O'nyong'nyong virus

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O’nyong’nyong virus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Togaviridae
Genus: Alphavirus
Species: O’nyong’nyong virus
O'nyong'nyong virus
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 A92.1
ICD-9-CM 066.3

The o'nyong'nyong virus (ONNV) was first isolated by researchers at the Uganda Virus Research Institute in Entebbe, Uganda, during a large outbreak of a disease in 1959 that resembled dengue fever.[1] ONNV is a togavirus (family Togaviridae), genus Alphavirus, is closely related to the chikungunya and Igbo Ora viruses, and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex.[2] The name was given to the disease by the Acholi tribe during the 1959 outbreak.[3] The name comes from the Nilotic language of Uganda and Sudan and means “weakening of the joints". The virus can infect humans and may cause disease.

[4]

Transmission[edit]

ONNV is transmitted by bites from an infected mosquito. It is the only virus whose primary vectors are anopheline mosquitoes (Anopheles funestus and Anopheles gambiae).


Presentation[edit]

Common symptoms of infection with the virus are polyarthritis, rash and fever. Other symptoms include eye pain, chest pain, lymphadenitis and lethargy. The disease is self-limiting.[5] No fatalities due to infection are known.

Epidemics[edit]

There have been two epidemics of o’nyong’nyong fever. The first occurred from 1959 to 1962, spreading from Uganda to Kenya, Tanzania, Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Malawi and Mozambique, and affecting over two million people, one of the largest arbovirus epidemics ever recorded.[6][7] The first virus isolates were obtained during this outbreak from mosquitoes and human blood samples collected from Gulu in northern Uganda in 1959.[8]

The second epidemic in 1996–1997 was confined to Uganda.[9] The 35-year hiatus between the two outbreaks and evidence of an outbreak in 1904–1906 in Uganda indicate a 30–50 year cycle for epidemics.[10]

In 2013, ONNV was confirmed as the cause of disease in a 60-year-old German women who became infected while traveling in East Africa.[11] In 2015–2016 there was a minor outbreak in Uganda with 51 suspected cases.[citation needed]

A 2015 study indicated that ONNV is endemic in coastal East Africa, along with chikungunya virus.[12]

Strains[edit]

ONNV has at least three major subtypes, or strains, the genomic sequences of which are currently available on genome databases.


References[edit]

  1. ^ WILLIAMS, MC; WOODALL, JP; GILLETT, JD (March 1965). "O'NYONG-NYONG FEVER: AN EPIDEMIC VIRUS DIESEASE IN EAST AFRICA. VII. VIRUS ISOLATIONS FROM MAN AND SEROLOGICAL STUDIES UP TO JULY 1961.". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 59: 186–97. PMID 14297194. 
  2. ^ Brault, Aaron C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Powers, Ann M.; Weaver, Scott C. (1 February 2000). "Re-emergence of chikungunya and o'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships". Journal of General Virology. 81 (2): 471–479. doi:10.1099/0022-1317-81-2-471. 
  3. ^ Haddow, A.J.; Davies, C.W.; Walker, A.J. (November 1960). "O'nyong-nyong fever: An epidemic virus disease in East Africa 1. Introduction". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 54 (6): 517–522. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(60)90025-0. 
  4. ^ Posey DL, O'rourke T, Roehrig JT, Lanciotti RS, Weinberg M, Maloney S (July 2005). "O'Nyong-nyong fever in West Africa". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73 (1): 32. PMID 16014827. 
  5. ^ Haddow, A.J.; Davies, C.W.; Walker, A.J. (November 1960). "O'nyong-nyong fever: An epidemic virus disease in East Africa 1. Introduction". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 54 (6): 517–522. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(60)90025-0. 
  6. ^ Lutwama, JJ; Kayondo, J; Savage, HM; Burkot, TR; Miller, BR (July 1999). "Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District.". The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene. 61 (1): 158–62. PMID 10432073. 
  7. ^ Williams, M.C.; Woodall, J.P. (March 1961). "O'nyong-nyong fever: An epidemic virus disease in East Africa". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 55 (2): 135–141. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(61)90017-7. 
  8. ^ Williams, M.C.; Woodall, J.P. (March 1961). "O'nyong-nyong fever: An epidemic virus disease in East Africa". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 55 (2): 135–141. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(61)90017-7. 
  9. ^ Sanders, Eduard J.; Rwaguma, Elly B.; Kawamata, Jun; Kiwanuka, Noah; Lutwama, J. Julius; Ssengooba, Freddie P.; Lamunu, Margaret; Najjemba, Robinah; Were, Willy A.; Bagambisa, George; Campbell, Grant L. (November 1999). "O'nyong‐nyong Fever in South‐Central Uganda, 1996–1997: Description of the Epidemic and Results of a Household‐Based Seroprevalence Survey". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 180 (5): 1436–1443. doi:10.1086/315073. 
  10. ^ Rwaguma, E.B. (March 1997). "Emergence of Epidemic O'nyong-nyong Fever in Southwestern Uganda, After an Absence of 35 Years". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 3 (1): 77–77. doi:10.3201/eid0301.970112. 
  11. ^ Tappe, Dennis; Kapaun, Annette; Emmerich, Petra; Campos, Renata de Mendonca; Cadar, Daniel; Günther, Stephan; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas. "O'nyong-nyong Virus Infection Imported to Europe from Kenya by a Traveler". Emerging Infectious Diseases. pp. 1766–1767. doi:10.3201/eid2010.140823. 
  12. ^ LaBeaud, A. Desiree; Banda, Tamara; Brichard, Julie; Muchiri, Eric M.; Mungai, Peter L.; Mutuku, Francis M.; Borland, Erin; Gildengorin, Ginny; Pfeil, Sarah; Teng, Crystal Y.; Long, Kristin; Heise, Mark; Powers, Ann M.; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H.; Kasper, Matthew (6 February 2015). "High Rates of O'Nyong Nyong and Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Coastal Kenya". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (2): e0003436. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003436. 

External links[edit]