Music of New Zealand
|Music of New Zealand|
|Media and performance|
|Nationalistic and patriotic songs|
|Part of a series on the|
The music of New Zealand has been influenced by blues, jazz, country, rock and roll and hip hop, with many of these genres given a unique New Zealand interpretation. A number of popular artists have gone on to achieve international success including Lorde, Split Enz, Crowded House, OMC, Bic Runga, Kimbra, Ladyhawke, The Naked and Famous, Fat Freddy's Drop, Savage, Flight of the Conchords, and Brooke Fraser.
Pre-colonial Māori music consisted mainly of a form of microtonal chanting and performances on instruments called taonga pūoro: a variety of blown, struck and twirled instruments made out of hollowed-out wood, stone, whale ivory, albatross bone, and human bone. In the nineteenth century, European settlers brought musical forms to New Zealand including brass bands and choral music, and musicians began touring New Zealand in the 1860s. Pipe bands became widespread during the early 20th century.
New Zealand has a national orchestra, the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra, and many regional orchestras. A number of New Zealand composers have developed international reputations. The most well-known include Douglas Lilburn, John Psathas, Jack Body, Gillian Whitehead, Jenny McLeod, Gareth Farr, and Ross Harris.
- 1 Māori music
- 2 Radio airplay
- 3 Pop
- 4 Rock, alternative rock and indie rock
- 5 Hip hop
- 6 Roots, reggae, and dub
- 7 Electronica
- 8 Heavy metal
- 9 Blues
- 10 European folk music
- 11 Classical and art music
- 12 Musical theatre
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Pre-Colonial Māori music was microtonal, with a repeated melodic line that did not move far from a central pitch. Group singing was in unison or doubled in octaves. With origins in ancient South-East Asian cultures, the sound of these chants was described by early European settlers as "monotonous", and Captain Cook, who surveyed the islands in 1769, found the music "harmonious enough but very dolefull to a European Ear."
Pre-Colonial instrumental music was played on taonga pūoro, a variety of blown, struck and twirled instruments made out of hollowed-out wood, stone, whale ivory, albatross bone, and human bone. The pūkāea (wooden trumpet), hue (gourd), and pūtātara (conch shell trumpet) fulfilled many functions within pre-colonial Māori society, including a call to arms, dawning of the new day, communications with the gods and the planting of crops. Taonga pūoro have been revived over the past thirty years by Dr Richard Nunns, Hirini Melbourne, and Brian Flintoff.
Contemporary Māori music
European settlers brought new harmonies and instruments which were gradually adopted by Māori composers. The action song (waiata-ā-ringa) was largely developed in the early 20th century.
In the mid- to late-20th century, Māori singers and songwriters like Howard Morrison, Prince Tui Teka, Dalvanius Prime, Moana Maniapoto and Hinewehi Mohi developed a distinctive Māori-influenced style. Some artists have released Māori language songs, and the Māori traditional art of kapa haka (song and dance) has had a resurgence.
Māori show bands
Māori show bands formed in New Zealand and Australia from the 1950s. The groups performed in a wide variety of musical genres, dance styles, and with cabaret skills, infusing their acts with comedy drawn straight from Māori culture. Some Māori show bands would begin their performances in traditional Māori costume before changing into suits and sequinned gowns. Billy T. James spent many years overseas in show bands, beginning in the Maori Volcanics.
The New Zealand recording industry began to develop from 1940 onwards. The Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ) publishes New Zealand's official weekly record charts. The Association also holds the annual New Zealand Music Awards which were first held in 1965 as the Loxene Golden Disc awards.
Despite the vitality of New Zealand bands in the pub scene, for many years commercial radio was reluctant to play locally produced material and by 1995 only 1.6% of all songs played on commercial radio stations were of New Zealand origin. In 1997 a government Kiwi Music Action Group was formed to compel radio stations to broadcast New Zealand music. The group initiated New Zealand Music Week and in 2000 this grew into New Zealand Music Month. By 2005 New Zealand content averaged between 19 and 20 percent.
New Zealand's first pop song was "Blue Smoke", written in the 1940s by Ruru Karaitiana. Pixie Williams recorded the song in 1949 and, although it went triple platinum in New Zealand, the award for selling 50,000 copies of the song was only presented to Pixie Williams on 13 July 2011. The advent of music television shows in the 1960s led to the rise of Sandy Edmonds, one of New Zealand's first pop stars.
