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|Electrical conductivity (σ)||10−12 S/m|
|Thermal conductivity||0.25 W/(m·K)|
|Melting point||463–624 K
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, more specifically aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides. They can be melt-processed into fibers, films or shapes. The first example of nylon (nylon 6,6) was produced on February 28, 1935, by Wallace Carothers at DuPont's research facility at the DuPont Experimental Station. Nylon polymers have found significant commercial applications in fibers (apparel, flooring and rubber reinforcement), in shapes (molded parts for cars, electrical equipment, etc.), and in films (mostly for food packaging).
- 1 Overview
- 2 Chemistry
- 3 Bulk properties
- 4 Uses
- 5 Hydrolysis and degradation
- 6 Environmental impact, incineration and recycling
- 7 Current market and forecast
- 8 Etymology
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Nylon is a thermoplastic, silky material, first used commercially in a nylon-bristled toothbrush (1938), followed more famously by women's stockings ("nylons"; 1940) after being introduced as a fabric at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Nylon is made of repeating units linked by peptide bonds and is a type of polyamide and is frequently referred to as such. Nylon was the first commercially successful synthetic thermoplastic polymer. Commercially, nylon polymer is made by reacting monomers which are either lactams, acid/amines or stoichiometric mixtures of diamines (-NH2) and diacids (-COOH). Mixtures of these can be polymerized together to make copolymers. Nylon polymers can be mixed with a wide variety of additives to achieve many different property variations.
Nylon was intended to be a synthetic replacement for silk and substituted for it in many different products after silk became scarce during World War II. It replaced silk in military applications such as parachutes and flak vests, and was used in many types of vehicle tires.
After initial commercialization of nylon as a fiber, applications in the form of shapes and films were also developed. The main market for nylon shapes now is in auto components, but there are many others.
Nylons are condensation copolymers, formed by reacting difunctional monomers containing equal parts of amine and carboxylic acid, so that amides are formed at both ends of each monomer in a process analogous to polypeptide biopolymers. Most nylons are made from the reaction of a dicarboxylic acid with a diamine (e.g. PA66) or a lactam or amino acid with itself (e.g. PA6). In the first case, the structure is so-called ABAB similar to polyesters and polyurethanes: the "repeating unit" consists of one of each monomer, so that they alternate in the chain. Since each monomer in this copolymer has the same reactive group on both ends, the direction of the amide bond reverses between each monomer, unlike natural polyamide proteins, which have overall directionality: C terminal → N terminal. In the second case (so called AA), the repeating unit corresponds to the single monomer.
It is difficult to get the proportions exactly correct, and deviations can lead to chain termination at molecular weights less than a desirable 10,000 daltons (u). To overcome this problem, a crystalline, solid "nylon salt" can be formed at room temperature, using an exact 1:1 ratio of the acid and the base to neutralize each other. The salt is crystallized to purify it and obtain the desired precise stoichiometry. Heated to 285 °C (545 °F), the salt reacts to form nylon polymer with the production of water.
Wallace Carothers at DuPont patented nylon 66, but overlooked the possibility to use lactams. That synthetic route was developed by Paul Schlack at IG Farben, leading to nylon 6, or polycaprolactam — formed by a ring-opening polymerization. The peptide bond within the caprolactam is broken with the exposed active groups on each side being incorporated into two new bonds as the monomer becomes part of the polymer backbone.
The 428 °F (220 °C) melting point of nylon 6 is lower than the 509 °F (265 °C) melting point of nylon 66.
Nylon 510, made from pentamethylene diamine and sebacic acid, was studied by Carothers even before nylon 66 and has superior properties, but is more expensive to make. In keeping with this naming convention, "nylon 6,12" or "PA 612" is a copolymer of a 6C diamine and a 12C diacid. Similarly for PA 510 PA 611; PA 1012, etc. Other nylons include copolymerized dicarboxylic acid/diamine products that are not based upon the monomers listed above. For example, some fully aromatic nylons (known as "aramids") are polymerized with the addition of diacids like terephthalic acid (→ Kevlar, Twaron) or isophthalic acid (→ Nomex), more commonly associated with polyesters. There are copolymers of PA 66/6; copolymers of PA 66/6/12; and others. In general linear polymers are the most useful, but it is possible to introduce branches in nylon by the condensation of dicarboxylic acids with polyamines having three or more amino groups.
