Nyonoksa

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Nyonoksa

Нёнокса
Panorama of Nyonoksa
Panorama of Nyonoksa
Location of Nyonoksa
Nyonoksa is located in Russia
Nyonoksa
Nyonoksa
Location of Nyonoksa
Nyonoksa is located in Arkhangelsk Oblast
Nyonoksa
Nyonoksa
Nyonoksa (Arkhangelsk Oblast)
Coordinates: 64°37′14″N 39°10′49″E / 64.62056°N 39.18028°E / 64.62056; 39.18028Coordinates: 64°37′14″N 39°10′49″E / 64.62056°N 39.18028°E / 64.62056; 39.18028
CountryRussia
Federal subjectArkhangelsk Oblast
Founded1397 (Julian)Edit this on Wikidata
Elevation
7 m (23 ft)
 • Urban okrugSeverodvinsk Urban Okrug[1]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[2])
Postal code(s)[3]
164526Edit this on Wikidata
OKTMO ID11730000126

Nyonoksa, also Nenoksa[5], (Russian: Нёнокса pronounced [ˈnʲɵnəksə]) is a rural locality (a selo) under the administrative jurisdiction of Severodvinsk Town of Oblast Significance, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It is located at the coast of the Dvina Bay of the White Sea (the Summer Coast) 19 miles (31 km) northwest of the city of Severodvinsk. The Nyonoksa railway station is 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from Nyonoksa at the mostly military village of Sopka along the Northern Railway line from Severodvinsk. Nyonoksa is accessible by land vehicles only during the winter months when the nearby swampland freezes.

Missile testing site[edit]

Established in 1954 near Nyonoksa is “The State Central Navy Testing Range” (Russian: «Государственный центральный морской полигон») which is the main rocket launching site of the Soviet Navy and later the Russian Navy and is also called Nyonoksa.[6] Since 1965 numerous rockets of the types R-27, R-29, R-39 Rif and R-39M were launched from Nyonoksa. These rockets were prototypes for the employment on missile submarines. The launching site is located in the mostly military settlement of Sopka (Russian: Сопка), which has a railroad station, hosts the military unit 09703, has a population similar to Nyonoksa of about 500, and is 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of the selo of Nyonoksa.[7][8][9][10]

On 15 December 2015 at 11am, an accident during a missile launch test resulted in a block of flats in the mostly military village of Sopka, which is part of Nyonoksa, being hit by part of a rocket. A fire broke out, but all residents were evacuated in time.[11][12]

2019 explosion[edit]

On 8 August 2019 an explosion occurred at or near the test site killing five and injuring six (or three) people.[13][14][15] The explosion was followed by a brief spike in radiation levels.[14] According to Rosatom the explosion happened on a sea platform when a "liquid-propellant engine" was tested.[15] The people who were killed worked on an "isotope power source" for the propulsion system.[15] While Russian authorities did not disclose what the power source was intended for, some Russian media as well as U.S. President Donald Trump have linked the event to the development of the nuclear-powered cruise missile 9M730 Burevestnik, also known by its NATO reporting name as the SSC-X-9 Skyfall.[16]

Culture and recreation[edit]

Nyonoksa hosts 7 objects which are protected as cultural heritage monuments at the federal level.[17][18] They are grouped in two ensembles. The Nyonokotsky Pogost is one of the few surviving triple wooden church ensembles, consisting of two churches (a bigger, unheated, church used in the summer, a smaller, heated church used in the winter) and a bell-tower.[19] The Nyonoksa churches are the St. Nicholas Church (1763) and the Trinity Church (1727).[19] Nyonoksa was also notable for salt production.[8][19] Another ensemble, the salt production complex, is neglected since the Great Patriotic War (WWII).[8][19]

History[edit]

Neolithic settlements from 2000 to 1000 BC at Nyonoksa - Sopka (Russian: «Нёнокса — Сопка») located 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from Nyonoksa were excavated in 1893.[8][19]

The city charter dates from 1397 under Novgorod and later Muscovy rule.[8] The city was named Nyo from Old Scythian meaning "fast flowing river" and Oxa from Finno-Ugric tribes meaning "river" or "small stream". Another version claims that the settlement is named after a Finno-Ugric leader named Niyuksa Soake (Russian: Ниюкса Соаке).[8][19]

Salt production began during the 1000s and lasted until rich sources were discovered in the Urals during the 1800s which led to Nyonoksa's salt trade ending the early 1900s.[8][19]

In 1419 and 1445, Norwegian Vikings or Northmen sacked wealthy Nyonoksa.[20]