Split Enz and Crowded House
Formed in the early 1970s and variously featuring Phil Judd and brothers Tim Finn and Neil Finn, Split Enz achieved chart success in New Zealand, Australia, and Canada ‒ most notably with their 1980 single I Got You – and built a cult following elsewhere. The music videos for some of the band's 1980s songs were among the first played on MTV. In 1985, Neil Finn formed pop rock band Crowded House in Melbourne, Australia. The other founding members were Australians Paul Hester and Nick Seymour. Later band members included Neil's brother Tim Finn and Americans Mark Hart and Matt Sherrod. Originally active from 1985 to 1996, the band had consistent commercial and critical success in Australia and New Zealand and international chart success in two phases, beginning with their self-titled debut album, Crowded House, which reached number twelve on the US Album Chart in 1987 and provided the Top Ten hits, Don't Dream It's Over and Something So Strong. Further international success came in the UK and Europe with their third and fourth albums, Woodface and Together Alone and the compilation album Recurring Dream, which included the hits "Fall at Your Feet", "Weather with You", "Distant Sun", "Locked Out", "Instinct" and "Not the Girl You Think You Are". Queen Elizabeth II bestowed an OBE on both Neil and Tim Finn in June 1993 for their contribution to the music of New Zealand.
After the dissolution of his band DD Smash, singer-songwriter Dave Dobbyn began a successful solo career, writing the soundtrack music for the animated feature film Footrot Flats: The Dog's Tale in 1986. The film yielded two hit singles: "You Oughta Be In Love" (1986) and the chart-topping "Slice of Heaven" (1986), recorded with the band Herbs. After the release of the film, "Slice of Heaven" became one of Dobbyn's best-known songs, frequently used in tourism advertisements aired on Australian television that encouraged people to visit New Zealand. With the success of the song in Australia, Dobbyn settled in Australia.
In 2005, Dobbyn released his sixth solo album; Available Light. The album received popular and critical acclaim. In the same year Dobbyn performed the lead single from Available Light, "Welcome Home" (2005) at the New Zealand Music Awards awards ceremony. During the performance, Ahmed Zaoui, who was appealing a security certificate issued due to alleged links to terrorist groups, appeared on stage with Dobbyn.
Composer, singer and multi-instrumentalist Don McGlashan won fame with bands Blam Blam Blam, The Front Lawn, and The Mutton Birds, before pursuing a solo career. McGlashan's first hits were with band Blam Blam Blam in the early 1980s. He later released four albums as lead singer and writer for The Mutton Birds. McGlashan's first solo album Warm Hand, was released in May 2006. It was nominated for an NZ Music Award for album of the year, and debut single Miracle Sun was a nominee for New Zealand's supreme songwriting award, the APRA Silver Scroll. He has composed extensively for cinema and television.
Singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist pop artist Bic Runga released her first solo album, Drive in 1997. It debuted at number one on the New Zealand Top 40 Album charts. Runga has since become one of the highest-selling New Zealand artists in recent history. She has also found success internationally in Australia, Ireland, and, to some extent, in the UK. In the 2006 New Year Honours Runga was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to music.
In September 2013, 16-year-old singer Lorde (Ella Yelich-O'Connor) became the youngest solo artist to ever reach number one on the US singles chart with Royals. The song from her album Pure Heroine went on to win Best Pop Performance and Song of the Year at the 2014 Grammy Awards.
Top-selling singles and albums
The top-selling New Zealand pop song of all time is How Bizarre by OMC. The song went to number one in New Zealand, Australia, Canada, Ireland, South Africa and Austria. It spent 36 weeks on the United States Hot 100 Airplay (Radio Songs) charts, peaking at number 4. It reached number five in the United Kingdom, and it made the Top 10 in Portugal and Israel.
In 2008, folk parody duo Flight of the Conchords found international success with their eponymous album. The album debuted at number three on the U.S. Billboard 200 chart, selling about 52,000 copies in its first week.
In 2011, New Zealand singer Kimbra collaborated with Belgian-Australian singer Gotye on his song Somebody That I Used To Know. The song topped the US, UK, Australian and 23 other national charts, and reached the top 10 in more than 30 countries around the world. The song has sold more than 13 million copies worldwide, becoming one of the best-selling digital singles of all time.
Rock, alternative rock and indie rock
The first rock'n'roll hit by a New Zealander was Johnny Devlin's hit "Lawdy Miss Clawdy", which sold 100,000 copies in 1959–60. Rock developed in New Zealand in the 1960s. Prominent bands included The La De Das, Ray Columbus & The Invaders, and The Fourmyula.
