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The O'odham peoples, including the Tohono O'odham, the Pima or Akimel O'odham, and the Hia C-ed O'odham, are indigenous Uto-Aztecan peoples of the Sonoran desert in southern and central Arizona and northern Sonora, united by a common heritage language, the O'odham language. Today, many O'odham live in the Tohono O'odham Nation, the San Xavier Indian Reservation, the Gila River Indian Community, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, the Ak-Chin Indian Community or off-reservation in one of the cities or towns of Arizona.

Oʼodham sub-groups[edit]

Hia C-eḍ Oʼodham Tohono Oʼodham Akimel Oʼodham
Traditional homeland Between the Ajo Range, the Gila River, the Colorado River and the Gulf of California Desert south of the Gila River Land around the Gila and Salt Rivers
Meaning of endonym Sand Dune People Desert People River People
Habitation patterns Nomadic ("no-villagers") Separate winter and summer residences ("two-villagers") Perennial habitation on rancherías ("one-villagers")
Prevalence of agriculture [1] Nearly 100% hunting and gathering 75% hunting and gathering, 25% agricultural 40% hunting and gathering, 60% agricultural


  1. ^ Castetter, Edward F.; Bell, Willis H. (1942). Pima and Papago Indian Agriculture. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press.