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The O'odham peoples, including the Tohono O'odham, the Pima or Akimel O'odham, and the Hia C-ed O'odham, are indigenous Uto-Aztecan peoples of the Sonoran desert in southern and central Arizona and northern Sonora, united by a common heritage language, the O'odham language. Today, many O'odham live in the Tohono O'odham Nation, the San Xavier Indian Reservation, the Gila River Indian Community, the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community, the Ak-Chin Indian Community or off-reservation in one of the cities or towns of Arizona.
|Hia C-eḍ Oʼodham||Tohono Oʼodham||Akimel Oʼodham|
|Traditional homeland||Between the Ajo Range, the Gila River, the Colorado River and the Gulf of California||Desert south of the Gila River||Land around the Gila and Salt Rivers|
|Meaning of endonym||Sand Dune People||Desert People||River People|
|Habitation patterns||Nomadic ("no-villagers")||Separate winter and summer residences ("two-villagers")||Perennial habitation on rancherías ("one-villagers")|
|Prevalence of agriculture ||Nearly 100% hunting and gathering||75% hunting and gathering, 25% agricultural||40% hunting and gathering, 60% agricultural|
- Castetter, Edward F.; Bell, Willis H. (1942). Pima and Papago Indian Agriculture. Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press.