By the late 1970s, some New Zealand rock bands were finding national success, including Th' Dudes (whose guitarist Dave Dobbyn formed DD Smash in the 1980s), Dragon, Hello Sailor and Split Enz, fronted by Tim Finn, and later, his brother Neil Finn, who went on to form Crowded House. Independent music in New Zealand began in the latter half of the 1970s, with the development of a local punk rock scene.
In the 1980s several independent labels like Propeller Records in Auckland and the Flying Nun record label in Christchurch were established and became influential in the development of modern New Zealand rock music. The Clean from Dunedin was the first major band to emerge from the Flying Nun roster. Most of the first wave of the musicians and bands signed to Flying Nun originated from Dunedin and Christchurch, and helped to develop the Dunedin sound. During the early 1980s the label's distinctive jangle-pop sound was established by bands such as The Chills, The Verlaines, The Dead C, Sneaky Feelings, The Bats and The Jean-Paul Sartre Experience.
Rock band Shihad was formed by vocalist/guitarist Jon Toogood and drummer Tom Larkin in 1988. The band found wide popularity in New Zealand over the following decade, playing a mixture of modern rock, post-grunge and pop-rock. Shihad has had three number one albums in New Zealand.
The first major New Zealand hip hop hit was "Hip Hop Holiday" by 3 The Hard Way. Sampling the song Dreadlock Holiday by 10CC, it went to number one for several weeks in early 1994. Many of New Zealand's first hip hop performers, such as Dalvanius Prime, whose "Poi E" was a number one hit, were Māori. Released in 1984, "Poi E" was sung entirely in the Māori language and featured a blend of Māori cultural practices in the song and accompanying music video, including Māori chanting, poi dancing, and the wearing of traditional Māori garments.
The first entire album of locally produced hip hop was Upper Hutt Posse's E Tu EP, from 1988. E Tu was partially in Māori and partially in English, and its lyrics were politically charged. The song "E Tu" combined African-American revolutionary rhetoric with an explicitly Māori frame of reference. It paid homage to the rebel Māori warrior chiefs of New Zealand's colonial history: Hone Heke, Te Kooti, and Te Rauparaha.
In the 1990s, the New Zealand hip hop scene grew with the evolution of Pacific Island-influenced hip hop. Phil Fuemana, Kosmo, Brother D and Pacific Underground played an important role in the growth of "Pasifika" hip hop. OMC's 1996 single "How Bizarre" combined Pauly Fuemana's Nieuean background, a Pacific Island guitar style and hop hop bears to create a uniquely New Zealand-Polynesian sound. This was followed by Che Fu's album 2 B s-Pacific in 1998 and Urban Pacifica in 1999, a compilation of Pasifika hip hop. Artists including Scribe, Tiki Taane, P-Money and Ladi6 localised rap.
In 2005, Savage, a New Zealand Samoan hip hop artist, had back-to-back number one hits with Swing and Moonshine, the latter featuring US artist Akon. Swing was used in the 2007 film Knocked Up and sold more than 1.8 million copies in the United States, making it almost double platinum. The song also appeared on the US compilation Now That's What I Call Music! 29.
Roots, reggae, and dub
Formed in 1979, Herbs are a New Zealand reggae vocal group and the 11th inductee into the New Zealand Music Hall of Fame. In 1986, the song "Slice of Heaven" with Dave Dobbyn reached number one on both the New Zealand and Australian charts. In 1989, Tim Finn joined them for the Parihaka festival and, in 1992, Annie Crummer fronted the hit single "See What Love Can Do". Herbs are considered pioneers of the Pacific reggae sound, having paved the way for contemporary New Zealand reggae groups such as Breaks Co-op, Fat Freddy's Drop, Katchafire, Kora, The Black Seeds, Salmonella Dub, 1814, Tahuna Breaks, Six60 and Trinity Roots.
Electronic music in New Zealand constitutes a relatively small but growing trend in the country's musical culture especially with the rise of acts such as Concord Dawn, Minuit and Shapeshifter in the last 15 years.
An early example of New Zealand electronica is a track called Pulsing released in 1982 by The Body Electric. In 1988 Propeller Records released New Zealand's first House record, Jam This Record. Other New Zealand house DJs who rose to prominence include DLT. The Future Jazz scene (the term was first coined in Auckland in the early 1990s) developed in Auckland, most notably in the Cause Celebre nightclub and the work of Nathan Haines. Two popular early releases were Freebass Live at Cause Celebre and Haines' Shift Left.
New Zealand has many well-known heavy metal bands, including Devilskin, the extreme metal bands Ulcerate, Dawn of Azazel and 8 Foot Sativa and the alternative metal band Blindspott, currently known as Blacklistt.
