano, Alberto; Schiraldi, Chiara; Donnarumma, Giovanna (2017). "Beta-Defensin-2 and Beta-Defensin-3 Reduce Intestinal Damage Caused by Salmonella typhimurium Modulating the Expression of Cytokines and Enhancing the Probiotic Activity of Enterococcus faecium". Journal of Immunology Research. 2017: 1–9. doi:10.1155/2017/6976935. ISSN 2314-8861. PMC 5700477. PMID 29250559.
  36. ^ Kaiko, Gerard E; Horvat, Jay C; Beagley, Kenneth W; Hansbro, Philip M (March 2008). "Immunological decision-making: how does the immune system decide to mount a helper T-cell response?". Immunology. 123 (3): 326–338. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2567.2007.02719.x. ISSN 0019-2805. PMC 2433332. PMID 17983439.
  37. ^ Yahfoufi, N; Mallet, Jf; Graham, E; Matar, C (April 2018). "Role of probiotics and prebiotics in immunomodulation". Current Opinion in Food Science. 20: 82–91. doi:10.1016/j.cofs.2018.04.006.