In 1553, an English ship the Edward Bonaventure in the Hugh Willoughby expedition and captained by Richard Chancellor and Clement Adams arrived during England's search for the Northern Sea Route to China and India and thus opened Russia under Czar Ivan IV to English merchants.[8][21][22][a] The ship's captain and crew were taken to Czar Ivan IV[b] while the ship was repaired.[8] Following repairs Edward Bonaventure sailed for London in 1556 with the first Russian ambassador to England aboard, Osep Gregorovitch Napea, arriving in London in 1557.[21][22][23] This began the formal diplomatic relations between England and Russia.[8] Nyonoksa was Russia's original "window to England" (Russian: «окном в Англию»).[8]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Two other ships in the expedition, the Bona Esperanza and the Bona Confidentia, were left frozen fast in the Arctic ice pack and later were found with their crews frozen.[22]
  2. ^ Ivan IV also known as Ivan the Terrible, the first Czar of all Russia, was reigning during the ship's visit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №258-внеоч.-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2004 г. «О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №224-13-ОЗ от 16 декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов Соловецкого района Архангельской области и о внесении изменения в статью 46 Областного закона "О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №38, 8 октября 2004 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ of September 23, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #224-13-OZ of December 16, 2014 On Abolishing Several Inhabited Localities in Solovetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast and on Amending Article 46 of the Oblast Law "On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  2. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  3. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  4. ^ Law #65-5-OZ
  5. ^ "Поиск: 11730000126 | ОКТМО (ОК 033-2013)". www.oktmo.ru. Retrieved 2019-08-13.
  6. ^ Isachenkov, Vladimir (14 August 2019). "Mysterious missile explosion, radiation spike in Russia raises questions". Star-Advertiser. Honolulu. Associated Press. Retrieved 15 August 2019.
  7. ^ После ЧП в военной части в сторону Нёноксы направлен вертолёт санавации [After an emergency in a military unit, a medivac helicopter was sent towards Nyonoksa]. «Регион 29» (Region 29) (in Russian). 8 August 2019. Archived from the original on 11 March 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ирина (Irina) (30 July 2015). Уникальная и закрытая Нёнокса [Unique and Closed Nyonoksa]. tourister.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 January 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  9. ^ Фокина, Ирина (Fokina, Irina) (1 September 2019). "Один на один с этой бедой". Жители Нёноксы до сих пор не знают, что с ними произошло ["One on one with this misfortune." Nyonoksa residents still do not know what happened to them]. Север.Реалии (North.Realities) (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  10. ^ Добрынин, Сергей (Dobrynin, Sergey); Крутов, Марк (Krutov, Mark) (22 August 2019). "Так выглядит смерть" ["Death Looks Like It"]. Радио Свобода (Radio Svoboda) (in Russian). Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  11. ^ "Russian cruise missile hits flats". December 15, 2015 – via www.bbc.com.
  12. ^ «Защищать Россию» публикует эксклюзивные фото падения ракеты в Неноксе [“Defend Russia” publishes exclusive photos of the fall of the rocket in Nyonoksa]. «Защищать Россию» (Defend Russia) (in Russian). 16 December 2015. Archived from the original on 21 December 2015. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  13. ^ Andrew E. Kramer (10 August 2019). "Russia Confirms Radioactive Materials Were Involved in Deadly Blast". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  14. ^ a b Mike Eckel (10 August 2019). "What Exactly Happened at Russian Missile Test Site?". VOA. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "'They were thrown into sea as it blew up': Rosatom gives details of deadly nuke-powered engine blast". RT. 10 August 2019. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  16. ^ "Russian nuclear engineers buried after 'Skyfall nuclear' blast". Al Jazeera. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  17. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  18. ^ Объекты культурного наследия [Cultural Heritage Sites]. ФГУП ГИВЦ Минкультуры России (in Russian). 2011. Archived from the original on 30 January 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Фёдорова, Елена (Fyodorova, Yelena) (1 February 2016). Древнейший посад Русского Севера [The oldest Posad of the Russian North]. Русское слово (Russian Word) (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  20. ^ Станулевич, Владимир (Stanulevich, Vladimir) (17 December 2016). Соратник Москвы на Русском Севере: Нёнокса [Companion of Moscow in the Russian North: Nyonoksa] (in Russian). Regnum. Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  21. ^ a b "Aberdeenshire HER - NJ96NW0073 - EDWARD BONAVENTURE". Aberdeenshire Council. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  22. ^ a b c "Edward Bonaventura: Rosehearty, North Sea". Canmore. Retrieved 10 March 2020.
  23. ^ Teysko, Heather (27 February 2020). "Tudor Minute, February 27: Trade with Russia". Tudor Minute. Retrieved 10 March 2020.