Nyíregyháza

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Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza Megyei Jogú Város
Main square
Main square
Flag of Nyíregyháza
Flag
Coat of arms of Nyíregyháza
Coat of arms
Nyíregyháza is located in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County
Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza is located in Hungary
Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza is located in Europe
Nyíregyháza
Nyíregyháza
Coordinates: 47°57′11″N 21°43′38″E / 47.95306°N 21.72713°E / 47.95306; 21.72713Coordinates: 47°57′11″N 21°43′38″E / 47.95306°N 21.72713°E / 47.95306; 21.72713
Country Hungary
RegionNorthern Great Plain
CountySzabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg
DistrictNyíregyháza
Established9th century AD
Market town1786
Government
 • MayorDr Ferenc Kovács (Fidesz)
 • Deputy MayorMenyhért Jászai (Fidesz-KDNP)
Dr Attila Ulrich (Fidesz-KDNP)
 • Town NotaryDr Sándor Szemán
Area
 • City with county rights274.46 km2 (105.97 sq mi)
Elevation
116 m (381 ft)
Population
 (2017)
 • City with county rights117,689[1]
 • Rank7th in Hungary
 • Density425.92/km2 (1,103.1/sq mi)
 • Urban
238,020 (3rd)[2]
Population by ethnicity
 • Hungarians86.1%
 • Gypsies1.8%
 • Germans0.5%
 • Ukrainians0.4%
 • Romanians0.3%
 • Slovaks0.2%
 • Rusyns0.1%
 • Bulgarians0.1%
 • Polish0.1%
Population by religion
 • Roman Catholic21.0%
 • Greek Catholic10.6%
 • Calvinists16.4%
 • Lutherans7.0%
 • Jews0.1%
 • Other1.8%
 • Non-religious14.6%
 • Unknown28.5%
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
4400 to 4433
Area code(+36) 42
MotorwaysM3 Motorway
NUTS 3 codeHU323
Distance from Budapest233 km (145 mi) East
AirportNyíregyháza
MPTünde Szabó (Fidesz)
Győző Vinnai (Fidesz)
Websitevaroshaza.nyiregyhaza.hu
County Hall, Nyíregyháza by Ignác Alpár
Váci Mihály Municipal Cultural Centre, Nyíregyháza by Ferenc Bán
Solaris Urbino on Line 23

Nyíregyháza (Hungarian: [ˈɲiːrɛchaːzɒ] (About this soundlisten); German: Birkenkirchen; Romanian: Mestecănești) is a city in northeastern Hungary and the county capital of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg. With a population of 118,000, it is the seventh-largest city in Hungary and is one of the leading cities of Northern Hungary and of the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain (Alföld). Its development has been ongoing since the 18th century, making it the economic and cultural center of the region. Its zoo, exhibiting more than 500 species, including rarities, is recognized throughout Europe.

Geography[edit]

Nyíregyháza is located in Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County in the northern Plain region (Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county, Hajdú-Bihar county, and Jász-Nagykun-Szolnok County). It is the most important city of Northern Hungary, in all respects the center of the region. It is located in the center of Nyírség as an agricultural town. The boundaries of the city are often understood as a very broad frame, because generally the near suburbs are included in them. It is located at the intersections of routes 4, 41, 36, and 38, therefore the city is easy to reach by road. Sub-Carpathia and Transylvania cannot be reached without passing the city.

History[edit]

The first written mentions of Nyíregyháza date back to 1209, although it was then called simply Nyír ('birch'), after the Nyírség, the greater region in which the city lies. A source from 1326 mentions that by then the city already had a church, hence the second part of the name, egyház (meaning 'church'). In the middle of the 15th century the town had about 400 inhabitants. In the 16th century, during the Turkish occupation of Hungary, Nyíregyháza became deserted; it was resettled only in the 1630s – 1640s.

After the War for Independence led by Prince Francis II Rákóczi, the population of the town increased. Most of the new settlers were Slovaks from the area of Békéscsaba. In 1786, Nyíregyháza was granted the right to hold four market days a year; by this time the town was the biggest town of the county with 7,500 inhabitants. In the early 19th century, Nyíregyháza was wealthy enough to become free from its feudal lords, the Dessewffy and Károlyi families. During these prosperous years, the town got a new town hall, a hospital, several schools, and a restaurant by the nearby lake Sóstó ("Salty Lake").

The inhabitants of the town took an active part in the revolution and war for independence in 1848-49, and after the suppression of the revolution several citizens were imprisoned, among them the mayor, Márton Hatzel.

In the second half of the 19th century, Nyíregyháza became more and more urbanized and in 1876 the town became the county seat of Szabolcs County (which is now part of the larger integrated county Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg). In 1858, the railroad line reached Nyíregyháza; several new buildings were built, including a telegraph office, the main post office, and the theater. In 1911, the construction of tramways was finished.

Central Train station

After the many trials and tribulations of World War I, Nyíregyháza was under Romanian occupation for ten months. Between the two world wars, the city celebrated the 100th anniversary of becoming free from its feudal landowners.

During World War II, Jews are used as forced laborers by Hungarians. After the German invasion, more than 6,000 of the city's Jewish inhabitants were deported to Auschwitz concentration camp.[5][6] Another 2,000 citizens were sent to Russian labor camps (colloquially called malenky robot). Several buildings were destroyed, too, including the Status Quo Synagogue, whose front wall has been preserved; it is now in Nyíregyháza's Jewish Cemetery.[7]

A monument in the memory of the holocaust victims was constructed in 2004.[6]

From the 1960s, the city grew and developed quickly. Today, Nyíregyháza is one of the most prosperous cities of Hungary, being both an educational center and a popular tourist destination.