The general reaction is:
Two molecules of water are given off and the nylon is formed. Its properties are determined by the R and R' groups in the monomers. In nylon 6,6, R = 4C and R' = 6C alkanes, but one also has to include the two carboxyl carbons in the diacid to get the number it donates to the chain. In Kevlar, both R and R' are benzene rings.
Industrial synthesis is usually done by heating the acids, amines or lactams to remove water, but in the laboratory, diacid chlorides can be reacted with diamines. For example, a popular demonstration of interfacial polymerization (the "nylon rope trick") is the synthesis of nylon 66 from adipoyl chloride and hexamethylene diamine.
Nylons can also be synthesized from dinitriles using acid catalysis. For example, this method is applicable for preparation of nylon 1,6 from adiponitrile, formaldehyde and water. Additionally, nylons can be synthesized from diols and dinitriles using this method as well.
The nomenclature used for nylon polymers was devised during the synthesis of the first simple aliphatic nylons and uses numbers to describe the number of carbons between acid and amine functions (including the carbon of the carboxylic acid). Subsequent use of cyclic and aromatic monomers required the use of letters or sets of letters. One number after "PA" for a homopolymer based on one monomer, and two numbers or sets of letters where there are two monomers. For copolymers the comonomers or pairs of comonomers are separated by slashes, as shown in the examples below.
- homopolymers :
- copolymers :
- PA 6/66 : [NH-(CH2)6−NH−CO−(CH2)4−CO]n−[NH−(CH2)5−CO]m made from caprolactam, hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid ;
- PA 66/610 : [NH−(CH2)6−NH−CO−(CH2)4−CO]n−[NH−(CH2)6−NH−CO−(CH2)8−CO]m made from hexamethylenediamine, adipic acid and sebacic acid.
In common usage, the prefix 'PA' or the name 'Nylon' are used interchangeably and are equivalent in meaning.
The term polyphthalamide (abbreviated to PPA) is used when 60% or more moles of the carboxylic acid portion of the repeating unit in the polymer chain is composed of a combination of terephthalic (TPA) and isophthalic (IPA) acids
Nylon monomers are manufactured by a variety of routes, starting in most cases from crude oil but sometimes from biomass. Those in current production are described below.
Amino acids and lactams
- ε-Caprolactam: Crude oil → benzene → cyclohexane → cyclohexanone → cyclohexanone oxime → caprolactam
- 11-aminoundecanoic acid: Castor oil → ricinoleic acid → methylricinoleate → methyl-11-undecenoate → undecenoic acid → 11-undecenoic acid → 11-bromoundecanoic acid → 11-aminoundecanoic acid 
- Laurolactam: Butadiene → cyclododecatriene → cyclododecane → cyclododecanone → cyclododecanone oxime → laurolactam
- Adipic acid: Crude oil → benzene → cyclohexane → cyclohexanone + cyclohexanol → adipic acid
- Sebacic acid (decanedioic acid): Castor oil → ricinoleic acid → sebacic acid
- Terephthalic acid: Crude oil → p-xylene → terephthalic acid
- Isophthalic acid: Crude oil → m-xylene → isophthalic acid
- Tetramethylene diamine (putrescine) Crude oil → propylene → acrylonitrile → succinonitrile → tetramethylene diamine
- Hexamethylene diamine (HMD): Crude oil → butadiene → adiponitrile → hexamethylene diamine
2-methyl pentamethylene diamine is a by product of HMD production
- Trimethyl Hexamethylene diamine (TMD): Crude oil → propylene → acetone → isophorone → TMD
- m-xylylene diamine (MXD): Crude oil → m-xylene → isophthalic acid → isophthalonitrile → m-xylylene diamine 
Due to the large number of diamines, diacids and aminoacids that can be synthesized, many nylon polymers have been made experimentally and characterized to varying degrees. A smaller number have been scaled up and offered commercially, and these are detailed below.