The history of blues in New Zealand dates from the 1960s. The earliest blues influences on New Zealand musicians originated with white British blues musicians like The Animals and The Rolling Stones, and later the blues-tinged rock of groups such as Led Zeppelin. The first American blues artist to make a big impact in New Zealand was Stevie Ray Vaughan in the early 1980s. Other blues-related genres such as soul and gospel almost completely by-passed New Zealand audiences, except for a handful of hits from cross-over artists such as Ray Charles. New Zealand does not have its own distinctive blues style.
European folk music
New Zealand has a proud history of brass bands, with regular provincial contests.
Highland pipe bands
Pipe bands became widespread during the early 20th century. New Zealand is said to have more pipebands per person than Scotland; historical links are maintained by Caledonian Societies throughout the country.
Classical and art music
The formal traditions of European classical music took a long time to develop in New Zealand due to the country's geographical isolation. Composers such as Alfred Hill were educated in Europe and brought late Romantic Music traditions to New Zealand. He attempted to graft them on to New Zealand themes with one notable success, the popular "Waiata Poi". However, before 1960 New Zealand did not have a distinct classical style of its own, having "a tendency to over-criticise home-produced goods".
Douglas Lilburn, working predominantly in the third quarter of the 20th century, is often credited with being the first composer to compose with a truly New Zealand voice and gain international recognition. Lilburn's Second Piano Sonatina was described as "a work which seems to draw on the best of Lilburn's past...specially suited to New Zealand." He went on to pioneer electronic music in New Zealand.
In 2004, Wellington composer John Psathas achieved the largest audience for New Zealand-composed music when his fanfares and other music were heard by billions during the opening and closing ceremonies of the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics.
Orchestras and chamber music
The New Zealand Symphony Orchestra (NZSO) is New Zealand's national orchestra and is funded by the Ministry for Culture and Heritage. The Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra is New Zealand's second professional orchestra. There are also a number of semi-professional regional orchestras presenting their own concert series each year. These include the Opus Chamber Orchestra in Hamilton, the Orchestra Wellington, the Christchurch Symphony Orchestra (CSO) and the Dunedin Symphony Orchestra (DSO) (formerly the Southern Sinfonia).
The New Zealand String Quartet and the NZTrio both perform locally and internationally. The NZTrio specialises in contemporary art music.
New Zealand has a strong choral tradition. The Anglican cathedrals in Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch have choirs of a high standard and there are also a number of secular New Zealand choirs including the New Zealand Youth Choir, Voices New Zealand Chamber Choir, City of Dunedin Choir, Auckland Choral Society and Christchurch City Choir. Many of these choirs perform around New Zealand and compete against other choirs internationally.
New Zealand has produced a number of internationally famous opera singers, including Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Sir Donald McIntyre, Simon O'Neill, Jonathan Lemalu, Teddy Tahu Rhodes, Anna Leese, and Dame Malvina Major. Frances Alda and Joan Hammond were both well-known New Zealand-born opera singers.
New Zealand Opera is the country's sole professional opera company. The company stages up to three operas a year in Auckland and Wellington and features international as well as New Zealand soloists.
- New Zealand music festivals
- New Zealand Music Awards
- Nature's Best, a two-disc compilation album of thirty New Zealand popular music songs
- List of bands from New Zealand
- List of Māori composers
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Music". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Southgate, William (September 1977). "Current Developments in New Zealand music". Composers Association of New Zealand newsletter: 25–27.
- "Lorde's 'Royals' Reigns on Hot 100 for Eighth Week".
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Music: General History". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Music: Brass Bands". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Music: Pipe Bands". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- > "Story: Lilburn, Douglas Gordon".
- "John Psathas composer profile".
- "Jack Body composer profile".
- "Gillian Whitehead composer profile".
- "Jenny McLeod composer profile".
- > "Gareth Farr composer profile".
- > "Ross Harris composer profile".
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Maori Music". from An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 February 2011.
- McLintock, Alexander, ed. (April 2009) [originally published in 1966]. "Musical Instruments". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- "Online Resources – Taonga Puoro". Te Papa: National Museum of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 9 March 2011.
- Flintoff, Brian. "Māori musical instruments – taonga puoro – Māori musical concepts". Te Ara – the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- Linkels, Ad (2000). "The real music of paradise". In Broughton, S., & Ellingham, M. (eds.), World music, vol. 2: Latin & North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific, pp 218–229. Rough Guides Ltd, Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.