Nyíregyháza is the birthplace of Israeli artist Zeev Kun who was born here in 1930.

Population[edit]

With a population of 118,000, it is the seventh-largest city in Hungary.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1870 13,015—    
1890 18,996+46.0%
1900 28,073+47.8%
1910 33,444+19.1%
1920 38,751+15.9%
1930 46,522+20.1%
1941 53,917+15.9%
1949 48,382−10.3%
1960 56,834+17.5%
1970 75,245+32.4%
1980 108,235+43.8%
1990 114,152+5.5%
2001 118,795+4.1%
2011 119,746+0.8%
2019 116,799−2.5%
Significant minority groups
Nationality Population (2011)
 Germany 613
 Ukraine 465
 Russia 337
 Romania 305
 Slovakia 214

Tourist sights[edit]

Nyiregyháza's Roman Catholic church with the newly built fountain in the foreground
County Hall

Nyíregyháza also has several museums and exhibitions, showing the city's rich cultural heritage.

  • Collection of the International Medallion Art and Small Sculpture Creative Community of Nyíregyháza-Sóstó – periodic exhibitions of works of contemporary artists

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Nyíregyháza is twinned with :

Broadcasting[edit]

Near Nyíregyháza, at 47°56′12.17″N 21°45′28.35″E / 47.9367139°N 21.7578750°E / 47.9367139; 21.7578750 (Nyíregyháza Radio Mast), stands the oldest radio mast in Hungary. Built in 1925, it is a 115-metre (377 ft) tall guyed mast radiator, used for broadcasting on 1251 kHz (AM).

Economy[edit]

After the change of regime, several foreign-owned companies appeared in the city. In the early 2000s, the largest employers were Hübner Flextronics Ltd. and Hirsch's, but during the period of economic recession, many companies eliminated several thousand jobs. Today, the largest public companies are the Lego Manufacturing Kft. and the Michelin Hungaria Abroncsgyártó Kft., providing employment for about 3000 people.

A part of downtown

Religions, churches[edit]


Transport[edit]

The national road traffic to the capital of the country is through the Budapest M3 motorway and 4 national highways (4, 36, 38, 41) and the lower state roads, other cities of the country and the settlements of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county. Szabolcs Volán Zrt. Launches long-haul flights to major cities in the region and to larger towns in the country.

Due to the nature of the city junction, Nyíregyháza's road network is heavily loaded. The city center is surrounded by a 2X2-lane "highway". And the narrow city center is bordered by the "small boulevard", the northern, eastern and southern parts of which have already been completed. The M3 motorway, which recently reached the city, will hopefully reduce traffic and congestion on roads passing through the city center. At the same time as the opening of the motorway, the east bypass (main road 403) was opened, which allows people traveling from Budapest to Záhony to avoid the city or from Záhony to Budapest or Záhony. Those coming to Debrecen do not have to cross the city. The Nyíregyháza ring road includes the already completed main road 403 and the M3 motorway south of the city. The missing western part of the ring road is Highway 338 (already authorized, but start of construction not yet known) and the northern sector.

The most important of its railway connections is the 100 electrified tram line between Szolnok and Záhony, from where the 80 lines to Tokaj, 113 to Mátészalka and 116 to Vásárosnamény branch out. Nyíregyháza is the final stop of the Ohat-Pusztakócs-Nyíregyháza railway line, which has passenger traffic to Tiszalök. Next to the station were the trains of the Nyírvidék Small Railway to Dombrád and Balsa. In December 2009, traffic on the small railway lines was stopped. Nyíregyháza is one of the busiest railway stations in the country. There are InterCity flights to Budapest every hour to Debrecen and Miskolc. Nyíregyháza welcomes visitors to the city in a new and modern station building.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ KSH - Nyíregyháza, 2017
  2. ^ Eurostat, 2016
  3. ^ KSH - Nyíregyháza, 2011
  4. ^ KSH - Nyíregyháza, 2011
  5. ^ "Pinkas Hakehillot Hungary: Nyiregyhaza". www.jewishgen.org.
  6. ^ a b Seemann, Uwe. "Information Portal to European Sites of Remembrance". www.memorialmuseums.org.
  7. ^ Grand Rabbi Joseph Leifer of Nyíregyháza is buried in the cemetery. He was the son of the world-renowned Rabbi, Rabbi Mordachai of Nadvorna, and he settled in Nyíregyháza after World War I where he attracted a large following. His grave site is visited annually by thousands of Hasidim.
  8. ^ "Serwis informacyjny UM Rzeszów - Informacja o współpracy Rzeszowa z miastami partnerskimi". www.rzeszow.pl. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. Retrieved 2010-02-02. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ "TABEL privind LOCALITÃŢILE ÎNFRĂŢITE cu localităţile din judeţul Satu Mare" (in Romanian). www.prefecturasatumare.ro. Archived from the original on 2011-06-11. Retrieved 2009-06-27. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  10. ^ Офіційний сайт міста Івано-Франківська. mvk.if.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 March 2010.
  11. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-10-08. Retrieved 2013-12-26. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

Notable residents[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]