Homopolymer nylons derived from one monomer
Examples of these polymers that are or were commercially available
Homopolymer polyamides derived from pairs of diamines and diacids (or diacid derivatives). Shown in the table below are polymers which are or have been offered commercially either as homopolymers or as a part of a copolymer.
Examples of these polymers that are or were commercially available
It is easy to make mixtures of the monomers or sets of monomers used to make nylons to obtain copolymers. This lowers crystallinity and can therefore lower the melting point.
Some copolymers that have been or are commercially available are listed below:
- PA6/66 DuPont Zytel)
- PA6/6T BASF Ultramid T)
- PA6I/6T DuPont Selar PA
- PA66/6T DuPont Zytel HTN)
- PA12/MACMI EMS Grilamid TR)
Most nylon polymers are miscible with each other allowing a range of blends to be made. The two polymers can react with one another by transamidation to form random copolymers.
According to their crystallinity, polyamides can be:
- high crystallinity: PA46 and PA66;
- low crystallinity: PAMXD6 made from m-xylylenediamine and adipic acid;
- amorphous: PA6I made from hexamethylenediamine and isophthalic acid.
According to this classification, PA66, for example, is an aliphatic semi-crystalline homopolyamide.
Nylon is a material that ignites easily and burns rapidly upon exposure to an open flame. The 1967 Accident of the Apollo 1 Command Module was caused by an electrical short which created a fire that quickly consumed the interior of the cabin due to the pure oxygen environment and excessive amounts of flammable materials on board, most of which were nylons and Velcro.
Above their melting temperatures, Tm, thermoplastics like nylon are amorphous solids or viscous fluids in which the chains approximate random coils. Below Tm, amorphous regions alternate with regions which are lamellar crystals. The amorphous regions contribute elasticity and the crystalline regions contribute strength and rigidity. The planar amide (-CO-NH-) groups are very polar, so nylon forms multiple hydrogen bonds among adjacent strands. Because the nylon backbone is so regular and symmetrical, especially if all the amide bonds are in the trans configuration, nylons often have high crystallinity and make excellent fibers. The amount of crystallinity depends on the details of formation, as well as on the kind of nylon.
Nylon 66 can have multiple parallel strands aligned with their neighboring peptide bonds at coordinated separations of exactly 6 and 4 carbons for considerable lengths, so the carbonyl oxygens and amide hydrogens can line up to form interchain hydrogen bonds repeatedly, without interruption (see the figure opposite). Nylon 510 can have coordinated runs of 5 and 8 carbons. Thus parallel (but not antiparallel) strands can participate in extended, unbroken, multi-chain β-pleated sheets, a strong and tough supermolecular structure similar to that found in natural silk fibroin and the β-keratins in feathers. (Proteins have only an amino acid α-carbon separating sequential -CO-NH- groups.) Nylon 6 will form uninterrupted H-bonded sheets with mixed directionalities, but the β-sheet wrinkling is somewhat different. The three-dimensional disposition of each alkane hydrocarbon chain depends on rotations about the 109.47° tetrahedral bonds of singly bonded carbon atoms.
When extruded into fibers through pores in an industry spinneret, the individual polymer chains tend to align because of viscous flow. If subjected to cold drawing afterwards, the fibers align further, increasing their crystallinity, and the material acquires additional tensile strength. In practice, nylon fibers are most often drawn using heated rolls at high speeds.
Block nylon tends to be less crystalline, except near the surfaces due to shearing stresses during formation. Nylon is clear and colorless, or milky, but is easily dyed. Multistranded nylon cord and rope is slippery and tends to unravel. The ends can be melted and fused with a heat source such as a flame or electrode to prevent this.
Nylons are hygroscopic, and will absorb or desorb moisture as a function of the ambient humidity. Variations in moisture content have several effects on the polymer. Firstly, the dimensions will change, but more importantly moisture acts as a plasticizer, lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg), and consequently the elastic modulus at temperatures below the Tg 
When dry, polyamide is a good electrical insulator. However, polyamide is hygroscopic. The absorption of water will change some of the material's properties such as its electrical resistance. Nylon is less absorbent than wool or cotton.