- New Zealand in Brief, Story: Creative life
- Swarbrick, Nancy (June 2010). "Creative life – Performing arts". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- Walker, Piripi. "The Maori Show Bands Part 1: Music Was A Hunger". RNZ National. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- "About RIANZ – Introduction". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 21 December 2011. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "History – celebrating our music since 1965". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. 2008. Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2012.
- "Classroom ideas - New Zealand Music Month - NZHistory, New Zealand history online". www.nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Brendan Smyth, Music Manager at NZ On Air, on New Zealand Music Month".
- "NZ Folk Song * Blue Smoke". folksong.org.nz. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Kiwi music shows on TV - Television in New Zealand - NZHistory, New Zealand history online". www.nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "Sandy Edmonds - groovy baby! - NZHistory, New Zealand history online". www.nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
- "About Split Enz". MTV. Viacom. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, New South Wales: Australian Chart Book Ltd. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. (NOTE: Used for Australian Singles and Albums charts from 1974 until ARIA created their own charts in mid-1988. In 1992, Kent back calculated chart positions for 1970–1974)
- "Discography Crowded House" australiancharts.com
- "Discography Crowded House" charts.org.nz
- "Crowded House > Charts & Awards > Billboard Singles" AllMusic
- "Crowded House > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums" Allmusic
- Bourke (1997)
- https://archive.is/20120530091438/http://www.chartstats.com/artistinfo.php?id=4856 "Artists > Crowded House"] Chart Stats
- Hunkin, Joanna (3 May 2007). "Finn 'sick' of PM grabbing music glory". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- Zaoui sings with Dobbyn Archived 29 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. (from News Talk ZB news story, dated 6 October 2006
- "New Year honours list 2006". Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. 31 December 2005. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- "Popular music in New Zealand from 1900 to today". Christchurch City Libraries. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- "How bizarre (Ministry for Culture and Heritage)". 30 August 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
- "The Official New Zealand Music Chart (Flight of the Conchords – No. 1 Album)" (PDF). Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. 5 May 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "My Secret Life: Gotye, 32, singer-songwriter". The Independent. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Popular music in New Zealand from 1900 to today". Christchurch City Libraries. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- Churton, Wade Ronald (1999, 2001). Have You Checked The Children? Punk and Postpunk Music in New Zealand, 1977–1981 Christchurch, New Zealand: Put Your Foot Down Publishing. ISBN 0-473-06196-1
- "Propeller – AudioCulture". www.audioculture.co.nz. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Shihad". APRA AMCOS. Retrieved 10 August 2016.
- Chris Bourke. 'Popular music – The rise of New Zealand music, 1990s to 2000s', Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 23 October 2014 URL: http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/popular-music/page-11
- McLennan, Peter. "Hiphop Holiday!" Dub Dot Dash. N.p., 27 July 2012. Web. 10 August 2016.
- Mitchell, Tony. "Kia Kaha! (Be Strong!): Maori and Pacific Islander Hip-hop in Aotearoa-New Zealand." In Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, ed. Tony Mitchell, 280–305. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
- Mitchell, Tony. "Kia Kaha! (Be Strong!): Māori and Pacific Islander Hip-hop in Aotearoa-New Zealand." In Global Noise: Rap and Hip-Hop Outside the USA, ed. Tony Mitchell, 280–305. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 2001.
- Stevenson, Karen. The Frangipani Is Dead: Contemporary Pacific Art in New Zealand, 1985–2000. Wellington, N.Z: Huia, 2008. P. 176. Print.
- Bennett, Cath (24 May 2009). "Give it up for Savage". Sunday News. Fairfax New Zealand. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013.
- Herald, New Zealand (22 September 2014). "Herbs magic acoustic-style coming". Wanganui Chronicle. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "'Slice of Heaven' hits No. 1 2 October 1986". New Zealand History. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "See What Love Can Do | Music Video | NZ On Screen". www.nzonscreen.com. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- http://my.christchurchcitylibraries.com/popular-music-in-nz-from-1900/ Popular music in New Zealand from 1900
- "Pulsing by Body Electric".
- "Jam this Record | Music Video | NZ On Screen". www.nzonscreen.com. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Auckland Jazz: The Cappuccino Years 1990–2000 – AudioCulture". www.audioculture.co.nz. Retrieved 24 November 2016.
- "Brass Bands".
- "Piping up a storm Down Under", March 2000, BBC
- Sell, David (Spring 1962). "The Composer in New Zealand". Composer (9): 21.
- Platt, Peter (1963). Composer (12). Missing or empty
- > "Choral Societies".
- Abbott, Kate (4 March 2013). "How we made: The Rocky Horror Picture Show". The Guardian. London.