Nyctemera

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Nyctemera
Nyctemera.amica.jpg
Nyctemera amica
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Superfamily: Noctuoidea
Family: Erebidae
Subtribe: Nyctemerina
Genus: Nyctemera
Hübner, 1820
Synonyms
  • Agagles White, 1841
  • Amathes Gistl, 1848
  • Arctata Roepke, 1949
  • Coleta Roepke, 1949
  • Deilemera Hübner, 1820
  • Leptosoma Boisduval, 1832
  • Orphanos Hübner, 1825
  • Tristania Kirby, 1892
  • Trypheromera Butler, 1881
  • Zonosoma Butler, 1881

Nyctemera is a genus of tiger moths in the Erebidae family. The genus includes the species Nyctemera annulata and Nyctemera amica, which are closely related and are able to interbreed.

Description[edit]

They are medium-sized moths, the adults having a wingspan of 35–45 millimetres (1.4–1.8 in). The wings are usually dark with lighter patches, while the body is often aposematically coloured to discourage birds and other visual predators from eating them.

Palpi porrectly upturned. Antennae bipectinate in both sexes, where branches short in females. Fore wing with vein 3 from before the angle of cell, vein 5 from above it and vein 6 from upper angle. Vein 7 and 10 from short areole which is formed by the anastomosis of veins 8 and 9. Hind wings with vein 3 from before end of cell and vein 5 from angle or from above it. Veins 6 and 7 stalked or from upper angle. Vein 8 from before middle of all.[1]

Ecology[edit]

The slow-flying moths can often be seen feeding at flowers; it is common around its preferred food plants of the daisy family, for example groundsel (and other Senecio spp.), ragworts and Cineraria. The colourful hairy larvae feed openly on the plants, often stripping off all the leaves. The mature larvae will sometimes wander from the plant to pupate. The loosely spun cocoon incorporates some of the larval hairs and may also be found amongst leaves.

Taxonomy[edit]

Several species formerly placed here are now assigned to other genera. These include Utetheisa (containing Atasca, Pitasila and Raanya, erstwhile subgenera of Nyctemera), the revalidated Chiromachla, Podomachla and Xylecata, and the newly established Afronyctemera.

Species[edit]

Subgenus Arctata Roepke, 1949[edit]

Subgenus Coleta Roepke, 1949[edit]

Subgenus Deilemera Hübner, [1820], 1816[edit]

Subgenus Luctuosana de Vos, 2010[edit]

Subgenus Nyctemera s.str.[edit]

The Nyctemera (Nyctemera) clathrata species group[edit]

Subgenus Orphanos Hübner, [1825], 1816[edit]

Subgenus Tritomera de Vos & Dubatolov, 2010[edit]

Unsorted Nyctemera species[edit]

Afrotropical species transferred into Afronyctemera Dubatolov, 2006[edit]

Afrotropical species transferred into Chiromachla Strand, 1909[edit]

Afrotropical species transferred into Podomachla Strand, 1909[edit]

Afrotropical species transferred into Xylecata Swinhoe, 1904[edit]

Main articles on Nyctemera taxonomy[edit]

  • de Vos, R. 1994 [1995]: Nyctemera groenendaeli spec. nov. from New Guinea (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Nyctemerina). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 15 (4): 481-489.
  • de Vos, R. 1995: A revision of Nyctemera consobrina (Hopffer, 1874) with redescription of three subspecies (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Nyctemerinae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 16 (1): 81-93.
  • de Vos, R. 1996: Nyctemera pseudokala sp. nov. and N. mastrigti sp. nov., two new species from Indonesia (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Nyctemerinae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 17 (3): 301-311.
  • de Vos, R. 1997: A revision of Nyctemera kebeae (Bethune-Baker, 1904) (with descriptions of two new subspecies) and N. warmasina (Bethune-Baker, 1910) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Nyctemerinae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 18 (1): 1-12.
  • de Vos, R. 1997: The identity of Nyctemera simulatrix Walker, 1864 (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Nyctemerinae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 18 (2-3): 205-210.
  • de Vos, R. 2002: Revision of the Nyctemera evergista group (=subgenus Deilemera Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Arctiinae, Nyctemerini). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 23 (1/2): 7-32.
  • de Vos, R. 2007: Revision of the Nyctemera clathratum complex (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 150: 39-54.
  • de Vos, R. 2007: The Utetheisa species of the subgenera Pitasila, Atasca and Raanya subgen. n. (Insecta, Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). Aldrovandia 3: 31-120.
  • de Vos, R., Černý, K. 1999: A review of the Philippine species of the genus Nyctemera Hübner, [1820] with descriptions of new species and subspecies (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae, Nyctemerinae). Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, N.F. 20 (2): 133-188.
  • de Vos, R., Dubatolov, V.V. 2010: Nyctemerini. In: Dubatolov, V.V., Tiger-moths of Eurasia (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten 65: 11-18.
  • Dubatolov, V.V. 2006: On the generic status of the Afrotropical Nyctemera species (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). Atalanta 37 (1/2): 191-205.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hampson G. F. (1892). "The Fauna Of British India Including Ceylon And Burma Moths Vol-ii". Digital Library of India. p. 558. Retrieved 4 July 2016. 

External links[edit]