The characteristic features of nylon 6,6 include:
- Pleats and creases can be heat-set at higher temperatures
- More compact molecular structure
- Better weathering properties; better sunlight resistance
- Softer "Hand"
- High melting point (256 °C/492.8 °F)
- Superior colorfastness
- Excellent abrasion resistance
On the other hand, nylon 6 is easy to dye, more readily fades; it has a higher impact resistance, a more rapid moisture absorption, greater elasticity and elastic recovery.
- Variation of luster: nylon has the ability to be very lustrous, semilustrous or dull.
- Durability: its high tenacity fibers are used for seatbelts, tire cords, ballistic cloth and other uses.
- High elongation
- Excellent abrasion resistance
- Highly resilient (nylon fabrics are heat-set)
- Paved the way for easy-care garments
- High resistance to insects, fungi, animals, as well as molds, mildew, rot and many chemicals
- Used in carpets and nylon stockings
- Melts instead of burning
- Used in many military applications
- Good specific strength
- Transparent to infrared light (−12 dB)[clarification needed]
Bill Pittendreigh, DuPont, and other individuals and corporations worked diligently during the first few months of World War II to find a way to replace Asian silk and hemp with nylon in parachutes. It was also used to make tires, tents, ropes, ponchos, and other military supplies. It was even used in the production of a high-grade paper for U.S. currency. At the outset of the war, cotton accounted for more than 80% of all fibers used and manufactured, and wool fibers accounted for nearly all of the rest. By August 1945, manufactured fibers had taken a market share of 25%, at the expense of cotton. After the war, because of shortages of both silk and nylon, nylon parachute material was sometimes repurposed to make dresses.
Nylon 6 and 66 fibers are used in carpet manufacture.
Nylon is one kind of fiber used in tire cord.
Solid nylon is used in hair combs and mechanical parts such as machine screws, gears and other low- to medium-stress components previously cast in metal. Engineering-grade nylon is processed by extrusion, casting, and injection molding. Type 6,6 Nylon 101 is the most common commercial grade of nylon, and Nylon 6 is the most common commercial grade of molded nylon. For use in tools such as spudgers, nylon is available in glass-filled variants which increase structural and impact strength and rigidity, and molybdenum disulfide-filled variants which increase lubricity. Its various properties also make it very useful as a material in additive manufacturing; specifically as a filament in consumer and professional grade fused deposition modeling 3D printers. Nylon can be used as the matrix material in composite materials, with reinforcing fibers like glass or carbon fiber; such a composite has a higher density than pure nylon. Such thermoplastic composites (25% to 30% glass fiber) are frequently used in car components next to the engine, such as intake manifolds, where the good heat resistance of such materials makes them feasible competitors to metals.
Nylon resins are used as a component of food packaging films where an oxygen barrier is needed. Some of the terpolymers based upon nylon are used every day in packaging. Nylon has been used for meat wrappings and sausage sheaths. The high temperature resistance of nylon makes it useful for oven bags.
In the mid-1940s, classical guitarist Andrés Segovia mentioned the shortage of good guitar strings in the United States, particularly his favorite Pirastro catgut strings, to a number of foreign diplomats at a party, including General Lindeman of the British Embassy. A month later, the General presented Segovia with some nylon strings which he had obtained via some members of the DuPont family. Segovia found that although the strings produced a clear sound, they had a faint metallic timbre which he hoped could be eliminated.
Nylon strings were first tried on stage by Olga Coelho in New York in January, 1944.
In 1946, Segovia and string maker Albert Augustine were introduced by their mutual friend Vladimir Bobri, editor of Guitar Review. On the basis of Segovia's interest and Augustine's past experiments, they decided to pursue the development of nylon strings. DuPont, skeptical of the idea, agreed to supply the nylon if Augustine would endeavor to develop and produce the actual strings. After three years of development, Augustine demonstrated a nylon first string whose quality impressed guitarists, including Segovia, in addition to DuPont.
Wound strings, however, were more problematic. Eventually, however, after experimenting with various types of metal and smoothing and polishing techniques, Augustine was also able to produce high quality nylon wound strings.
Duralon is an alternate and trademarked (by Rexnord) name for a composite of Teflon/ Dacron with a fiberglass substrate that has an epoxy resin as the binding agent. It is known for its extremely low friction and high resistance to corrosion and to temperatures up to 325 °F (163 °C). It is often described as "ceramic" by virtue of its fiberglass content, which helps it endure higher temperatures while remaining low-friction and resistant to physical damage. Duralon is used as a coating in many items of cookware, though its long-term ability to remain "stick-free" appears to be in some doubt.
Hydrolysis and degradation
All nylons are susceptible to hydrolysis, especially by strong acids, a reaction essentially the reverse of the synthetic reaction shown above. The molecular weight of nylon products so attacked drops, and cracks form quickly at the affected zones. Lower members of the nylons (such as nylon 6) are affected more than higher members such as nylon 12. This means that nylon parts cannot be used in contact with sulfuric acid for example, such as the electrolyte used in lead–acid batteries.
When being molded, nylon must be dried to prevent hydrolysis in the molding machine barrel since water at high temperatures can also degrade the polymer. The reaction is of the type:
Environmental impact, incineration and recycling
Berners-Lee reckons the average greenhouse gas footprint of nylon in manufacturing carpets at 5.43 kg CO2 equivalent per kg, when produced in Europe. This gives it almost the same carbon footprint as wool, but with greater durability and therefore a lower overall carbon footprint.
Data published by PlasticsEurope indicates for nylon 66 a greenhouse gas footprint of 6.4 kg CO2 equivalent per kg, and an energy consumption of 138 kJ/kg. When considering the environmental impact of nylon, it is important to consider the use phase. In particular when cars are lightweighted, significant savings in fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are reduced.
Various nylons break down in fire and form hazardous smoke, and toxic fumes or ash, typically containing hydrogen cyanide. Incinerating nylons to recover the high energy used to create them is usually expensive, so most nylons reach the garbage dumps, decaying very slowly. Nylon is a robust polymer and lends itself well to recycling. Much nylon resin is recycled directly in a closed loop at the injection molding machine, by grinding sprues and runners and mixing them with the virgin granules being consumed by the molding machine.
Current market and forecast
As one of the largest engineering polymer families, the global demand of nylon resins and compounds was valued at roughly US$20.5 billion in 2013. The market is expected to reach US$30 billion by 2020 by following an average annual growth of 5.5%.
In 1940, John W. Eckelberry of DuPont stated that the letters "nyl" were arbitrary and the "on" was copied from the suffixes of other fibers such as cotton and rayon. A later publication by DuPont (Context, vol. 7, no. 2, 1978) explained that the name was originally intended to be "No-Run" ("run" meaning "unravel"), but was modified to avoid making such an unjustified claim. Since the products were not really run-proof, the vowels were swapped to produce "nuron", which was changed to "nilon" "to make it sound less like a nerve tonic". For clarity in pronunciation, the "i" was changed to "y".
- Kohan, Melvin (1995). Nylon Plastics Handbook. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. p. 2. ISBN 1569901899.
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- Typical physical characteristics of nylon at "Basics of Design Engineering"
- Magat, Eugene E.; Faris, Burt F.; Reith, John E.; Salisbury, L. Frank (1951-03-01). "Acid-catalyzed Reactions of Nitriles. I. The Reaction of Nitriles with Formaldehyde1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 73 (3): 1028–1031. doi:10.1021/ja01147a042. ISSN 0002-7863.
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- http://polymerinnovationblog.com/bio-polyamides-where-do-they-come-from/ Bio-Polyamides: Where Do They Come From?
- US patent 2970170
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- https://techcenter.lanxess.com/scp/americas/en/products/description/47/index.jsp?pid=47 PA 6
- http://www.rilsan.com/en/rilsan-pa11/pa11-product-information/index.html PA11
- http://www.vestamid.com/sites/dc/Downloadcenter/Evonik/Product/VESTAMID/en/brochures/VESTAMID%20L%20compounds%20characteristics.pdf PA12
- http://www.dsm.com/markets/automotive/en_US/products-brands/stanyl.html PA46
- http://www.dsm.com/products/ecopaxx/en_US/home.html PA410
- http://www.dsm.com/products/stanylfortii/en_US/home.html PA4T
- http://plastics.dupont.com/plastics/pdflit/europe/zytel/ZYTDGe.pdf PA66
- http://catalog.ides.com/Datasheet.aspx?I=9837&U=0&E=92285 glass reinforced 6/66 copolymer
- http://ultrapolymers.com/products/detail-9201/ 6/6T copolymer
- http://www.dupont.ca/content/dam/dupont/products-and-services/packaging-materials-and-solutions/packaging-materials-and-solutions-landing/documents/selar_pa_2072.pdf 6I/6T copolymer
- http://dupont.materialdatacenter.com/profiler/WjB4W/material/pdf/datasheet/ZytelHTN52G35HSLBK083 66/6T copolymer
- http://www.emsgrivory.com/en/products-markets/products/product-overview/ 12/MACMI copolymer
- Samperi, Filippo; Montaudo, Maurizio S.; Puglisi, Concetto; Di Giorgi, Sabrina; Montaudo, Giorgio (August 2004). "Structural Characterization of Copolyamides Synthesized via the Facile Blending of Polyamides". Macromolecules. 37 (17): 6449–6459. doi:10.1021/ma049575x.
- Valerie Menzer's Nylon 66 Webpage. Arizona University
- Campbell, Ian M. (2000). Introduction to synthetic polymers. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 0198564708.
- http://www.tainstruments.co.jp/application/pdf/Thermal_Library/Applications_Briefs/TA133.PDF Measurement of Moisture Effects on the Mechanical Properties of 66 Nylon - TA Instruments Thermal Analysis Application Brief TA-133
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- "Nylon 6/6 – Commercial Grades and Properties". Emco Industrial Plastics, Inc. Retrieved November 17, 2014.
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- "How do you take care of a nylon 66 or 77? You don't". Field & Stream. 75 (9). 1971.
- Sweeney, Patrick (2013). Glock deconstructed. Iola, Wis.: Krause. p. 92. ISBN 978-1440232787.
- Colbert, Judy (2013). It happened in Delaware : remarkable events that shaped history (First ed.). Morris Book Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7627-6968-1.
- "Oven Bags". Cooks Info. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- Kohan, Melvin (1995). Nylon Plastics Handbook. Munich: Carl Hanser Verlag. p. 209. ISBN 1569901899.
- "Extruded and Cast Nylons". www.quadrantplastics.com. Quadrant Plastics. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- D. S. Richart (1995). "9.1 Powder Coating". In Kohan, Melvin. Nylon Plastics Handbook. Munich: Hanser. p. 253. ISBN 1569901899.
- "The History of Classical guitar strings". Maestros of the Guitar. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Bellow, Alexander (1970). The Illustrated History of the Guitar. New York: Belwin-Mills. p. 193.
- "What is Duralon?". Fabco Air. 2014.
- "Adhesive for nylon & kevlar". Reltek. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Berners-Lee, Mike (2010) How Bad are Bananas? The Carbon Footprint of Everything. London: Profile, p. 112 (table 6.1).
- Eco-profiles and Environmental Product Declarations of the European Plastics Manufacturers: Polyamide 6.6. Brussels: PlasticsEurope AISBL. 2014.
- Typically 80 to 100% is sent to landfill or garbage dumps, while less than 18% are incinerated while recovering the energy. See Francesco La Mantia (August 2002). Handbook of plastics recycling. iSmithers Rapra Publishing. pp. 19–. ISBN 978-1-85957-325-9.
- Boydell, P; Bradfield, C; von Falkenhausen, V; Prautzsch, G (1995). "Recycling of Waste from Glass-reinforced nylon resins". Engineering Design. 2: 8–10.
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- Textiles by Sara J. Kadolph, ISBN 0-13-118769-4
- Kohan, Melvin I. (1995). Nylon Plastics Handbook. Hanser/Gardner Publications. ISBN 9781569901892
For historical perspectives on nylon, see the Documents List of "The Stocking Story: You Be The Historian" at the Smithsonian website, by The Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution.
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